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  1. Given the characteristics of SARS-CoV2 with regard to transmission before the onset of symptoms and varying manifestation indices according to age, isolation and quarantine have limited efficacy in the current...

    Authors: Josef A. I. Weigl, Anna-Katharina Feddersen and Mona Stern

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1262

    Content type: Research

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  2. Cholera outbreaks in western Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are thought to be primarily the result of westward spread of cases from the Great Lakes Region. However, other patterns of spatial spread in ...

    Authors: Harry César Ntumba Kayembe, Catherine Linard, Didier Bompangue, Jérémie Muwonga, Michel Moutschen, Hippolyte Situakibanza and Pierre Ozer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1261

    Content type: Research

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  3. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal trend of tuberculosis cases according to sex and age group and evidence the level of disease before the Covid-19 pandemic in a TB high endemic city.

    Authors: Hamilton Leandro Pinto de Andrade, Dulce Gomes, Antônio Carlos Vieira Ramos, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Marcelino Santos-Neto, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Regina Célia Fiorati, Inês Fronteira, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Márcio Souza dos Santos, Miguel Fuentealba-Torres, Mellina Yamamura, Juliane de Almeida Crispim and Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1260

    Content type: Research

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  4. Infections of Plasmodium species, Schistosoma species and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) inflict a significant burden on children mostly in deprived communities in Ghana. Despite the deployment of malaria vecto...

    Authors: G. Akosah-Brempong, S. K. Attah, I. A. Hinne, A. Abdulai, K. Addo-Osafo, E. L. Appiah, M.-M. Osei and Y. A. Afrane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1259

    Content type: Research

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  5. Of the existing sepsis markers, immature granulocytes (IG) most frequently reflect the presence of an infection. The importance of IG as an early predictor of sepsis and bacteremia is evaluated differently for...

    Authors: Kibum Jeon, Nuri Lee, Seri Jeong, Min-Jeong Park and Wonkeun Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1258

    Content type: Research

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  6. In this study, we aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis on the metagenomic next-generation sequencing for the etiological diagnosis of septic patients, and further to establish optimal read values for dete...

    Authors: Di Ren, Chao Ren, Renqi Yao, Lin Zhang, Xiaomin Liang, Guiyun Li, Jiaze Wang, Xinke Meng, Jia Liu, Yu Ye, Haoli Li, Sha Wen, Yanhong Chen, Dan Zhou, Xisi He, Xiaohong Li…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1257

    Content type: Research

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  7. Since the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Ghana in 2005 there has been a surveillance system by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and the University of Ghana Noguchi ...

    Authors: Benjamin Abuaku, Nancy Odurowah Duah-Quashie, Neils Quashie, Akosua Gyasi, Patricia Opoku Afriyie, Felicia Owusu-Antwi, Anita Ghansah, Keziah Laurencia Malm, Constance Bart-Plange and Kwadwo Ansah Koram

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1255

    Content type: Research

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  8. Preventing respiratory tract infections (RTIs) could have profound effects on quality of life, primary care workload, antibiotic prescribing and stewardship. We aimed to identify factors that increase and decr...

    Authors: Ashley Hammond, Alice Halliday, Hannah V. Thornton and Alastair D. Hay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1254

    Content type: Research

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  9. Ochrobactrum spp. are non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacilli that are regarded as emerging human pathogens of low virulence that can cause infections. The first identified case of Ochrobactrum intermedium was rep...

    Authors: Wenjing Wu, Yongmei Jiang, Wei Zhou, Xingxin Liu and Linghan Kuang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1252

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare, acute and fatal disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Naegleria fowleri (Heggie, in Travel Med Infect Dis 8:201–6, 2010). Presently, t...

    Authors: Shiqin Huang, Xiu’an Liang, Yunli Han, Yanyan Zhang, Xinhui Li and Zhiyong Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1251

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Bacterial infective endocarditis caused by Proteus mirabilis is rare and there are few cases in the literature. The natural history and treatment of this disease is not as clear but presumed to be associated with...

    Authors: Lindsay G. Grossman, Joseph M. Sharkey, David S. Grossman, Alan Hartman, Mina Makaryus and Kaushal B. Shah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1250

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Infection with measles virus (MeV) causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infectious diseases. Only few studies reported a duration of immunosuppression, with varying results. We invest...

    Authors: Nhat Thanh Hoang Le, Nhan Thi Ho, Bryan Grenfell, Stephen Baker and Ronald B. Geskus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1249

    Content type: Research article

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  13. While the overall burden of malaria is still high, the global technical strategy for malaria advocates for two sets of interventions: vector control-based prevention and diagnosis and prompt effective treatmen...

    Authors: Khalid Abdelmutalab Elmardi, Ishag Adam, Elfatih Mohammed Malik, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Mogahid Sheikheldien Abdin, Immo Kleinschmidt and Stef Kremers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1248

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a severe skin complication caused by human simplex virus (HSV) infection concomitant with immune dysfunction and dermatological conditions, mainly atopic dermatitis. We present the fi...

    Authors: Kiichiro Furuya, Yuki Takemoto, Hiroki Kurahashi, Harue Hayashida, Sho Fujiwara, Saya Yamashita, Yangsil Chang, Hiroaki Tsubouchi, Kayoko Shikado and Kazuhide Ogita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1247

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Cross-border malaria in Laiza City of Myanmar seriously affected Yingjiang County of China and compromised reaching the goal of malaria elimination by 2020. Since 2017, a pilot project on 3 + 1 strategy of joi...

    Authors: Zu-rui Lin, Shi-gang Li, Xiao-dong Sun, Xiang-rui Guo, Zhi Zheng, Jie Yang, Hong-ru Pian, Peng Tian, Qi-yan Chen, Xiao-ying Sun, Chun-li Ding, Kai-xia Duan, Hong-wei Chen, Dakhidam Yaw Bee and Hong-ning Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1246

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Patients with primary brain abscess often present with atypical symptoms, and the outcome varies. We investigated the demographic, laboratory, and neuroimaging features of patients with brain abscess at our ho...

    Authors: Junying Huang, Haining Wu, Honghong Huang, Weiqi Wu, Bowen Wu and Lingxing Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1245

    Content type: Research

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  17. The four-component serogroup B meningococcal 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero, GSK) has been routinely given to all infants in the United Kingdom at 2, 4 and 12 months of age since September 2015. After 3 years, Public He...

    Authors: Lorenzo Argante, Victoria Abbing-Karahagopian, Kumaran Vadivelu, Rino Rappuoli and Duccio Medini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1244

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Higher incidence of and risk of hospitalisation and death from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the 2009 pandemic was reported in ethnic minority groups in many high-income settings including in the United Kingdo...

    Authors: James D. Munday, Richard Pebody, Katherine E. Atkins and Albert Jan van Hoek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1243

    Content type: Research

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  19. Toxocariasis is a helminthic infection caused by a nematode that mainly affects populations in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Humans are potential paratenic hosts, and clinical disease occurs as a result ...

    Authors: Manuel Gomez Serrano, Rafael Jimenez Rodriguez-Madridejos, Salome Merino Menendez, Diana Maria Hernanperez Hidalgo, Jesus Gimeno Hernández and Maria Cruz Iglesias Moreno

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1242

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Living conditions in homeless shelters facilitate the transmission of COVID-19. Social determinants and pre-existing health conditions place homeless people at increased risk of severe disease. Described outbr...

    Authors: Andreas K. Lindner, Navina Sarma, Luise Marie Rust, Theresa Hellmund, Svetlana Krasovski-Nikiforovs, Mia Wintel, Sarah M. Klaes, Merle Hoerig, Sophia Monert, Rolf Schwarzer, Anke Edelmann, Gabriela Equihua Martinez, Frank P. Mockenhaupt, Tobias Kurth and Joachim Seybold

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1241

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Clarification of the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is strongly warranted for global health. Recent studies have indicated that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with ...

    Authors: Hiroaki Ogata, Masahiro Mori, Yujiro Jingushi, Hiroshi Matsuzaki, Katsuyuki Katahira, Akiko Ishimatsu, Aimi Enokizu-Ogawa, Kazuhito Taguchi, Atsushi Moriwaki and Makoto Yoshida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1240

    Content type: Research

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  22. This study piloted the feasibility of infant testing in immunization services as a strategy for estimating MTCT rates among the population of HIV exposed infants at national and subnational levels in Zambia.

    Authors: Joseph Simbaya, Patricia Funjika, Arthur Moonga, John Mwale and Chipepo Kankasa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1239

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hospitals are vulnerable to COVID-19 outbreaks. Intrahospital transmission of the disease is a threat to the healthcare systems as it increases morbidity and mortality among patients. It is imperative to deep...

    Authors: Diane Woei-Quan Chong, Vivek Jason Jayaraj, Chiu-Wan Ng, I-Ching Sam, Mas Ayu Said, Rafdzah Ahmad Zaki, Noran Naqiah Hairi, Nik Daliana Nik Farid, Victor Chee-Wai Hoe, Marzuki Isahak, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman, Hang-Cheng Ong, Kejal Hasmukharay, Nazirah Hasnan…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1238

    Content type: Research

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  24. Due to the social isolation measures adopted in an attempt to mitigate the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, there has been a reduction in vaccination coverage of children and adolescents in several countrie...

    Authors: Tércia Moreira Ribeiro da Silva, Ana Carolina Micheletti Gomide Nogueira de Sá, Ed Wilson Rodrigues Vieira, Elton Junio Sady Prates, Mark Anthony Beinner and Fernanda Penido Matozinhos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1237

    Content type: Research

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  25. Peripheral hematological changes in severe COVID-19 patients may reflect the immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Characteristics of peripheral white blood cells as early signals were needed to be inve...

    Authors: Xunliang Tong, Anqi Cheng, Xueting Yuan, Xuefeng Zhong, He Wang, Wei Zhou, Xiaomao Xu and Yanming Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1236

    Content type: Research

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  26. Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcγRIIb) is an important inhibitory receptor that plays vital roles in regulating various immune response processes and the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. The purpose of our r...

    Authors: Jinglan Jin, Yuwei Liu, Xiaotong Xu, Zhongfeng Wang and Junqi Niu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1235

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. In the absence of affordable point-of-care STI tests, WHO recommends STI t...

    Authors: Katharina Kranzer, Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Ioana D. Olaru, Chido Dziva Chikwari, Kevin Martin, Nicol Redzo, Tsitsi Bandason, Mandikudza Tembo, Suzanna C. Francis, Helen A. Weiss, Richard J. Hayes, Constancia Mavodza, Tsitsi Apollo, Gertrude Ncube, Anna Machiha…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1234

    Content type: Research

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  28. The British Thoracic Society (BTS) recommends that all patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia should have a chest X-ray (CXR) and clinical follow-up at 6 or 12 weeks, depending on the disease severity. Litt...

    Authors: C. A. Musat, M. Hadzhiivanov, V. Durkowski, A. Banerjee, A. Chiphang, M. Diwan, M. S. Mahmood, M. N. Shami and A. Nune

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1233

    Content type: Research

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  29. Previous studies have described some risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in urinary tract infection (UTI). However, the clinical impact of MDR bacteria on older hospitalized patients with commu...

    Authors: Manuel Madrazo, Ana Esparcia, Ian López-Cruz, Juan Alberola, Laura Piles, Alba Viana, José María Eiros and Arturo Artero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1232

    Content type: Research

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  30. Leptospirosis is a common infectious disease in tropical and semitropical regions, and it is typically neglected. Leptospirosis-associated acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is one of its fatal complications. T...

    Authors: Meiqin Chen, Weili Lu, Shugen Wu, Shun Wang, Tao Lu and Chunxian Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1230

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic fungus that causes infections in immunosuppressed patients. It is rarely seen in children and immunocompetent hosts. The mortality rates are still high despite early treatm...

    Authors: Miral Al Momani, Dawood H. Yusef, Du’a Hamasha, Moh’d Rawhi Abu Hamad and Sara Farran

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1229

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of public health concern in Algeria. The immunocompromised patients with HIV, autoimmune diseases, or chronic alcohol abuse are at a higher risk of leishmaniasis. ...

    Authors: Arezki Izri, Amina Bendjaballah-Laliam, Denis Sereno, Ihcene Kherachi Djenad, Zoubir Harrat and Mohammad Akhoundi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1227

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. Kyasanur forest disease (KFD), known as monkey fever, was for the first time reported in 1957 from the Shivamogga district of Karnataka. But since 2011, it has been spreading to the neighbouring state of Keral...

    Authors: Malay Pramanik, Poonam Singh and Ramesh C. Dhiman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1226

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Increasing macrolide resistance makes treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infections challenging. The second-line treatment is moxifloxacin, an antibiotic drug best avoided due to the potential of severe side effe...

    Authors: M. Gossé, S. A. Nordbø and B. Pukstad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1225

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Nocardia is a relatively rare opportunistic pathogenic bacteria group, commonly seen in patients with immunocompromised or defective immune system. It can affect multiple organs of the body and cause disseminated...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Xiaoran Li, Tao Zhang, Xin Lin and Yu-Chen Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1224

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. To manage severe or potentially severe cases of CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting Spike protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ha...

    Authors: Honorine Fenaux, Romain Gueneau, Amal Chaghouri, Benoît Henry, Lina Mouna, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso and Christelle Vauloup-Fellous

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1223

    Content type: Case report

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  37. The World Health Organization recommends dolutegravir (DTG) as the for first-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide. However, little is known about the acceptability and tolerability of DT...

    Authors: Henry Zakumumpa, Freddy Eric Kitutu, Helen Byomire Ndagije, Nakitto-Kesi Diana, Jacquellyn Nambi Ssanyu and Ronald Kiguba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1222

    Content type: Research

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  38. The current group B streptococcal (GBS) preventive measures had reduced invasive GBS early onset disease (EOD) incidences worldwide, but the late onset disease (LOD) incidences had remained unchanged. Administ...

    Authors: Kai-Qian Kam, Koh Cheng Thoon, Wen Sim Nancy Tee, Michelle Lay Teng Ang, Natalie Woon Hui Tan, Kee Thai Yeo, Jiahui Li and Chia Yin Chong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1221

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces, especially in children. Here, we present a case of musculoskeletal actinomycosis in a 5-year-old girl from China.

    Authors: Yani Mou, Qin Jiao, Yizhong Wang, Xiaolu Li, Yongmei Xiao, Lihua Zhao and Ting Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1220

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  40. Scrub typhus is caused by O. tsutsugamushi and spreads through mite larvae biting the skin. Classic symptoms of the disease are eschar and lymphadenopathy. Previous reports have revealed clinical manifestations o...

    Authors: Mei-fang Liu, Yong Liu, De-rong Xu, La-gen Wan and Rui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1219

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Several repurposed drugs such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been investigated for treatment of COVID-19, but none was confirmed to be efficacious. While in vitro studies have demonstrated antiviral properti...

    Authors: Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Jerome Roy Semakula, Jane Nakibuuka, Joseph Musaazi, James Kayima, Cornelius Sendagire, David Meya, Bruce Kirenga, Sarah Nanzigu, Arthur Kwizera, Fred Nakwagala, Ivan Kisuule, Misaki Wayengera, Henry G. Mwebesa, Moses R. Kamya…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1218

    Content type: Research

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  42. Little is known about the exact incidence of necrotizing soft tissue infections. The few incidences reported in international literature are not directly relatable to the Netherlands, or other European countri...

    Authors: Femke Nawijn, Brechje de Gier, Diederik A. H. Brandwagt, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Jort Keizer and Falco Hietbrink

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1217

    Content type: Research

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  43. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with bronchiectasis and nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) pulmonary disease are challenging issues and the treatment is also prolonged and depends on the species. There...

    Authors: Hongjun Yin, Xiaoying Gu, Yimin Wang, Guohui Fan, Binghuai Lu, Min Liu, Chunlei Wang, Bin Cao and Chen Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1216

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Baseline hospitalization, mortality, and in-hospital fatality rates for meningococcal infection are required to evaluate preventive interventions, such as the inclusion of the conjugated quadrivalent meningoco...

    Authors: Stefan Walter, Ruth Gil-Prieto, Mario Gil-Conesa, Gil Rodriguez-Caravaca, Jesús San Román and Angel Gil de Miguel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1215

    Content type: Research

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  45. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy of people with migratory backgrounds among Turkish- and German-speaking patients in Munich.

    Authors: Zekeriya Aktürk, Klaus Linde, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Raphael Kunisch and Antonius Schneider

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1214

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) help determine previous infection in individuals, regardless of whether they are asymptomatic or symptomatic. The detection of an...

    Authors: Hatairat Lerdsamran, Anek Mungaomklang, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Jarunee Prasertsopon, Kriengkrai Prasert, Poj Intalapaporn, Nirada Siriyakorn, Witthawat Wiriyarat, Nattakan Thinpan, Suteema Sawadpongpan, Somrak Sirikhetkon, Noparat Mongkalangoon, Suwanna Petto and Pilaipan Puthavathana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1213

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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