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  1. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes glycoprotein B (gB), human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be classified into four gB genotypes. Previous studies have suggested an association between CMV gB g...

    Authors: Débora C Dieamant, Sandra HA Bonon, Renata MB Peres, Claudia RC Costa, Dúlcinéia M Albuquerque, Eliana CM Miranda, Francisco JP Aranha, Gislaine Oliveira-Duarte, Virginio CA Fernandes, Carmino A De Souza, Sandra CB Costa and Afonso C Vigorito
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:310
  2. Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and identifying pathogens based on patient clinical features is especially a challenge. CAP-associated m...

    Authors: Ya-Fen Liu, Yan Gao, Mei-Fang Chen, Bin Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang and Lai Wei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:309
  3. High risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are known to be extremely common, sexually transmitted infections, but more information is needed regarding the absolute risks of type-specific HR-HPV infections in th...

    Authors: Megan Clarke, Mark Schiffman, Sholom Wacholder, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Allan Hildesheim and Wim Quint
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:308
  4. A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) is often defined by skin induration of ≥10 mm in people who are HIV-seronegative. However, to increase sensitivity for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in th...

    Authors: Andrew D Kerkhoff, Ankur Gupta, Taraz Samandari and Stephen D Lawn
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:307
  5. Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis of diverse origins shows similar clinical symptoms, histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging, indicating that the patho mechanisms may be similar. There is no specific t...

    Authors: Daniel Růžek, Gerhard Dobler and Hans Helmut Niller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:306
  6. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in mainland China. HFRS is particularly endemic in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, with one of the highest incid...

    Authors: Hong Xiao, Xiaoling Lin, Lidong Gao, Cunrui Huang, Huaiyu Tian, Na Li, Jianxin Qin, Peijuan Zhu, Biyun Chen, Xixing Zhang and Jian Zhao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:305
  7. In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiolog...

    Authors: Andrea Streng, Veit Grote, David Carr, Christine Hagemann and Johannes G Liese
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:303
  8. Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Infection by one serotype elicits long-lasting immunity to that serotype but not the othe...

    Authors: Nora Zidane, Philippe Dussart, Laetitia Bremand and Hugues Bedouelle
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:302
  9. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) regimen on renal function in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Authors: Ying Cao, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Qu Cui, Lixia Zhang, Yijia Li, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song, Ting Zhu and Taisheng Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:301
  10. Transmission of drug susceptible and drug resistant TB occurs in health care facilities, and community and households settings, particularly in highly prevalent TB and HIV areas. There is a paucity of data reg...

    Authors: Melissa Lygizos, Sheela V Shenoi, Ralph P Brooks, Ambika Bhushan, James CM Brust, Daniel Zelterman, Yanhong Deng, Veronika Northrup, Anthony P Moll and Gerald H Friedland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:300
  11. Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea with the potential risk of progressing to severe clinical outcomes including death. It is not unusual for Clostridium diffic...

    Authors: Orville D Heslop, Karen Roye-Green, Kathleen Coard and Michael R Mulvey
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:299
  12. The study objective was to investigate the effect of the introduction of a sexual health practice nurse on HIV and STI testing in a general practice that specialized in gay men’s health.

    Authors: Anthony F Snow, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Christopher K Fairley, Carol El-Hayek, Rosey Cummings, Louise Owen, Norman Roth, Margaret E Hellard and Marcus Y Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:298
  13. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality in high HIV-prevalence populations. HIV is driving the TB epidemic in many countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to as...

    Authors: Balewgizie Sileshi, Negussie Deyessa, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese and Pedro Suarez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:297
  14. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pa...

    Authors: Kensuke Takahashi, Motoi Suzuki, Le Nhat Minh, Nguyen Hien Anh, Luu Thi Minh Huong, Tran Vo Vinh Son, Phan The Long, Nguyen Thi Thuy Ai, Le Huu Tho, Konosuke Morimoto, Paul E Kilgore, Dang Duc Anh, Koya Ariyoshi and Lay Myint Yoshida
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:296
  15. Efforts to develop malaria vaccines show promise. Mathematical model-based estimates of the potential demand, public health impact, and cost and financing requirements can be used to inform investment and adop...

    Authors: Julia K Nunes, Vicky Cárdenas, Christian Loucq, Nicolas Maire, Thomas Smith, Craig Shaffer, Kårstein Måseide and Alan Brooks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:295
  16. Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of th...

    Authors: Esther van Kleef, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit, Sarah R Deeny and William J Edmunds
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:294
  17. HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density.

    Authors: Eric Bonnet, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Anne Genoux, Laurence Mabile, Florian Busato, Martine Obadia, François Prévoteau, Bruno Marchou, Patrice Massip, Fabrice Marion-Latard, Cyrille Delpierre, Jacques Bernard and Bertrand Perret
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:293
  18. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Many of these deaths occur in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among...

    Authors: Kefyalew Addis Alene, Ansha Nega and Belaynew Wasie Taye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:292
  19. During a Legionnaires’ disease (LD) outbreak, combined epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted to identify prevention recommendations for facilities where elderly residents live indepen...

    Authors: Benjamin J Silk, Jennifer L Foltz, Kompan Ngamsnga, Ellen Brown, Mary Grace Muñoz, Lee M Hampton, Kara Jacobs-Slifka, Natalia A Kozak, J Michael Underwood, John Krick, Tatiana Travis, Olivia Farrow, Barry S Fields, David Blythe and Lauri A Hicks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:291
  20. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are ...

    Authors: Stephen D Persell, Mark W Friedberg, Daniella Meeker, Jeffrey A Linder, Craig R Fox, Noah J Goldstein, Parth D Shah, Tara K Knight and Jason N Doctor
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:290
  21. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the presence of microfungal contamination in the water supply system of the Oncology Paediatric Institute, São Paulo – Brazil after the occurrence of one invasive F...

    Authors: Sabrina Mesquita-Rocha, Patricio C Godoy-Martinez, Sarah S Gonçalves, Milton Daniel Urrutia, Fabianne Carlesse, Adriana Seber, Maria Aparecida Aguiar Silva, Antônio Sérgio Petrilli and Arnaldo L Colombo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:289
  22. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. Our study’s objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of HCV infection among the diffe...

    Authors: Yousra A Mohamoud, Ghina R Mumtaz, Suzanne Riome, DeWolfe Miller and Laith J Abu-Raddad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:288
  23. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa which infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study in-vivo induced antigens of this par...

    Authors: Atefeh Amerizadeh, Boon Yin Khoo, Ai Ying Teh, Majid Golkar, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Sabariah Osman, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus and Rahmah Noordin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:287
  24. As most data on hepatitis in resource-poor countries relate to urban communities, surveys in the rural environment are necessary to determine the ‘true’ prevalence of these viral infections. We undertook a sur...

    Authors: Narcisse P Komas, Ulrich Vickos, Judith M Hübschen, Aubin Béré, Alexandre Manirakiza, Claude P Muller and Alain Le Faou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:286
  25. Microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction is the central enigma in spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses. Angiogenin (ANG) is one of the earliest identified angiogenic factors, of which some are relevant...

    Authors: Bin Gong, Yong Sun Lee, Inhan Lee, Thomas R Shelite, Nawapol Kunkeaw, Guang Xu, Kwanbok Lee, Sung Ho Jeon, Betty H Johnson, Qing Chang, Tuha Ha, Nicole L Mendell, Xiaodong Cheng, Donald H Bouyer, Paul J Boor, Thomas G Ksiazek…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:285
  26. Ambulatory consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently associated with bloodstream infections but the spectrum of bacterial pathogens in this setting has not been well-described.

    Authors: Lalit Saini, Coleman Rostein, Eshetu G Atenafu and Joseph M Brandwein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:284
  27. Acute myopericarditis and exertional rhabdomyolysis, two uncommon but well-described diseases with potentially life-threatening effects, are generally considered as independent clinical entities. However, they...

    Authors: Guo-Shiang Tseng, Chung-Yueh Hsieh, Ching-Tsai Hsu, Jung-Chung Lin and Jenq-Shyong Chan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:283
  28. Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for large epidemics in hospitals, where it can persist for long time on abiotic surfaces. This study investigated some virulence-related traits of epidemic A. baumannii str...

    Authors: Maria Giannouli, Luísa CS Antunes, Veronica Marchetti, Maria Triassi, Paolo Visca and Raffaele Zarrilli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:282
  29. Acute pharyngitis is frequently seen in primary care. Acute viral pharyngitis may be easily misdiagnosed as acute bacterial pharyngitis. Laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of respiratory viruses is recommended. Th...

    Authors: Li Li, Qiao-Yan Chen, Yun-Ying Li, Yan-Fang Wang, Zi-Feng Yang and Nan-Shan Zhong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:281
  30. Nucleic acid amplification assays allow for the rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) directly in clinical specimens thereby facilitating diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the fully ...

    Authors: Uladzimir Antonenka, Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Laziz Turaev, Ainura Esenalieva, Mokhonim Abdulloeva, Evgeni Sahalchyk, Tarig Alnour and Harald Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:280
  31. Leprosy is a contagious and chronic systemic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In the pathogenesis of leprosy, granulomas play a key role, however, the mechanisms of the formation and maintena...

    Authors: Hongsheng Wang, Yumi Maeda, Yasuo Fukutomi and Masahiko Makino
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:279
  32. Traditional inflammatory markers are generally unhelpful in discerning septic arthritis from inflammatory joint disease due to their lack of specificity. We wished to explore the discriminatory power of the no...

    Authors: Oddvar Oppegaard, Brita Skodvin, Anne-Kristine Halse and Nina Langeland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:278
  33. This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who pres...

    Authors: Gabriella Di Giuseppe, Alessandra Sessa, Silvana Mollo, Natascia Corbisiero and Italo F Angelillo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:277
  34. The role of the surface capsular polysaccharides (CPs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the pathogenesis of infection and disease, as well their potential for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccine antigens...

    Authors: Wendy A Keitel, ZhongDong Dai, Robert W Awe, Robert L Atmar, Sheldon Morris, Rachel Schneerson and John B Robbins
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:276
  35. It is estimated that Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) ranks fifth among the seven countries most affected by TB in the WHO Western Pacific Region. However, because of late implementation of mycobacte...

    Authors: Vibol Iem, Silaphet Somphavong, Yves Buisson, Nicolas Steenkeste, Franck Breysse, Monique Chomarat, Phannasinh Sylavanh, Phouratsamy Nanthavong, Alain Rajoharison, Jean-Luc Berland and Phimpha Paboriboune
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:275
  36. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in people with AIDS. Factors contributing to atherosclerosis include traditional risk factors, antiretrovirals and inflammatory factors related to HIV i...

    Authors: Valéria Maria Gonçalves Albuquerque, Josefina Claudia Zírpoli, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão Albuquerque, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes and Heloísa Ramos Lacerda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:274
  37. This study was performed to compare the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities of viridans streptococcal bacteremia (VSB) between febrile neutropenic adults and children with hematologic mali...

    Authors: Seung Beom Han, E Young Bae, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Dae-Chul Jeong, Bin Cho, Jin Han Kang and Hack-Ki Kim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:273
  38. Procalcitonin (PCT) is widely used in critically ill patients to diagnose clinically significant infection and sepsis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of PCT in comparison to white blood...

    Authors: Christian G Cornelissen, Dirk A Frechen, Karin Schreiner, Nikolaus Marx and Stefan Krüger
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:272
  39. The female genital tract is an important bacterial habitat of the human body, and vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in vaginal health. The alteration of vaginal microbiota affects millions of women annua...

    Authors: Weijiao Gao, Jinlong Weng, Yunong Gao and Xiaochi Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:271
  40. Abdominal tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide and poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to general surgeons practicing in resource-limited countries. This study was condu...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Mabula D Mchembe, Stephen E Mshana, Peter F Rambau, Hyasinta Jaka and Joseph B Mabula
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:270
  41. Rates of cardiovascular disease are higher among HIV-infected patients as a result of the complex interplay between traditional risk factors, HIV-related inflammatory and immunologic changes, and effects of an...

    Authors: Princy Kumar, Edwin DeJesus, Gregory Huhn, Louis Sloan, Catherine Butkus Small, Howard Edelstein, Franco Felizarta, Ritche Hao, Lisa Ross, Britt Stancil, Keith Pappa and Belinda Ha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:269
  42. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents an important pathogen in healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The concept of HCAP, though, may not perform well as a screening test for MRSA and ca...

    Authors: Andrew F Shorr, Daniela E Myers, David B Huang, Brian H Nathanson, Matthew F Emons and Marin H Kollef
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:268
  43. In the fields of traumatology and orthopaedics staphylococci are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are known to be the major causative agents of osteomye...

    Authors: Carolin A Kreis, Michael J Raschke, Steffen B Roßlenbroich, Nancy Tholema-Hans, Bettina Löffler and Thomas Fuchs
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:267
  44. Chronic osteomyelitis due to direct bone trauma or vascular insufficiency is a frequent problem in orthopaedic surgery. In contrast, acute haematogenous osteomyelitis represents a rare entity that almost exclu...

    Authors: Peter M Prodinger, Hakan Pilge, Ingo J Banke, Dominik Bürklein, Reiner Gradinger, Thomas Miethke and Boris M Holzapfel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:266
  45. M. tuberculosis remains one of the world’s deadliest pathogens in part because of its ability to establish persistent, latent infections, which can later reactivate to cause disease. In regions of the globe wher...

    Authors: Liya Wassie, Abraham Aseffa, Markos Abebe, Michael Z Gebeyehu, Martha Zewdie, Adane Mihret, Girum Erenso, Menberwork Chanyalew, Hiwot Tilahun, Lawrence K Yamuah, Peter Andersen and Mark T Doherty
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:265
  46. Fusobacterium species (spp.) bacteremia is uncommon and has been associated with a variety of clinical presentations. We conducted a retrospective, population based study to determine the relative proportion o...

    Authors: Kevin Afra, Kevin Laupland, Jenine Leal, Tracie Lloyd and Daniel Gregson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:264
  47. HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an ...

    Authors: Susan M Graham, Nimerta Rajwans, Kenneth A Tapia, Walter Jaoko, Benson BA Estambale, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh and W Conrad Liles
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:263
  48. High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral ski...

    Authors: Yong Cai, Xiuxia Ye, Rong Shi, Gang Xu, Lixiao Shen, Jia Ren and Hong Huang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:262
  49. HIV infection, anti-tuberculosis and efavirenz therapy are associated with neuropsychological effects. We evaluated the influence of rifampicin cotreatment, efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on n...

    Authors: Jackson K Mukonzo, Alphonse Okwera, Neoline Nakasujja, Henry Luzze, Deogratious Sebuwufu, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng, Paul Waako, Lars L Gustafsson and Eleni Aklillu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:261

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