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  1. Most guidelines have been proposing, for more than 15 years, a β-lactam combined with either a quinolone or a macrolide as empirical, first-line therapy of severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring I...

    Authors: David Olive, Hugues Georges, Patrick Devos, Nicolas Boussekey, Arnaud Chiche, Agnes Meybeck, Serge Alfandari and Olivier Leroy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:66
  2. Flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera interfere with the definitive identification of dengue virus (DENV) infections especially in areas with multiple co-circulating flaviviruses. Use of DENV enve...

    Authors: Gaurav Batra, Satish K Nemani, Poornima Tyagi, Sathyamangalam Swaminathan and Navin Khanna
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:64
  3. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in western society. Genotype L infections need to be distinguished ...

    Authors: Koen D Quint, Reinier JM Bom, Wim GV Quint, Sylvia M Bruisten, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Servaas A Morré and Henry JC de Vries
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:63
  4. Solicited consultations constitute a substantial workload for infectious disease (ID) specialists in the hospital setting. The objectives of this survey were to describe requesting physicians' experiences rega...

    Authors: Patricia Pavese, Elodie Sellier, Laurent Laborde, Stéphane Gennai, Jean-Paul Stahl and Patrice François
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:62
  5. Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has more similarities to nosocomial pneumonia than to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there have only been a few epidemiological studies of HCAP in South Kor...

    Authors: Ji Ye Jung, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Byung Hoon Park, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang and Young Ae Kang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:61
  6. Poor outcomes of invasive candidiasis (IC) are associated with the difficulty in establishing the microbiological diagnosis at an early stage. New scores and laboratory tests have been developed in order to ma...

    Authors: Javier Pemán, Rafael Zaragoza, Guillermo Quindós, Miriam Alkorta, María S Cuétara, Juan J Camarena, Paula Ramírez, María J Giménez, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos, María J Linares-Sicilia and José Pontón
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:60
  7. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of pediatric hospital admissions in the developed world. The ribonuclease Dicer is an important regulator of gene expression and cellular f...

    Authors: Christopher S Inchley, Tonje Sonerud, Hans O Fjærli and Britt Nakstad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:59
  8. Controlling airborne contamination is of major importance in burn units because of the high susceptibility of burned patients to infections and the unique environmental conditions that can accentuate the infec...

    Authors: Christian Beauchêne, Nicolas Laudinet, Firas Choukri, Jean-Luc Rousset, Sofiane Benhamadouche, Juliette Larbre, Marc Chaouat, Marc Benbunan, Maurice Mimoun, Jean-Patrick Lajonchère, Vance Bergeron and Francis Derouin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:58
  9. Malaria and Tuberculosis (TB) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Malaria prevention reduces mortality among HIV patients, pregnant women and children, but its role in TB patients is not...

    Authors: Raffaella Colombatti, Martina Penazzato, Federica Bassani, Cesaltina Silva Vieira, Antonia Araujo Lourenço, Fina Vieira, Simone Teso, Carlo Giaquinto and Fabio Riccardi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:57
  10. When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients is a diffcult clinical decision. Actually, it is still a matter of discussion whether early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during ...

    Authors: Paola Paci, Federico Martini, Massimo Bernaschi, Gianpiero D'Offizi and Filippo Castiglione
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:56
  11. Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β, is suggested to play a role in the regulat...

    Authors: Anders Johansson, Marie Eriksson, Ann-Marie Åhrén, Kurt Boman, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Göran Hallmans and Ingegerd Johansson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:55
  12. Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pe...

    Authors: Catherine G Sutcliffe, Janneke H van Dijk, Bornface Munsanje, Francis Hamangaba, Pamela Sinywimaanzi, Philip E Thuma and William J Moss
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:54
  13. We examined the utility of serum levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) for the diagnoses, severity assessments, and predicting the prognoses of patients with sepsis and c...

    Authors: Jie Zhang, Danyang She, Dan Feng, Yanhong Jia and Lixin Xie
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:53
  14. Although the WHO guideline for the management of dengue fever considers the presence of ascites or pleural effusions in the diagnosis of DSS, it does not emphasize the importance of their presence when selecti...

    Authors: Ranjan Premaratna, Erandi Liyanaarachchi, Mindu Weerasinghe and H Janaka de Silva
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:52
  15. There is current interest in the role of perinatal factors in the aetiology of diseases that occur later in life. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) can follow late primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), ...

    Authors: Imran Mahmud, Omar A Abdel-Mannan, Clare J Wotton and Michael J Goldacre
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:51
  16. Human bocavirus 2(HBoV2) and other human bocavirus species (HBoV, HBoV3, and HBoV4) have been discovered recently. But the precise phylogenetic relationships among these viruses are not clear yet.

    Authors: Weixia Cheng, Jinan Chen, Ziqian Xu, Jiemei Yu, Canping Huang, Miao Jin, Huiying Li, Ming Zhang, Yu Jin and Zhao-jun Duan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:50
  17. Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases and a major threat to public health. Salmonella serotype Virchow ranks among the top five serovars in Europe.

    Authors: Mario Bonalli, Roger Stephan, Ursula Käppeli, Nicole Cernela, Luzius Adank and Herbert Hächler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:49
  18. Few population-based studies provide epidemiological data on infective endocarditis (IE). Aim of the study is to analyze incidence and outcomes of IE in the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy).

    Authors: Ugo Fedeli, Elena Schievano, Dora Buonfrate, Giampietro Pellizzer and Paolo Spolaore
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:48
  19. Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors. The aim of this study is to assess the current epi...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie H Christensen, Åse B Andersen, Vibeke Ø Thomsen, Peter H Andersen and Isik S Johansen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:47
  20. Outcomes for hospitalized patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TP) have rarely been reported, and whether or not pulmonary involvement affects outcomes is uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the in-hospital ...

    Authors: Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Tay Wang, Jann-Yuan Wang, Li-Na Lee and Chong-Jen Yu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:46
  21. HIV-infected drug users are at higher risk of non-adherence and poor treatment outcomes than HIV-infected non-drug users. Prior work from our group and others suggests that directly administered antiretroviral...

    Authors: Bernadette Anna Mullen, Katie Cook, Richard D Moore, Cynthia Rand, Noya Galai, Mary E McCaul, Sheldon Glass, Krisann K Oursler and Gregory M Lucas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:45
  22. Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands. Infection with Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) during pregnancy has resulted in adverse pregnancy outcome in the majority of reported cases. Theref...

    Authors: Wim van der Hoek, Jamie CE Meekelenkamp, Alexander CAP Leenders, Nancy Wijers, Daan W Notermans and Chantal WPM Hukkelhoven
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:44
  23. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially corrects immune dysfunction associated with HIV infection. The levels of T-cell immune activation and exhaustion after long-term, suppressive ART and their correlation wi...

    Authors: Damalie Nakanjako, Isaac Ssewanyana, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Agnes Kiragga, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe, Rose Nabatanzi, Moses R Kamya and Huyen Cao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:43
  24. Cambodia is among the 22 high-burden TB countries, and has one of the highest rates of TB in South-East Asia. This study aimed to describe the genetic diversity among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (...

    Authors: Jian Zhang, Seiha Heng, Stéphanie Le Moullec, Guislaine Refregier, Brigitte Gicquel, Christophe Sola and Bertrand Guillard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:42
  25. Direct immunofluorescence assays (DFA) are a rapid and inexpensive method for the detection of respiratory viruses and may therefore be used for surveillance. Few epidemiological studies have been published ba...

    Authors: Christine D Sadeghi, Christoph Aebi, Meri Gorgievski-Hrisoho, Kathrin Mühlemann and Maria Teresa Barbani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:41
  26. Abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated longitudinal changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients...

    Authors: Authors: Sergio Padilla, Mar Masiá, Natalia García, Inmaculada Jarrin, Consuelo Tormo and Félix Gutiérrez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:40
  27. We aimed to determine the incidence of Hepatitis C (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a Sexual Health Centre.

    Authors: Deepa G Gamage, Tim RH Read, Catriona S Bradshaw, Jane S Hocking, Kerry Howley, Marcus Y Chen and Christopher K Fairley
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:39
  28. Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We ana...

    Authors: Eliane Borges-Almeida, Helaine MBPM Milanez, Maria Marluce S Vilela, Fernanda GP Cunha, Beatriz M Abramczuk, Suiellen C Reis-Alves, Konradin Metze and Irene Lorand-Metze
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:38
  29. Computational models play an increasingly important role in the assessment and control of public health crises, as demonstrated during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Much research has been done in recent ye...

    Authors: Wouter Van den Broeck, Corrado Gioannini, Bruno Gonçalves, Marco Quaggiotto, Vittoria Colizza and Alessandro Vespignani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:37
  30. The spread of influenza viruses in a community are influenced by several factors, but no reports have focused on the relationship between the incidence of influenza and characteristics of small neighborhoods i...

    Authors: Yoshinari Kimura, Reiko Saito, Yoshiki Tsujimoto, Yasuhiko Ono, Tomoki Nakaya, Yugo Shobugawa, Asami Sasaki, Taeko Oguma and Hiroshi Suzuki
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:36
  31. Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood.

    Authors: Jennifer Walker, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona S Bradshaw, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Marcus Y Chen, Jimmy Twin, Nicole Taylor, Basil Donovan, John K Kaldor, Kathleen McNamee, Eve Urban, Sandra Walker, Marian Currie, Hudson Birden, Francis Bowden, Jane Gunn…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:35
  32. Dengue virus infection is a public health threat to hundreds of millions of individuals in the tropical regions of the globe. Although Dengue infection usually manifests itself in its mildest, though often deb...

    Authors: Brenda B Folly, Almeriane M Weffort-Santos, CG Fathman and Luis RB Soares
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:34
  33. Human pythiosis is an emerging and life-threatening infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum. It occurs primarily in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of the world, including Thailand. The aim of t...

    Authors: Tavitiya Sudjaritruk and Virat Sirisanthana
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:33
  34. Diarrhoea accounts for 20% of all paediatric deaths in India. Despite WHO recommendations and IAP (Indian Academy of Paediatrics) and Government of India treatment guidelines, few children suffering from acute...

    Authors: Deepali Pathak, Ashish Pathak, Gaetano Marrone, Vishal Diwan and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:32
  35. Loss to follow-up is a major challenge of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to a) determine true outcomes of patients lost to follow-up (LTFU) and b) identify ris...

    Authors: Ralf Weigel, Mindy Hochgesang, Martin WG Brinkhof, Mina C Hosseinipour, Matt Boxshall, Eustice Mhango, Brains Nkwazi, Hannock Tweya, Maggie Kamlaka, Frederick Chagwera and Sam Phiri
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:31
  36. Salmonella meningitis remains a threat to children below two years of age in both developing and developed countries. However, information on such infections has not been well characterized. We analyzed data rel...

    Authors: Hung-Ming Wu, Wan-Yu Huang, Meng-Luen Lee, Albert D Yang, Ko-Ping Chaou and Lin-Yu Hsieh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:30
  37. La Crosse virus (LACV) is a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in the United States. Since the mid-1980s, the number of reported cases of LACV infection in West Virginia has continued to rise and the state ...

    Authors: Andrew D Haddow, Danae Bixler and Agricola Odoi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:29
  38. There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of ...

    Authors: Lee Fairlie, Natalie C Beylis, Gary Reubenson, David P Moore and Shabir A Madhi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:28
  39. Patients with infections account for a significant proportion of Emergency Department (ED) workload, with many hospital patients admitted with severe sepsis initially investigated and resuscitated in the ED. T...

    Authors: Julian M Williams, Jaimi H Greenslade, Juliet V McKenzie, Kevin H Chu, Anthony FT Brown, David Paterson and Jeffrey Lipman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:27
  40. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that can manifest a wide variety of immunological and clinical outcomes ranging from potent humoral responses among borderline lepromatous (B...

    Authors: Lucas H Sampaio, Mariane MA Stefani, Regiane M Oliveira, Ana LM Sousa, Greg C Ireton, Steven G Reed and Malcolm S Duthie
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:26
  41. To describe the knowledge and attitudes of critical care clinicians during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Authors: Xiaochun Ma, Zhenyang He, Yushan Wang, Li Jiang, Yuan Xu, Chuanyun Qian, Rongqing Sun, Erzhen Chen, Zhenjie Hu, Lihua Zhou, Fachun Zhou, Tiehe Qin, Xiangyuan Cao, Youzhong An, Renhua Sun, Xijing Zhang…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:24
  42. Data regarding CD4+ recovery after switching from protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens to regimens not containing PI are scarce.

    Authors: Carlo Torti, Antonella d'Arminio-Monforte, Anton L Pozniak, Giuseppe Lapadula, Giuliana Cologni, Andrea Antinori, Andrea De Luca, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Castagna, Paola Cicconi, Lorenzo Minoli, Andrea Costantini, Giampiero Carosi, Hua Liang and Bruno M Cesana
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:23
  43. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. The Airin district of Osaka City has a large population of homeless persons and caregivers and is estimated to be the largest TB-endemic area in the intermed...

    Authors: Takahiro Tabuchi, Toshio Takatorige, Yukio Hirayama, Nobuaki Nakata, Shigeyoshi Harihara, Akira Shimouchi, Koshiro Fujita, Hiroko Yoshida, Yoshitaka Tamura, Takayuki Nagai, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Tetsuya Takashima and Hiroyasu Iso
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:22
  44. In 2000, Ringertz et al described the first case of systemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax. In 2008, there were 574 drug related deaths in Scotland, of which 336 were associated ...

    Authors: Arfon GMT Powell, Joseph EM Crozier, Heather Hodgson and David J Galloway
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:21
  45. Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation t...

    Authors: Andrea J Low, Tim Clayton, Issouf Konate, Nicolas Nagot, Abdoulaye Ouedraogo, Charlotte Huet, Marie-Noelle Didelot-Rousseau, Michel Segondy, Philippe Van de Perre and Philippe Mayaud
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:20
  46. Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infe...

    Authors: Shaharudin Rafiza, Krishna Gopal Rampal and Aris Tahir
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:19
  47. Syphilis is called the chameleon of the diseases due to its variety of its clinical presentations, potentially affecting every organ of the body. Incidence of this ancient disease is once again on the increase...

    Authors: Katrin Milger, Vera Fleig, Anke Kohlenberg, Thomas Discher and Jürgen Lohmeyer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:17

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