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  1. In temperate zones, all-cause mortality exhibits a marked seasonality, and one of the main causes of winter excess mortality is influenza. There is a tradition of using statistical models based on mortality fr...

    Authors: Jens Nielsen, Anne Mazick, Steffen Glismann and Kåre Mølbak
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:350
  2. Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin ski...

    Authors: Alberto Arnedo-Pena, José Vicente Juan-Cerdán, Angeles Romeu-Garcia, Daniel Garcia-Ferrer, Rita Holguín-Gómez, Jesús Iborra-Millet, Concepción Herrero-Carot, María Jesús Sanchis Piñana, Juan Bellido-Blasco, José Antonio Ferrero-Vega, Lourdes Safont Adsuara, Esther Silvestre Silvestre, Noemi Meseguer Ferrer and Vicenta Rodrigo Bartual
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:349
  3. Although Tim-3 & PD-L1 signaling pathways play important roles in negatively regulating immune responses, their roles in chlamydial infection have not been evaluated.

    Authors: Bo Peng, Chunxue Lu, Lingli Tang, I-Tien Yeh, Zhimin He, Yimou Wu and Guangming Zhong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:347
  4. In 2010, an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan and some patients presented with onychomadesis and desquamation following HFMD. Therefore, we performed an...

    Authors: Sung-Hsi Wei, Yuan-Pin Huang, Ming-Chih Liu, Tsung-Pei Tsou, Hui-Chen Lin, Tsuey-Li Lin, Chen-Yen Tsai, Yen-Nan Chao, Luan-Yin Chang and Chun-Ming Hsu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:346
  5. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positi...

    Authors: Wen-Kuan Liu, De-Hui Chen, Qian Liu, Huan-Xi Liang, Zi-Feng Yang, Sheng Qin and Rong Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:345
  6. Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination is the most effective measure for preventing JE disease. The live attenuated JE vaccine, which has shown good efficacy and safety, has been widely used in China.

    Authors: Na Jia, Qiu-Min Zhao, Xiao-Fang Guo, Jing-Xia Cheng, Chao Wu, Shu-Qing Zuo, Pei-Fang Dai, Jun-Ying Zhao and Jiu-Song Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:344
  7. Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R...

    Authors: Francesca Ferretti, Antonio Boschini, Cristiana Iabichino, Simonetta Gerevini, Paola De Nardi, Monica Guffanti, Giuseppe Balconi, Adriano Lazzarin and Paola Cinque
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:343
  8. Environmental factors have been associated with transmission and survival of influenza viruses but no studies have ever explored the role of environmental factors on severity of influenza infection.

    Authors: Lin Yang, Ping Yan Chen, Jian Feng He, King Pan Chan, Chun Quan Ou, Ai Ping Deng, JS Malik Peiris and Chit Ming Wong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:342
  9. The optimal therapeutic strategies for patients presenting with advanced disease at HIV-1 diagnosis are as yet incompletely defined.

    Authors: Antonella Esposito, Marco Floridia, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Daniele Pastori, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Paola Massetti, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Camilla Ajassa, Vincenzo Vullo and Ivano Mezzaroma
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:341
  10. Cryptococcus species usually affect the central nervous system and lungs in immunocompromised hosts. Although the adrenal glands can be involved in disseminated cryptococcosis, primary adrenal insufficiency caus...

    Authors: Yayoi Matsuda, Hisaya Kawate, Yuka Okishige, Ichiro Abe, Masahiro Adachi, Keizo Ohnaka, Naoichi Satoh, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Seiji Naito, Masatoshi Nomura and Ryoichi Takayanagi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:340
  11. Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML), leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has sh...

    Authors: Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Andrea Hacker, Ximena Illarramendi, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar Pinheiro, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno and Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:339
  12. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. present in the blood of patients with leptospirosis during the first week of symptoms can be detected using culture or PCR. A proportion of patients who are positive by PCR are negative...

    Authors: Siriphan Boonsilp, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Premjit Amornchai, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Wirongrong Chierakul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas P Day and Sharon J Peacock
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:338
  13. To provide a clear picture of the current hepatitis B situation, the authors performed a systematic review to estimate the age- and region-specific prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Turkey.

    Authors: Mehlika Toy, Fatih Oguz Önder, Tanja Wörmann, A Mithat Bozdayi, Solko W Schalm, Gerard J Borsboom, Joost van Rosmalen, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Cihan Yurdaydin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:337
  14. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. The research objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of polymera...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Stella Chen, Karen Cimon, Sarah McGill, Kevin Forward and Michael Gardam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:336
  15. Management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia remains a challenge. The emergence of MRSA strains with reduced vancomycin susceptibility complicates treatment.

    Authors: Hitoshi Honda, Christopher D Doern, Wm Michael-Dunne Jr and David K Warren
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:335
  16. Men having sex with men (MSM) accounts for 33.6% of all reported cases of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among MSM in gay saunas in Taiwan.

    Authors: Yen-Ju Chen, Yu-Ting Lin, Marcelo Chen, Szu-Wei Huang, Su-Fen Lai, Wing-Wai Wong, Hung-Chin Tsai, Yu-Huei Lin, Hsin-Fu Liu, Shu-Yu Lyu and Yi-Ming A Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:334
  17. The prevalence, incidence and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in sub-Saharan Africa are not well established. The objectives of the current study are to describe (predictors of) the epidemiolog...

    Authors: Nienke J Veldhuijzen, Sarah L Braunstein, Joseph Vyankandondera, Chantal Ingabire, Justin Ntirushwa, Evelyne Kestelyn, Coosje Tuijn, Ferdinand W Wit, Aline Umutoni, Mireille Uwineza, Tania Crucitti and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:333
  18. In order to compare the transmissibility of the 2009 pH1N1 pandemic during successive waves of infections in summer and fall/winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and to assess the temporal changes during the cou...

    Authors: Ying-Hen Hsieh, Kuang-Fu Cheng, Trong-Neng Wu, Tsai-Chung Li, Chiu-Ying Chen, Jin-Hua Chen and Mei-Hui Lin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:332
  19. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important infectious disease caused by different species of hantaviruses. As a rodent-borne disease with a seasonal distribution, external environmental facto...

    Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Baofa Jiang, Weidong Gu and Qiyong Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:331
  20. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-...

    Authors: Kathryn Hoffmann, Gernot Wagner, Petra Apfalter and Manfred Maier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:330
  21. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in HIV-infected African children. Microbiologic diagnosis relies predominantly on silver or immunofluorescent staining of a lower re...

    Authors: Catherine M Samuel, Andrew Whitelaw, Craig Corcoran, Brenda Morrow, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Marco Zampoli and Heather J Zar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:329
  22. Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the d...

    Authors: Veranja Chathurani Liyanapathirana and Vasanthi Thevanesam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:328
  23. AIDS-related CMV retinitis is a common clinical problem in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS in China and Southeast Asia. The disease is causing blindness, and current clinical management, commonly characterized...

    Authors: David Heiden and Peter Saranchuk
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:327
  24. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a common AIDS-associated illness, leading to blindness in up to 30% of patients. This study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical management of the cytomegalovirus retinit...

    Authors: Ying Shi, Hongzhou Lu, Taiwen He, Yalin Yang, Li Liu, Renfang Zhang, Yufang Zheng, Yinzhong Shen, Yunzhi Zhang and Zhiyong Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:326
  25. Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections that facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition by over two fold or more. The development of HSV-2 c...

    Authors: Dipankar Biswas, Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Jagadish Mahanta, Kamini Walia, Lahari Saikia, Brogen S Akoijam, Lobsang Jampa, Alia Kharkongar and Eric Zomawia
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:325
  26. Diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) among adult patients with hematological malignancies have rarely been investigated.

    Authors: Chien-Yuan Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Aristine Cheng, Woei Tsay, Shang-Yi Huang, Jih-Luh Tang, Yee-Chun Chen, Jaun-Yuan Wang, Hwei-Fang Tien and Shan-Chwen Chang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:324
  27. Prior to the availability of generic third-generation cephalosporins, penicillins were widely used for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis in developing countries despite concerns about rising levels of penic...

    Authors: Edilane L Gouveia, Joice N Reis, Brendan Flannery, Soraia M Cordeiro, Josilene BT Lima, Ricardo M Pinheiro, Kátia Salgado, Ana Veronica Mascarenhas, M Gloria Carvalho, Bernard W Beall, Mitermayer G Reis and Albert I Ko
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:323
  28. Apoptosis of lymphocytes is considered a late sequelum in the sepsis cascade. The role of apoptosis of lymphocytes as a driver of final outcome was investigated.

    Authors: Stefanos Atmatzidis, Ioannis M Koutelidakis, Grigorios Chatzimavroudis, Antigone Kotsaki, Konstantinos Louis, Aikaterini Pistiki, Athina Savva, Anastasia Antonopoulou, Konstantinos Atmatzidis and Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:321
  29. Varicella is a common childhood disease. Only 5% of first varicella-zoster-virus infections occur asymptomatically. Most data on the burden of varicella stem from health service databases. This study aims to p...

    Authors: Judith H Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Anouk M Speets, Hans C Rümke, Pearl D Gumbs and Sander C Fortanier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:320
  30. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) are more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Data on sensitivity are controversial in HIV infection.

    Authors: Luigia Elzi, Ingrid Steffen, Hansjakob Furrer, Jan Fehr, Matthias Cavassini, Bernard Hirschel, Matthias Hoffmann, Enos Bernasconi, Stefano Bassetti and Manuel Battegay
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:319
  31. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district) in cattle, small ruminants and suspected ...

    Authors: Rea Tschopp, Kidist Bobosha, Abraham Aseffa, Esther Schelling, Meseret Habtamu, Rahel Iwnetu, Elena Hailu, Rebuma Firdessa, Jemal Hussein, Douglas Young and Jakob Zinsstag
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:318
  32. Colistin is used as last treatment option for pneumonia associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas spp.. Literature about the best administration mode (inhalation versus parenteral treatment) is lackin...

    Authors: Reinout Naesens, Erika Vlieghe, Walter Verbrugghe, Philippe Jorens and Margareta Ieven
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:317
  33. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. This study an...

    Authors: Paloma Martín, Linah Kilany, Diego García, Ana M López-García, Mª José Martín-Azaña, Victor Abraira and Carmen Bellas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:316
  34. Most methadone-maintained injection drug users (IDUs) have been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but few initiate HCV treatment. Physicians may be reluctant to treat HCV in IDUs because of concerns about...

    Authors: Alain H Litwin, Karina M Berg, Xuan Li, Jennifer Hidalgo and Julia H Arnsten
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:315
  35. The increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pneumococcal immunization along with shifting community exposures may have altered the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in HIV-infe...

    Authors: Reed AC Siemieniuk, Dan B Gregson and M John Gill
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:314
  36. During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized child...

    Authors: Sophie Blumental, Elisabeth Huisman, Marie-Coralie Cornet, Christine Ferreiro, Iris De Schutter, Marijke Reynders, Ingrid Wybo, Benoît Kabamba-Mukadi, Ruth Armano, Dominique Hermans, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Bhavna Mahadeb, Christine Fonteyne, Gerlant Van Berlaer, Jack Levy, Didier Moulin…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:313
  37. Antibiotic resistance has necessitated fluoroquinolone use but little is known about the selective forces and resistance trajectory in malaria-endemic settings, where selection from the antimalarial chloroquin...

    Authors: Adebayo Lamikanra, Jennifer L Crowe, Rebeccah S Lijek, Babatunde W Odetoyin, John Wain, A Oladipo Aboderin and Iruka N Okeke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:312
  38. Mycobacterium genavense is a rare nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Human infections are mostly disseminated in the setting of the AIDS epidemic or the use of aggressive immunosuppressive treatments. M. genaven...

    Authors: Blandine Rammaert, Louis-Jean Couderc, Elisabeth Rivaud, Patrick Honderlick, David Zucman, Marie-France Mamzer, Pierre Cahen, Emmanuel Bille, Marc Lecuit, Olivier Lortholary and Emilie Catherinot
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:311
  39. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is characterized by HBV DNA persistence even though the pattern of serological markers indicates an otherwise resolved HBV infection. Although OBI is usually clin...

    Authors: Andrea Costantini, Katia Marinelli, Giulia Biagioni, Alessia Monachetti, Monica L Ferreri, Luca Butini, Maria Montroni, Aldo Manzin and Patrizia Bagnarelli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:310
  40. Current knowledge on the exact ligand causing expression of TREM-1 on neutrophils and monocytes is limited. The present study aimed at the role of underlying infection and of the causative pathogen in the expr...

    Authors: Thekla Poukoulidou, Aikaterini Spyridaki, Ira Mihailidou, Petros Kopterides, Aikaterini Pistiki, Zoi Alexiou, Michael Chrisofos, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Panagiotis Drimoussis, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Ioannis Koutelidakis, Androniki Marioli, Anna Mega, Stylianos E Orfanos, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Christos Tsironis…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:309
  41. Although malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been extensively evaluated since their introduction in the early 1990's, sensitivity and specificity vary widely limiting successful integration into clinica...

    Authors: Lisa K Allen, Jennifer M Hatfield, Giselle DeVetten, Jeremy C Ho and Mange Manyama
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:308
  42. Trichomonas vaginalis has been associated with increased vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve women. The effect of trichomoniasis on vaginal HIV-1 shedding in ART-treated women has no...

    Authors: Linnet N Masese, Susan M Graham, Ruth Gitau, Nobert Peshu, Walter Jaoko, Jeckoniah O Ndinya-Achola, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Barbra A Richardson, Julie Overbaugh and R Scott McClelland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:307
  43. A paradoxical immunologic response (PIR) to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), defined as viral suppression without CD4 cell-count improvement, has been reported in the literature as 8 to 42%, aroun...

    Authors: Janaina AS Casotti, Luciana N Passos, Fabiano JP Oliveira and Crispim Cerutti Jr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:306
  44. Community-based screening for TB, combined with HIV and syphilis testing, faces a number of barriers. One significant barrier is the value that target communities place on such screening.

    Authors: Neela D Goswami, Emily Hecker, David P Holland, Susanna Naggie, Gary M Cox, Ann Mosher, Debbie Turner, Yvonne Torres, Carter Vickery, Marshall A Ahearn, Michela LM Blain, Petra Rasmussen and Jason E Stout
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:305
  45. Bronchiectasis is frequently associated (up to 30%) with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and leads to lower respiratory tract infections. Data are lacking on the risk of lower respiratory tract infecti...

    Authors: Guillaume Geri, Sabrina Dadoun, Tach Bui, Nuria Del Castillo Pinol, Simon Paternotte, Maxime Dougados and Laure Gossec
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:304
  46. Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients prolongs ICU stay and causes high mortality. Predicting HA-MRSA infection on admission c...

    Authors: Kazuma Yamakawa, Osamu Tasaki, Miyuki Fukuyama, Junichi Kitayama, Hiroki Matsuda, Yasushi Nakamori, Satoshi Fujimi, Hiroshi Ogura, Yasuyuki Kuwagata, Toshimitsu Hamasaki and Takeshi Shimazu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:303
  47. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the frequent risks encountered by travelers. Efficient interventions are needed to improve the understanding of the risks of STIs. We investigated the potential...

    Authors: Nicolas Senn, Serge de Valliere, Didier Berdoz and Blaise Genton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:300
  48. The immature granulocyte count has been reported to be a marker of infection and sepsis. The difference in leukocyte subfractions (delta neutrophil index, DNI) in ADVIA 2120 reflects the fraction of circulatin...

    Authors: Byung Hoon Park, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Won Jai Jung, Su Hwan Lee, Sang Kook Lee, Song Yee Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Ji Ye Jung and Young Sam Kim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:299

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