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  1. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), as well as its contribution to the dissemination of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB)...

    Authors: Yi Hu, Sven Hoffner, Weili Jiang, Weibing Wang and Biao Xu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:43
  2. About 500 new smear-positive Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases are estimated to occur per year in Uganda. In 2008 in Kampala, MDR-TB prevalence was reported as 1.0% and 12.3% in new and previousl...

    Authors: Heidi Albert, Freddie Bwanga, Sheena Mukkada, Barnabas Nyesiga, Julius Patrick Ademun, George Lukyamuzi, Melles Haile, Sven Hoffner, Moses Joloba and Richard O'Brien
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:41
  3. Viral load (VL) monitoring is an essential component of the care of HIV positive individuals. Rates of VL monitoring have been shown to vary by HIV risk factor and clinical characteristics. The objective of th...

    Authors: Janet M Raboud, Mona R Loutfy, DeSheng Su, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Marina B Klein, Curtis Cooper, Nima Machouf, Sean Rourke, Sharon Walmsley, Anita Rachlis, P Richard Harrigan, Marek Smieja, Christos Tsoukas, Julio SG Montaner and Robert S Hogg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:40
  4. Disease severity in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection could potentially be related to bacterial factors such as MP genotype (MP1 or MP2; distinguished by different adhesions proteins) or bacterial load in airw...

    Authors: Anna C Nilsson, Per Björkman, Christina Welinder-Olsson, Anders Widell and Kenneth Persson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:39
  5. Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was r...

    Authors: Guiming Wang, Richard B Minnis, Jerrold L Belant and Charles L Wax
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:38
  6. To investigate how the risk of active tuberculosis disease is influenced by time since original infection and to determine whether the risk of reactivation of tuberculosis increases or decreases with age.

    Authors: Harald G Wiker, Tehmina Mustafa, Gunnar A Bjune and Morten Harboe
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:37
  7. The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important implications for viral persistence, pathogenicity and resistance to antiviral agents. The variability of one of the viral proteins, NS5A, is believed to be rel...

    Authors: Cíntia Bittar, Ana Carolina G Jardim, Lilian HT Yamasaki, Artur TL de Queiróz, Claudia MA Carareto, João Renato R Pinho, Isabel Maria VG de Carvalho-Mello and Paula Rahal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:36
  8. This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs) and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs) in emerge...

    Authors: Cristiana Parmeggiani, Rossella Abbate, Paolo Marinelli and Italo F Angelillo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:35
  9. Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's...

    Authors: Nijuan Xiang, Ying Shi, Jiabing Wu, Shunxiang Zhang, Min Ye, Zhibin Peng, Lei Zhou, Hang Zhou, Qiaohong Liao, Yang Huai, Leilei Li, Zhangda Yu, Xiaowen Cheng, Weike Su, Xiaomin Wu, Hanwu Ma…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:34
  10. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on...

    Authors: Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Sylvain Jean, Pierre Clavelou, Radhouane Dallel and Didier Bouhassira
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:31
  11. Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission...

    Authors: Maria Wadl, Kathrin Scherer, Stine Nielsen, Sabine Diedrich, Lüppo Ellerbroek, Christina Frank, Renate Gatzer, Marina Hoehne, Reimar Johne, Günter Klein, Judith Koch, Jörg Schulenburg, Uta Thielbein, Klaus Stark and Helen Bernard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:30
  12. Screening and isolation are central components of hospital methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control policies. Their prevention of patient-to-patient spread depends on minimizing undetected and u...

    Authors: Theodore Kypraios, Philip D O'Neill, Susan S Huang, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman and Ben S Cooper
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:29
  13. Even though sepsis is one of the common causes of children morbidity and mortality, specific inflammatory markers for identifying sepsis are less studied in children. The main aim of this study was to compare ...

    Authors: Jana Pavare, Ilze Grope, Imants Kalnins and Dace Gardovska
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:28
  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a causative factor for cervical cancer. Early detection of high risk HPV types might help to identify women at high risk of cervical cancer. The aim of the present study...

    Authors: Petroula Stamataki, Athanasia Papazafiropoulou, Ioannis Elefsiniotis, Margarita Giannakopoulou, Hero Brokalaki, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Pavlos Sarafis and George Saroglou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:27
  15. Intrauterine infection is the main contributor to maternal-infantile transmission of HBV. This is a retrospective study of 158 HBsAg-positive pregnant women who delivered children from Jan 1st, 2004 to Dec.31t...

    Authors: Yan Guo, Jianqiong Liu, Liping Meng, Hu Meina and Yukai Du
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:26
  16. In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies. Given...

    Authors: Thomas House, Ian Hall, Leon Danon and Matt J Keeling
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:25
  17. Many congenitally cytomegalovirus-infected (cCMV) neonates are at risk for severe consequences, even if they are asymptomatic at birth. The assessment of the viral load in neonatal blood could help in identify...

    Authors: Sandro Binda, Antonella Mammoliti, Valeria Primache, Patrizia Didò, Carlo Corbetta, Fabio Mosca, Lorenza Pugni, Anna Bossi, Cristian Ricci and Maria Barbi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:24
  18. South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highe...

    Authors: Catherine F Houlihan, Portia C Mutevedzi, Richard J Lessells, Graham S Cooke, Frank C Tanser and Marie-Louise Newell
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:23
  19. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine strategies in GAVI-eligible countries are focusing on infant immunization but this strategy may not be optimal in all settings. We aimed to collect all available population based...

    Authors: Bradford D Gessner, Judith E Mueller and Seydou Yaro
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:22
  20. Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Madagascar. The capital, Antananarivo is the most seriously affected area. TB had a non-random spatial distribution ...

    Authors: Rindra V Randremanana, Vincent Richard, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Philippe Sabatier and Dominique J Bicout
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:21
  21. Persistent symptoms after treatment for neuroborreliosis are common for reasons mainly unknown. These symptoms are often unspecific and could be caused by dysfunctions in endocrine systems, an issue that has n...

    Authors: Ivar Tjernberg, Martin Carlsson, Jan Ernerudh, Ingvar Eliasson and Pia Forsberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:20
  22. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is...

    Authors: Stanley MF Luchters, Davy Vanden Broeck, Matthew F Chersich, Annalene Nel, Wim Delva, Kishor Mandaliya, Christophe E Depuydt, Patricia Claeys, John-Paul Bogers and Marleen Temmerman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:18
  23. Despite medical advances, mortality in infective endocarditis (IE) is still very high. Previous studies on prognosis in IE have observed conflicting results. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of...

    Authors: Juan Gálvez-Acebal, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Francisco J Martínez-Marcos, Jose M Reguera, Antonio Plata, Josefa Ruiz, Manuel Marquez, Jose M Lomas, Javier de la Torre-Lima, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio and Arístides de Alarcón
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:17
  24. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is likely a marker of underlying immune compromise. Our objective was to determine race and sex differences in extrapulmonary tuberculosis risk in order to identify the optimal popu...

    Authors: Christina T Fiske, Marie R Griffin, Holt Erin, Jon Warkentin, Kaltenbach Lisa, Patrick G Arbogast and Timothy R Sterling
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:16
  25. Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admiss...

    Authors: Emelda A Okiro, Lisa J White, Mwanajuma Ngama, Patricia A Cane, Graham F Medley and D James Nokes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:15
  26. Influenza pandemic outbreaks occurred in the US in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Historical evidence suggests that the majority of influenza-related deaths during the 1918 US pandemic were attributable to bacterial pn...

    Authors: Jaime L Rubin, Lisa J McGarry, Keith P Klugman, David R Strutton, Kristen E Gilmore and Milton C Weinstein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:14
  27. Gonorrhea is a major sexually transmitted disease (STD) in many countries worldwide. The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance has complicated efforts to control and treat this disease. We report the first s...

    Authors: Loubna Tazi, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Weiming Gu, Yang Yang, Lin Xue, Keith A Crandall and Raphael P Viscidi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:13
  28. Evidence for protection of preterm born infants from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV7) is relatively sparse. Data from randomized trials is based on rela...

    Authors: Simon Rückinger, Mark van der Linden and Rüdiger von Kries
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:12
  29. Currently available tools cannot be used to distinguish between sub-species of the M. tuberculosis complex causing latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. M. africanum causes up to half of TB in West- Africa and its ...

    Authors: Bouke C de Jong, Abdulrahman Hammond, Jacob K Otu, Martin Antonio, Richard A Adegbola and Martin O Ota
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:11
  30. It has been shown previously that administration of Francisella tularensis (Ft) Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects mice against subsequent challenge with Ft LVS and blunts the pro-inflamm...

    Authors: Saroj K Mohapatra, Leah E Cole, Clive Evans, Bruno W Sobral, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Raquel Hontecillas, Stefanie N Vogel and Oswald R Crasta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:10
  31. Few studies have assessed long term persisting immunity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children vaccinated during infancy with combined vaccines containing recombinant HBV surface antigen (HBs). We assesse...

    Authors: Michael Steiner, Gunasekaran Ramakrishnan, Britta Gartner, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Jeanne-Marie Jacquet and Volker Schuster
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:9
  32. Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection...

    Authors: Chris J Williams, Brunhilde Schweiger, Genia Diner, Frank Gerlach, Frank Haaman, Gérard Krause, Albert Nienhaus and Udo Buchholz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:8
  33. We have previously reported a HIV-1 subtype A infection in a community of injection drug users (IDUs) in Karachi, Pakistan. We now show that this infection among the IDUs may have originated from a single source.

    Authors: Mohammad A Rai, Vivek R Nerurkar, Suhail Khoja, Saeed Khan, Richard Yanagihara, Arish Rehman, Shahana U Kazmi and Syed H Ali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:7
  34. Induction-maintenance therapy is a treatment regime where patients are prescribed an intense course of treatment for a short period of time (the induction phase), followed by a simplified long-term regimen (ma...

    Authors: Rachelle E Miron and Robert J Smith
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:6
  35. A pandemic novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus has emerged. Most recently the World Health Organization has announced that in a country-dependent fashion, up to 15% of cases may require hospitalization, of...

    Authors: Tom Reichert, Gerardo Chowell, Hiroshi Nishiura, Ronald A Christensen and Jonathan A McCullers
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:5
  36. Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. In immune competent individuals, Toxoplasma gondii preferentially infects tissues of central nervous systems, which might be an adding factor of...

    Authors: Yue Xiao, Jigang Yin, Ning Jiang, Mei Xiang, Lili Hao, Huijun Lu, Hong Sang, Xianying Liu, Huiji Xu, Johan Ankarklev, Johan Lindh and Qijun Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:4
  37. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal p...

    Authors: Charisma Dilantika, Endang R Sedyaningsih, Matthew R Kasper, Magdarina Agtini, Erlin Listiyaningsih, Timothy M Uyeki, Timothy H Burgess, Patrick J Blair and Shannon D Putnam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:3
  38. Valganciclovir, the oral prodrug of ganciclovir, has been demonstrated equivalent to iv ganciclovir for CMV disease treatment in solid organ transplant recipients. Variability in ganciclovir exposure achieved ...

    Authors: Nancy Perrottet, Oriol Manuel, Frédéric Lamoth, Jean-Pierre Venetz, Roland Sahli, Laurent A Decosterd, Thierry Buclin, Manuel Pascual and Pascal Meylan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:2
  39. Bacteremia and systemic complications both play important roles in brain pathophysiological alterations and the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. Their individual contributions to the development of brain da...

    Authors: Christian Østergaard, Stephen L Leib, Ian Rowland and Christian T Brandt
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:1
  40. The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has decreased since the 1990s, reflecting worldwide efforts to identify and treat TB according to WHO recommendations. However TB remains an important ...

    Authors: Omar Kherad, François R Herrmann, Jean-Pierre Zellweger, Thierry Rochat and Jean-Paul Janssens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:217
  41. Tuberculosis is one of the most prominent health problems in the world, causing 1.75 million deaths each year. Rapid clinical diagnosis is important in patients who have co-morbidities such as Human Immunodefi...

    Authors: Luciene C Scherer, Rosa D Sperhacke, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Maria LR Rossetti, Claudia Vater, Paul Klatser and Afrânio L Kritski
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:216
  42. Infection with HIV-1 is characterized by genetic diversity such that specific viral subtypes are predominant in specific geographical areas. The genetic variation in HIV-1 pol and env genes is responsible for rap...

    Authors: Raphael W Lihana, Samoel A Khamadi, Raphael M Lwembe, Joyceline G Kinyua, Joseph K Muriuki, Nancy J Lagat, Fredrick A Okoth, Ernest P Makokha and Elijah M Songok
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:215
  43. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important form of viral encephalitis in Asia. Surveillance for the disease in many countries has been limited. To improve collection of accurate surveillance data in orde...

    Authors: Susan Hills, Alya Dabbagh, Julie Jacobson, Anthony Marfin, David Featherstone, Joachim Hombach, Pem Namgyal, Manju Rani and Tom Solomon
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:214
  44. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic sepsis marker, but has never been validated in febrile patients with prolonged ICU stay.

    Authors: Iraklis Tsangaris, Diamantis Plachouras, Dimitra Kavatha, George Michael Gourgoulis, Argirios Tsantes, Petros Kopterides, George Tsaknis, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Stylianos Orfanos, Evangelos Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Helen Giamarellou and Apostolos Armaganidis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:213
  45. Peritonitis continues to be the most frequent cause of peritoneal dialysis (PD) failure, with an important impact on patient mortality. Gram-positive cocci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, other coagulase-nega...

    Authors: Pasqual Barretti, Augusto C Montelli, Jackson EN Batalha, Jacqueline CT Caramori and Maria de Lourdes RS Cunha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:212
  46. Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the...

    Authors: Eduardo Samo Gudo, Nilesh B Bhatt, Dulce Ramalho Bila, Celina Monteiro Abreu, Amílcar Tanuri, Wilson Savino, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa and Ilesh V Jani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:211
  47. The epidemic of rabies showed a rising trend in China in recent years. To identify the potential factors involved in the emergence, we investigated and analyzed the status and characteristics of human rabies b...

    Authors: Miao Song, Qing Tang, Ding-Ming Wang, Zhao-Jun Mo, Shou-Heng Guo, Hao Li, Xiao-Yan Tao, Charles E Rupprecht, Zi-Jian Feng and Guo-Dong Liang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:210

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