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  1. The systemic response to an infection might influence the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics. To evaluate the desired possibility of an earlier (< 24 h) IV-to-oral switch therapy in febrile non-ICU, hospitalized ...

    Authors: Annemieke K. van den Broek, Jan M. Prins, Caroline E. Visser and Reinier M. van Hest

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel hypoglycemic agents which reduce reabsorption of glucose at the renal proximal tubule, resulting in significant glycosuria and increased risk of gen...

    Authors: Caroline Bartolo, Victoria Hall, N. Deborah Friedman, Chloe Lanyon, Andrew Fuller, C. Orla Morrissey and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:284

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Pneumonia is one of the complications of COVID-19. Primary care electronic health records (EHR) have shown the utility as a surveillance system. We therefore analyse the trends of pneumonia during two waves of...

    Authors: Ermengol Coma, Leonardo Méndez-Boo, Núria Mora, Carolina Guiriguet, Mència Benítez, Francesc Fina, Mireia Fàbregas, Elisabet Balló, Francisa Ramos, Manuel Medina and Josep M. Argimon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:283

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Brazil has a high leprosy burden and poor treatment outcomes (TOs), manifesting in high relapse rates. Pernambuco, an impoverished Brazilian state suffering notable geographical health inequalities, has ‘hyperend...

    Authors: Divya Khanna, Gilles de Wildt, Luiz Antonio Miranda de Souza Duarte Filho, Mitali Bajaj, Jo Freda Lai, Esme Gardiner, Andrea Maia Fernandes de Araújo Fonseca, Antje Lindenmeyer and Patrícia Sammarco Rosa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Tuberculosis is a major global public health concern. Patients with tuberculosis who require critical care have a high mortality and delay in initiating antituberculous therapy is associated with increased mor...

    Authors: Kim de Vasconcellos, Praksha Ramjathan and Dhivendra Singh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:281

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Brucellosis is a major public health problem that seriously affects developing countries and could cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry and great harm to human health. Reasonable predict...

    Authors: Mengmeng Zhai, Wenhan Li, Ping Tie, Xuchun Wang, Tao Xie, Hao Ren, Zhuang Zhang, Weimei Song, Dichen Quan, Meichen Li, Limin Chen and Lixia Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:280

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Case fatality ratio (CFR) among all age groups during the 2016–2018 measles outbreak in Romania was increased compared with previous outbreaks. To identify risk factors for measles death, we conducted a case-c...

    Authors: Morgane Donadel, Aurora Stanescu, Adriana Pistol, Brock Stewart, Cassandra Butu, Dragan Jankovic, Bogdan Paunescu and Laura Zimmerman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:279

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The causative agent of cervical cancer referred to as Human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a real public health problem. Many countries in West Africa, such as Togo have no data on the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) inf...

    Authors: Akouélé P. Kuassi-Kpede, Essolakina Dolou, Théodora M. Zohoncon, Ina Marie Angèle Traore, Gnatoulma Katawa, R. Alice Ouedraogo, Esther Mah Traore, Prosper Bado, T. Clarisse Ouedraogo, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Simplice Damintoti Karou and Jacques Simpore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:278

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with neurological complications, including cerebral abscesses (CA). They tend to be unique, supratentorial and lobar....

    Authors: Xavier A. Santander, Anwar Saab, Juan Manuel Revuelta-Barbero and Elena Múñez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:277

    Content type: Case report

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  10. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Axel Ursenbach, Frédéric Schramm, François Séverac, Yves Hansmann, Nicolas Lefebvre, Yvon Ruch and Xavier Argemi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:276

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:190

  11. Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) requires spatial proximity between infectious cases and susceptible persons. We assess activity space overlap among MDRTB cases and community controls t...

    Authors: David P. Bui, Shruthi S. Chandran, Eyal Oren, Heidi E. Brown, Robin B. Harris, Gwenan M. Knight and Louis Grandjean

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:275

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In 2010-2011, we conducted a social contact survey in Flanders, Belgium, aimed at improving and extending the design of the first social contact survey conducted in Belgium in 2006. This second social contact ...

    Authors: Thang Van Hoang, Pietro Coletti, Yimer Wasihun Kifle, Kim Van Kerckhove, Sarah Vercruysse, Lander Willem, Philippe Beutels and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:274

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, nationally and internationally, is a serious threat to the management and control of gonorrhoea. Limited and conflicting data r...

    Authors: Susanne Jacobsson, Michelle J. Cole, Gianfranco Spiteri, Michaela Day and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:273

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem. China has the second highest TB burden in the world. With a growing TB population with diabetes mellitus (DM), the TB control system faces ...

    Authors: Wenhui Xiao, Dajiang Huang, Saiqiong Li, Shangcheng Zhou, Xiaolin Wei, Bin Chen and Guanyang Zou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:272

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In the future, co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses A/B is likely. From a clinical point of view, differentiation of the two disease entities is ...

    Authors: Pablo Sieber, Domenica Flury, Sabine Güsewell, Werner C. Albrich, Katia Boggian, Céline Gardiol, Matthias Schlegel, Robert Sieber, Pietro Vernazza and Philipp Kohler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:271

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Neonatal ocular prophylaxis with silver nitrate does not prevent neonatal conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis. The efficacy of antibiotic containing preparations for prevention of neonatal chlamydial conj...

    Authors: Tamar A. Smith-Norowitz, Crystal Ukaegbu, Stephan Kohlhoff and Margaret R. Hammerschlag

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:270

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, represents a significant public health problem in many endemic countries including Yemen. The ongoing armed conflict that started in March 2015 has h...

    Authors: Talal H. Alharazi, Najoua Haouas and Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:269

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant in clinical settings and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent effective against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. However, disinfectant resistant or non-susceptible ba...

    Authors: Fei Lin, Bin Yu, Qinghui Wang, Mingyong Yuan and Baodong Ling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:266

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses ...

    Authors: Yuri Ushijima, Haruka Abe, Georgelin Nguema Ondo, Rodrigue Bikangui, Marguerite Massinga Loembé, Vahid R. Zadeh, Joseph G. E. Essimengane, Armel V. N. Mbouna, Emmanuel B. Bache, Selidji T. Agnandji, Bertrand Lell and Jiro Yasuda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:265

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Rapid identification of pathogenic Mycobacterium species is critical for a successful treatment. However, traditional method is time-consuming and cannot discriminate isolated non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) ...

    Authors: Qing Zhang, Heping Xiao and Liping Yan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:264

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The Pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has critically impacted the spread of infection within nursing facilities. We evaluated t...

    Authors: Yong Chong, Naoki Tani, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Nobuto Terazawa, Hitoshi Nakashima, Nobuyuki Shimono, Koichi Akashi and Yosuke Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have been postulated to influence susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study investigated whether there is an associati...

    Authors: Shamil Haroon, Anuradhaa Subramanian, Jennifer Cooper, Astha Anand, Krishna Gokhale, Nathan Byne, Samir Dhalla, Dionisio Acosta-Mena, Thomas Taverner, Kelvin Okoth, Jingya Wang, Joht Singh Chandan, Christopher Sainsbury, Dawit Tefra Zemedikun, G. Neil Thomas, Dhruv Parekh…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:262

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Tuberculosis is a devastating and a deadly disease despite the novel advances in its diagnostic tools and drug therapy. Drug resistant Mycobacterium contributes a great share to tuberculosis mortality. Status of ...

    Authors: Fikru Gashaw, Berhanu Erko, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Bazezew Yenew, Misikir Amare, Balako Gumi and Gobena Ameni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Hand transmission of harmful microorganisms may lead to infections and poses a major threat to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The most effective countermeasure against these transmissi...

    Authors: J. M. van Niekerk, A. Stein, M. H. E. Doting, M. Lokate, L. M. A. Braakman-Jansen and J. E. W. C. van Gemert-Pijnen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Plasmodium cynomolgi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported as a naturally acquired human infection. The present study aims to systematically review reports on naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in huma...

    Authors: Manas Kotepui, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui and Giovanni De Jesus Milanez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Understanding the epidemiological parameters that determine the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 is essential for public health intervention. Globally, a number of studies were conducted to estimate the avera...

    Authors: Muluneh Alene, Leltework Yismaw, Moges Agazhe Assemie, Daniel Bekele Ketema, Wodaje Gietaneh and Tilahun Yemanu Birhan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:257

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was emergency turned into global public health after the first patients were detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease rapidly expanded and led to an...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani, Fatemeh Moghadasi, Saeed Hassani Gelsfid, Arman Maghoul, Neda Mahmoodi, Zahra Eskandari, Hossein Gholami, Zakiye Mokhames and Mahshid Saleh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:256

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to be a priority health problem; According to the World Health Organization data from October 13, 2020, 37,704,153 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported, including 1,079...

    Authors: Carlos Alfonso Romero-Gameros, Tania Colin-Martínez, Salomón Waizel-Haiat, Guadalupe Vargas-Ortega, Eduardo Ferat-Osorio, José Alberto Guerrero-Paz, Marielle Intriago-Alor, Mayra Alejandra López-Moreno, Carlos Fredy Cuevas-García, Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta, Jose Luis Martínez-Ordaz and Baldomero González-Virla

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:255

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Chinese population has a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the impact of which on pregnancy outcome remains controversial. A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed i...

    Authors: Qian Sun, Terence T. Lao, Mingyu Du, Min Xie, Yonghu Sun, Bing Bai, Junnan Ma, Tianying Zhu, Shengnan Yu and Runmei Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:253

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen among immunocompromised hosts. Typically, CMV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes diseases of the retina, digestive tract, lungs and liver, but...

    Authors: Morichika Osa, Akihiro Sato, Maki Sakagami, Masaki Machida, Takao Sato, Ayaka Tsukimori, Shinji Fukushima, Itaru Nakamura, Ryo Akai, Kiyoaki Tsukahara and Hidehiro Watanabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:252

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Infants with bronchiolitis have an increased risk of developing recurrent wheezing and asthma. However, the risk factors for the development of recurrent wheezing after bronchiolitis remains controversial. Our...

    Authors: Sainan Chen, Wenjing Gu, Min Wu, Chuangli Hao, Canhong Zhu, Xuejun Shao and Yuqing Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:250

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1–2 days prior to ...

    Authors: Juen Kiem Tan, Dalleen Leong, Hemalatha Munusamy, Nor Hazwani Zenol Ariffin, Najma Kori, Rozita Hod and Petrick Periyasamy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:249

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Human noroviruses are one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses and represent a serious public health concern. Rapid and sensitive assays for human norovirus detection are undoubtedly necessary for clinica...

    Authors: Zhiwei Qin, Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Junshan Gao, Yueting Jiang, Jiale Yang, Yanhui Liang, Linping Wang, Jumei Zhang, Yongdan Hu and Qingping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:248

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Tetanus is a rare, vaccine-preventable but extremely serious disease. We investigated the recent trend of the clinical outcomes and medical costs for inpatients with tetanus in South Korea over 10 years.

    Authors: Sohyun Bae, Minsik Go, Yoonjung Kim, Soyoon Hwang, Shin-Woo Kim, Ki Tae Kwon, Sook-In Jung and Hyun-Ha Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by parasitic infection by Echinococcus multilocularis. Its diagnosis is usually based on clinical symptoms, ultrasound, and other imaging methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play im...

    Authors: Cao Deping, Jiang Bofan, Zhang Yaogang and Pang Mingquan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:246

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Based on differences in populations and prevention and control measures, the spread of new coronary pneumonia in different countries and regions also differs. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility...

    Authors: Qinglong Zhao, Yao Wang, Meng Yang, Meina Li, Zeyu Zhao, Xinrong Lu, Bo Shen, Bo Luan, Yifei Zhao, Bonan Cao, Laishun Yao, Benhua Zhao, Yanhua Su and Tianmu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:245

    Content type: Research article

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  37. During the last six decades, extensive use of antibiotics has selected resistant strains, increasing the rate of fatal infectious diseases, and exerting an economic burden on society. This situation is widely ...

    Authors: Hazrat Bilal, Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Tayyab Rehman, Muhammad Fazal Hameed and Xingyuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Sniffer dogs are able to detect certain chemical particles and are suggest to be capable of helping diagnose some medical conditions and complications, such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and ...

    Authors: Esmaeil Eskandari, Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh, Hassan Roudgari, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Amir Nezami-Asl, Reza Laripour, Helen Aliyazdi, Arasb Dabbagh Moghaddam, Ramin Zibaseresht, Hossein Akbarialiabad, Mojtaba Yousefi Zoshk, Hamidreza Shiri and Mahdi Shiri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Previous studies have indicated that the risk of infectious disease spread is greatest in locations where a population has massive and convenient access to the epicenter of an outbreak. However, the spatiotemp...

    Authors: Li Wang, Chengdong Xu, Jinfeng Wang, Jiajun Qiao, Mingtao Yan and Qiankun Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Cytokine storm triggered by Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality. With high Interleukin -6 (IL-6) levels reported in COVID-19 related deaths in China, IL-6 is considered...

    Authors: Yojana Gokhale, Rakshita Mehta, Uday Kulkarni, Nitin Karnik, Sushant Gokhale, Uma Sundar, Swati Chavan, Akshay Kor, Sonal Thakur, Trupti Trivedi, Naveen Kumar, Sujata Baveja, Aniket Wadal, Shaonak Kolte, Aukshan Deolankar, Sangeeta Pednekar…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections is important, and laboratory tests help diagnose CNS infections. Even when the patient has symptoms, laboratory tests often do not reveal...

    Authors: Young Jin Kim, Hương Giang Lê, Byoung-Kuk Na, Bo Gyu Kim, Youn-Kwan Jung, Mutbyul Kim, Heeyoung Kang and Min-Chul Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause for chronic liver diseases worldwide. The European Union and World Health Organization aspire to eliminate HCV by 2030. However, among at-risk populations, including,...

    Authors: Shannon Glaspy, Gordana Avramovic, Tina McHugh, Cristiana Oprea, Julian Surey, Irina Ianache, Juan Macías, Alistair Story, Walter Cullen and John S. Lambert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The sputum smear bacilliary load is a fundamental indicator of the level of infectiousness in DR-TB patients. However, evidence on DR-TB sputum smear grading and its factors in the study setting is limited. Th...

    Authors: Getahun Molla Kassa, Mehari Woldemariam Merid, Atalay Goshu Muluneh and Dawit Tefera Fentie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:238

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Healthcare workers are usually the first responders during outbreaks and are instrumental in educating the populace about the prevention of different diseases and illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess...

    Authors: Donya L. Francis, Utoomporn Wongsin, Shuo-Chen Chien, Yi-Hsin ( Elsa) Hsu, Franziska Michaela Lohmeyer, Wen-Shan Jian, Li-Fong Lin and Usman Iqbal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:237

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Patients with injection drug use (IDU) have increased risk of developing infective endocarditis (IE). Previous studies have reported recurrent IE, increased duration of hospital stay, poor adherence and compli...

    Authors: Anna Damlin and Katarina Westling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:236

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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