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  1. The HIV pandemic impacts the lives of millions and despite the global coordinated response, innovative actions are still needed to end it. A major challenge is the added burden of coinfections such as viral he...

    Authors: Christine Kakalou, Eleftheria Polychronidou, Vicky Drosou, Vlasios K. Dimitriadis, Thomas Dermaris, Rafael Kordonias, Aris Papaprodromou, Triantafillos Tsirelis, Christos Maramis, Konstantinos Votis, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Domenico Savarino, Manuel Maffeo, Nedim Jasic, Tatjana Nemeth-Blažić, Zoran Dominković…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21(Suppl 2):866

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 2

  2. Uptake of HIV self-tests (HIVST) remains low in Europe. We conducted two separate surveys to understand facilitators and barriers to the use of HIVST in two European countries, as part of the EU INTEGRATE Join...

    Authors: Sophie G. Nash, Manuel Maffeo, Giedrius Likatavicius, Lella Cosmaro, Kestutis Rudaitis, Aleksandras Lapsinov, Qudsia Enayat, Valerie Delpech and Meaghan Kall

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21(Suppl 2):844

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 2

  3. National testing strategy, including monitoring and evaluation, is critical in responding to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contrib...

    Authors: Laura Fernàndez-López, Irena Klavs, Anna Conway, Tanja Kustec, Mojca Serdt, Sladjana Baros, Danica Valkovičová Staneková, Liis Lemsalu, Iwona Wawer, Piotr Wysocki and Jordi Casabona

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21(Suppl 2):794

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 2

  4. Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting warm-blooded animals. Infection in people can occur through ingestion of oocysts passed in the faeces of the definitive hosts; ingestion of bradyzoites...

    Authors: Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook, Nduhiu Gitahi, William Anson de Glanville, Lian F. Thomas, Samuel Kariuki, Erastus Kang’ethe and Eric Maurice Fèvre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:944

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. Continuous care is essential for people living with HIV. This study aimed to measure continuous care uptake and investigate the association between higher uptake of continuous care and behavioral and social fa...

    Authors: Yongmei Jin, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Meiqin Fang, Wei Guan, Bo Tian, Min Yu and Yingrong Du

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:943

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Brucellosis is an important neglected bacterial zoonotic disease that has been affecting animals and humans for decades. Malaria has been considered major cause of illness in tropical areas, including Ethiopia...

    Authors: Sintayehu Mehari, Biruk Zerfu and Kassu Desta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:942

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Cerebral toxoplasmosis infection presents with non-specific neurologic symptoms in immunocompromised patients. With lack of measurable adaptive immune responses and reluctance to sample affected brain tissue, ...

    Authors: Danielle Brewer, Margaret L. MacMillan, Mark R. Schleiss, Satja Issaranggoon Na Ayuthaya, Jo-Anne Young and Christen L. Ebens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:941

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  8. Dengue virus infection (DVI) is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Its manifestations range from asymptomatic infections to severe disease. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in DVI...

    Authors: Chayasin Mansanguan, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Sant Muangnoicharoen, Arun Huntrup, Akkapon Poolcharoen, Suyanee Mansanguan, Watcharapong Piyaphanee and Weerapong Phumratanaprapin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:940

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA), although uncommon in North America, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to re-examine the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of PLA in a large,...

    Authors: Jennifer A. Losie, John C. Lam, Daniel B. Gregson and Michael D. Parkins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:939

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. The novel coronavirus pandemic has had a differential impact on communities of color across the US. The University of California hospital system serves a large population of people who are often underrepresent...

    Authors: Miriam Nuño, Yury García, Ganesh Rajasekar, Diego Pinheiro and Alec J. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:938

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. Malaria and schistosomiasis present considerable disease burden in tropical and sub-tropical areas and severity is worsened by co-infections in areas where both diseases are endemic. Although pathogenesis of t...

    Authors: Edwin Kamau, Adam Yates, Risper Maisiba, Valentine Singoei, Benjamin Opot, Rose Adeny, Cornel O. Arima, Victor Otieno, Catherine S. Sumbi, Raphael O. Okoth, Farid Abdi, Maurine Mwalo, Jew Ochola, June Otieno, Julie Ake, Michelle Imbach…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:937

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. Refugees are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) soon after resettlement. Targeting high-risk populations for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening and treatment is an important measure ...

    Authors: R. K. Lim, R. Talavlikar, O. Chiazor, J. Bietz, H. Gardiner and D. Fisher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:936

    Content type: Research

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  13. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an emerging cause of significant morbidity and mortality in severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the prevalence, clinical profile and outcome of BSIs...

    Authors: Naveenraj Palanisamy, Nakka Vihari, Durga Shankar Meena, Deepak Kumar, Naresh Midha, Vibhor Tak, Ankur Sharma, Gopal Krishana Bohra, Nikhil Kothari, Naveen Dutt, Pradeep Kumar Bhatia, Mahendra Kumar Garg and Sanjeev Misra

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:933

    Content type: Research

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  14. To characterise the longitudinal dynamics of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT) in a cohort of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and support antimicrobial decision-making.

    Authors: Damien K. Ming, Ashleigh C. Myall, Bernard Hernandez, Andrea Y. Weiße, Robert L. Peach, Mauricio Barahona, Timothy M. Rawson and Alison H. Holmes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:932

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:988

  15. Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) through women controlled HIV prevention option has been in focus globally. FSWs are important target for oral pre exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A multi-centric qualitative s...

    Authors: Seema Sahay, Archana Verma, Suhas Shewale, Sampada Bangar, Athokpam Bijeshkumar, Mubashir Angolkar, Thilakavathi Subramanian and Nomita Chandhiok

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:930

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Remote Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities have potential to be severely impacted by COVID-19, with multiple factors predisposing to increased transmission and disease severity. Our mo...

    Authors: Ben B. Hui, Damien Brown, Rebecca H. Chisholm, Nicholas Geard, Jodie McVernon and David G. Regan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:929

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. South Africa implemented rapid and strict physical distancing regulations to minimize SARS-CoV-2 epidemic spread. Evidence on the impact of such measures on interpersonal contact in rural and lower-income sett...

    Authors: Nicky McCreesh, Vuyiswa Dlamini, Anita Edwards, Stephen Olivier, Njabulo Dayi, Keabetswe Dikgale, Siyabonga Nxumalo, Jaco Dreyer, Kathy Baisley, Mark J. Siedner, Richard G. White, Kobus Herbst, Alison D. Grant and Guy Harling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:928

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is among the most concerning cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) due to its high level of antibiotic resistance and high mortality. In the era of th...

    Authors: Alireza Abdollahi, Amir Aliramezani, Mohammadreza Salehi, Mahsa Norouzi Shadehi, Sedighe Ghourchian and Masoumeh Douraghi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:927

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic requires the availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests, especially in such clinical settings as emergency and intensive care units. The objective of this study was to ...

    Authors: Vanessa De Pace, Patrizia Caligiuri, Valentina Ricucci, Nicola Nigro, Barbara Galano, Valeria Visconti, Giorgio Da Rin and Bianca Bruzzone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:926

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  20. In the 2nd year of the COVID-19 pandemic, knowledge about the dynamics of the infection in the general population is still limited. Such information is essential for health planners, as many of those infected ...

    Authors: Katja Radon, Abhishek Bakuli, Peter Pütz, Ronan Le Gleut, Jessica Michelle Guggenbuehl Noller, Laura Olbrich, Elmar Saathoff, Mercè Garí, Yannik Schälte, Turid Frahnow, Roman Wölfel, Michael Pritsch, Camilla Rothe, Michel Pletschette, Raquel Rubio-Acero, Jessica Beyerl…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:925

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21.  Several immunisation candidates against RSV are in late-stage clinical trials. To evaluate the benefits of a potential vaccination programme, both economic and health benefits will be needed. Health benefits ...

    Authors: Eva Díez-Gandía, Carla Gómez-Álvarez, Mónica López-Lacort, Cintia Muñoz-Quiles, Isabel Úbeda-Sansano, Javier Díez-Domingo and Alejandro Orrico-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:924

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Knowledge regarding factors predicting the SARS-COV-2 reinfection risk is scarce and it has major implications in public health policies. We aimed to identify factors associated with the risk of symptomatic SA...

    Authors: Efrén Murillo-Zamora, Xóchitl Trujillo, Miguel Huerta, Mónica Ríos-Silva, Felipe Aguilar-Sollano and Oliver Mendoza-Cano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:923

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Postpartum alanine transaminase (ALT) flares occur frequently in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected mothers with antepartum antiviral therapy (AVT). We aimed to characterize the T cell immunity in HBV-in...

    Authors: Meiting Huang, Yunfei Gao, Xueru Yin, Xuelian Zhang, Yaohua Hao, Jing Hu and Zhihua Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:922

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Most infants infected with Toxoplasma gondii are completely asymptomatic at birth, yet they may develop ocular and neurological sequelae in the first few months of life. Cases of congenital toxoplasmosis with sev...

    Authors: Jiao Li, Jing Zhao, Xiaoyan Yang, Yang Wen, Liang Huang, Dan Ma and Jing Shi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:920

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome in neonates, and the molecular mechanism of LOS is incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential value ...

    Authors: Chuchu Gao, Zongtai Feng, Lixia Wang, Xingxing Zhao, Kai Fu, Shurong Ma, Zuming Yang, Sannan Wang and Shenglin Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:919

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of the virus in tear and conjunctival secretions of clinically-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia patients.

    Authors: Yunus Karabela, Semsi Nur Karabela, Mehmet Ozbas, Havva Kasikci and Kadriye Kart Yasar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:918

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. HIV incidence can be estimated with cross-sectional studies using clinical, serological, and molecular data. Worldwide, HIV incidence data in only men who have sex with men (MSM) are scarce and principally foc...

    Authors: D. N. Vergara-Ortega, H. López-Gatell, S. Bautista-Arredondo, A. Colchero, S. G. Sosa-Rubí, M. Morales-Vazquez, A. Herrera-Ortiz, M. Olamendi-Portugal, S. García-Cisneros, E. E. Sevilla-Reyes, M. Hernández-Avila and M. A. Sánchez-Alemán

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:917

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Leprosy is a treatable disease; however, the release from treatment after completion of multidrug therapy (MDT) often does not equal absence of health problems. Consequently, sequelae interfere with the patien...

    Authors: Aleksandra Rosendo dos Santos, Pãmela Rodrigues de Souza Silva, Letícia Gomes Costa, Peter Steinmann and Eliane Ignotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:916

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. The aims of this study are to determine (i) SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive employees in Austrian trauma hospitals and rehabilitation facilities, (ii) number of active virus carriers (symptomatic and asymptomatic...

    Authors: Iris Leister, Elisabeth Ponocny-Seliger, Herwig Kollaritsch, Peter Dungel, Barbara Holzer, Johannes Grillari, Heinz Redl, Ivo Ponocny, Claudia Wilfing, Ludwig Aigner, Markus Exner, Michaela Stainer, Matthias Hackl, Thomas Hausner, Rainer Mittermayr and Wolfgang Schaden

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:915

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant threat to global public health. Many medical curricula have limited clinical cases and materials focused on AMR, yet enhanced AMR education and training are need...

    Authors: Eneyi E. Kpokiri, Randall John, Dan Wu, Noah Fongwen, Jehan Z. Budak, Christina C. Chang, Jason J. Ong and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:914

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. While miliary tuberculosis (TB) in pregnancy is rare after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), it poses a serious threat to the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. The present study ai...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Gai, Hongbin Chi, Wenli Cao, Lin Zeng, Lixue Chen, Weixia Zhang, Donghong Song, Ying Wang, Ping Liu, Rong Li and Yongchang Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:913

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Entecavir (ETV) is recommended as a first-line anti-HBV treatment. However, many chronic hepatitis B patients initiate anti-HBV treatment such as lamivudine and telbivudine with low genetic barriers in China, ...

    Authors: Jin Shang, Juan Zhou, Huan Liu, Rili M. Ise, You Tu, Jinqiu Ran, Lang Bai and Hong Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:912

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The potential shift of major causes of febrile illnesses from malaria to non-malarial febrile illnesses, including arboviral diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, is of concern. The last outbreaks of these ...

    Authors: Haliya S. Shauri, Esther Ngadaya, Mbazi Senkoro, Joram J. Buza and Sayoki Mfinanga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:911

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. As cardiovascular diseases represent the main cause of non-AIDS related death in people living with HIV (PLWH) with undetectable viral load, we evaluated lipid profile, weight gain and calculated cardiovascula...

    Authors: Pierre-Emmanuel Plum, Nathalie Maes, Anne-Sophie Sauvage, Frédéric Frippiat, Christelle Meuris, Françoise Uurlings, Marianne Lecomte, Philippe Léonard, Nicolas Paquot, Karine Fombellida, Dolores Vaira, Michel Moutschen and Gilles Darcis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:910

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. How to early distinguish the severity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is a worldwide concern in clinical practice. We therefore conducted this study to assess the relationship between levels of serum inf...

    Authors: Mengyao Li, Ying Chen, Huihan Li, Dehua Yang, Yunlian Zhou, Zhimin Chen and Yuanyuan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:909

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Pre-existing comorbidities have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection but evidence is sparse on the importance and pattern of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) and severity of infection indicated by hospital...

    Authors: Yogini V. Chudasama, Francesco Zaccardi, Clare L. Gillies, Cameron Razieh, Thomas Yates, David E. Kloecker, Alex V. Rowlands, Melanie J. Davies, Nazrul Islam, Samuel Seidu, Nita G. Forouhi and Kamlesh Khunti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:908

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Viral load (VL) testing is key in monitoring adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and documenting HIV treatment response. As per HIV treatment guidelines in Uganda, the first VL test is recommended 6 mont...

    Authors: Grace Gabagaya, Gordon Rukundo, Alexander Amone, Priscilla Wavamunno, Joyce Namale-Matovu, Irene Lubega, Clemensia Nakabiito, Zikulah Namukwaya, Monica Nolan, Samuel S. Malamba, Rachel King, Jaco Homsy, Mary Glenn Fowler and Philippa Musoke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:907

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. COVID-19 disease may be associated with a wide range of bacterial and fungal infections. We report a patient with COVID-19 infection who developed rhino-facial mucormycosis during treatment with corticosteroids.

    Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Milad Badri, Shapoor Safari and Nima Hemmat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:906

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is one of the most virulent forms of mediastinitis. The main causes of high mortality in DNM are believed to stem from difficulty and delay in the diagnosis. Fast and...

    Authors: Jing Duan, Chuncheng Zhang, Xiaoshuang Che, Juanjuan Fu, Feng Pang, Qigang Zhao and Zhiqing You

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:905

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  40. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) cause encephalitis/encephalopathy, but few reports were available. We aimed to investigate the incidence of encephalitis/encephalopathy in SFTS patients and t...

    Authors: Ying Xu, Mingran Shao, Ning Liu, Danjiang Dong, Jian Tang and Qin Gu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:904

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was declared as a global pandemic in 2020. With the spread of the disease, a better understanding of patient outcomes associated with their symptoms in diverse geographi...

    Authors: Jamil Sadeghifar, Habib Jalilian, Khalil Momeni, Hamed Delam, Tadesse Sheleme, Ayoub Rashidi, Fariba Hemmati, Shahab Falahi and Morteza Arab-Zozani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:903

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Airway malacia is an important cause of noisy breathing, recurrent wheezing and respiratory infections, chronic coughing, and episodes of respiratory distress in young children. As the clinical manifestations ...

    Authors: Ting Wang, Qiuyan Xu, Ge Dai, Yu Hong, Zhengrong Chen, Min Lu, Yongdong Yan and Wujun Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:902

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is challenging, particularly in post-mortem human tissues. However, there is increasing evidence for viral SARS-CoV-2 manifestation i...

    Authors: Jana Ihlow, Alexander Seelhoff, Victor M. Corman, Achim D. Gruber, Simon Dökel, Jenny Meinhardt, Helena Radbruch, Ernst Späth-Schwalbe, Sefer Elezkurtaj, David Horst and Hermann Herbst

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:901

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Enteric fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. There is an emergence of Typhoid fever caused by extensively drug-resistant...

    Authors: Saba Shahid, Marvi Mahesar, Nida Ghouri and Saba Noreen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:900

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Maternal immunization confers passive immunity to the fetus by transplacental antibody transfer. Infants may be better protected against pertussis if the mother received a diphtheriae, tetanus and acellular pe...

    Authors: Maarten M. Immink, Mireille N. Bekker, Hester E. de Melker, Nynke Y. Rots, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders and Nicoline A. T. van der Maas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:897

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  46. The world has high hopes of vaccination against COVID-19 to protect the population, boost economies and return to normal life. Vaccination programmes are being rolled out in high income countries, but the pand...

    Authors: Isidore Tiandiogo Traoré, Samiratou Ouedraogo, Dramane Kania, Firmin Nongodo Kaboré, Blahima Konaté, Rachel Médah, Hermann Badolo, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Ariane Mamguem Kamga, Armel Poda, Arnaud Eric Diendere, Boukary Ouédraogo, Esperance Ouédraogo, Oumar Billa, Halidou Tinto and Tienhan Sandrine Dabakuyo-Yonli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:896

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.