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  1. Cigarette smoking has emerged as a leading cause of mortality among people with hepatitis C virus (HCV). People who inject drugs (PWID) represent the largest group of adults infected with HCV in the US. Howeve...

    Authors: Irene Pericot-Valverde, Moonseong Heo, Matthew J. Akiyama, Brianna L. Norton, Linda Agyemang, Jiajing Niu and Alain H. Litwin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:928

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Thailand is home to around 69 million individuals. Dengue is hyper-endemic and all 4 serotypes are in active circulation in the country. Dengue outbreaks occur almost annually within Thailand in at least one p...

    Authors: Jue Tao Lim, Yiting Han, Borame Sue Lee Dickens, Esther Li Wen Choo, Lawrence Zheng Xiong Chew and Alex R. Cook

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:927

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To reach non-participants, reluctant to undergo clinician-based cervical cancer screening and vaginal self-sampling, urine collection for high-risk human papillomavirus detection (hrHPV) may be valuable. Using...

    Authors: Mette Tranberg, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Bodil Hammer Bech and Berit Andersen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:926

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Not all men who have sex with men (MSM) at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection currently receive sexual healthcare. To increase the coverage of high...

    Authors: J. Leenen, C. J. P. A. Hoebe, R. P. Ackens, D. Posthouwer, I. H. M. van Loo, P. F. G. Wolffs and N. H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers*

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:925

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in young children is often clinically indistinguishable from other common respiratory illnesses, which are frequently infections of viral aetiology. As little i...

    Authors: M. M. van der Zalm, E. Walters, M. Claassen, M. Palmer, J. A. Seddon, A.M. Demers, M. L. Shaw, E. D. McCollum, G. U. van Zyl and A. C. Hesseling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:924

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative, obligate aerobic coccobacillus known to cause disease in domesticated animals and pets. In humans, B. bronchiseptica commonly leads to respiratory infections like pne...

    Authors: Christopher Radcliffe, Audun Lier, Natnael Doilicho, Sunil Parikh and Firas Kaddouh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:922

    Content type: Case report

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  7. In 2016 and 2017, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection outbreaks occurred in two communities in southern Thailand. This re-immerging infection can widely spread by mosquito bites and cause serious complications in a ce...

    Authors: Theerut Densathaporn, Rassamee Sangthong, Monvaris Sakolnapa, Smonrapat Surasombatpattana, Marisa Kemapunmanus, Promsin Masrinoul, Sutee Yoksan, Edward B. McNeil and Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:921

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a natural epidemic disease caused by various types of viruses of the genus Hantavirus, which are mainly transmitted by contact with the infected rodents and their ...

    Authors: Xiang Ying, Xiaoli Lai, Xiaoxiao Jin, Linghong Cai and Xiaotian Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:920

    Content type: Case report

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  9. The highly complex and largely neglected Chagas disease (CD) has become a global health problem due to population movements between Latin America and non-endemic countries, as well as non-vectorial transmissio...

    Authors: Jessica Michelle Guggenbühl Noller, Guenter Froeschl, Philip Eisermann, Johannes Jochum, Stefanie Theuring, Ingrid Reiter-Owona, Alfred Lennart Bissinger, Michael Hoelscher, Abhishek Bakuli, Franz-Josef Falkner von Sonnenburg, Camilla Rothe, Gisela Bretzel, Pedro Albajar-Viñas, Lise Grout and Michael Pritsch

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:919

    Content type: Research article

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  10. High rates of Adverse Events (AEs) during treatment is one of the leading causes of unsuccessful treatment outcomes among patients with drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). However, information related to AEs ...

    Authors: Arjunkumar Jakasania, Kalpita Shringarpure, Dixit Kapadia, Radhika Sharma, Kedar Mehta, Arpit Prajapati and Soundappan Kathirvel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:918

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Brazil became the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America since May 2020, reporting the highest number of cases and deaths in the region. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Carolina Palamin Buonafine, Beatriz Nobre Monteiro Paiatto, Fabyano Bruno Leal, Samantha Faria de Matos, Camila Ohomoto de Morais, Giovanna Guazzelli Guerra, Marcus Vinicius Vidal Martuchelli, Danielle Bruna Leal Oliveira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Camila Pereira Soares, Erika Donizette Candido, Bruna Larotonda Telezynski, Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi and Flávia Jacqueline Almeida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:917

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (Kp-BSI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to explore the risk factors, validate the prediction efficiency of pediatric Sequent...

    Authors: Shuang Li, Jingxian Liu, Feng Chen, Kang Cai, Jintong Tan, Wei Xie, Rong Qian, Xiaoqin Liu, Wenhong Zhang, Huimin Du, Ying Liu and Lisu Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:916

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The spleen contains immune cells and exhibits a pattern of infarction different from other organs; as such, splenic infarction (SI) may provide important clues to infection. However, the nature of the relation...

    Authors: Jae Hyoung Im, Moon-Hyun Chung, Hye-Jin Lee, Hea Yoon Kwon, Ji Hyeon Baek, Ji-Hun Jang and Jin-Soo Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:915

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Describing transmission dynamics of the outbreak and impact of intervention measures are critical to planning responses to future outbreaks and providing timely information to guide policy makers decision. We ...

    Authors: Khouloud Talmoudi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Aicha Hchaichi, Chahida Harizi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Sondes Derouiche, Ilhem Bouaziz, Donia Gharbi, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Ines Cherif, Rym Mlallekh, Oumaima Ben-Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Leila Bouabid…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:914

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Influenza B is often perceived as a less severe strain of influenza. The epidemiology and clinical outcomes of influenza B have been less thoroughly investigated in hospitalised patients. The aims of this stud...

    Authors: Yogesh Sharma, Chris Horwood, Paul Hakendorf and Campbell Thompson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:913

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Despite the profound impact of antiretroviral therapy in the control of AIDS mortality, central nervous system opportunistic infections remains a significant burden in AIDS patients. This retrospective study a...

    Authors: Liang Wu, Jiang Xiao, Yangzi Song, Guiju Gao and Hongxin Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:912

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Human Sapoviruses (SaVs) has been reported as one of the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. An outbreak of SaVs affected 482 primary school students during spring activities from Februa...

    Authors: Yuxiao Yan, Yuan Li, Wen Shi, Xiangyu Kong, Huiying Li, Qing Zhang, Lili Pang, Li Jiang, Junying Liu, Miao Jin, Yuning Li and Zhaojun Duan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:911

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Both COVID-19 and influenza A contribute to increased mortality among the elderly and those with existing comorbidities. Changes in the underlying immune mechanisms determine patient prognosis. This study aime...

    Authors: Fang Qian, Guiju Gao, Yangzi Song, Yanli Xu, Aibin Wang, Sa Wang, Yiwei Hao, Meiling Chen, Xiaoyang Ma, Tianwei Zhao, Xiaodi Guo, Zhihai Chen and Fujie Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:910

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The objective of this study was to evaluate the virulence of P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) strains (cases) in terms of biofilm production and other phenotypic and genotypic virulence factors...

    Authors: Beatriz Alonso, Laia Fernández-Barat, Enea Gino Di Domenico, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Irene Merino, Manuela de Pablos, Patricia Muñoz and María Guembe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:909

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:951

  20. Diarrhoea, affecting children in developing countries, is mainly caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This study principally aimed to determine the prevalence of DEC pathotypes and Extended-spectrum β-...

    Authors: Rasha M. M. Khairy, Zahra Atef Fathy, Doaa Mohamed Mahrous, Ebtisam S. Mohamed and Soha S. Abdelrahim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:908

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae) infections, usually related to upper airways involvement, could be highly invasive. Especially in developing countries, non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains are now em...

    Authors: Antonio de Santis, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, Roney Orismar Sampaio, Masahiko Akamine, Elinthon T. Veronese, Francisco Monteiro de Almeida Magalhaes, Maria Rita Elmor Araújo, Flavia Rossi, Marcelo M. C. Magri, Ana Catharina Nastri, Tarso A. D. Accorsi, Vitor E. E. Rosa, David Provenzale Titinger, Guilherme S. Spina and Flavio Tarasoutchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:907

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can pose serious health problems for the fetus. However, the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis among reproductive-aged population in Myanmar is larg...

    Authors: Khin Myo Aye, Eiji Nagayasu, Myat Htut Nyunt, Ni Ni Zaw, Kyaw Zin Thant, Myat Phone Kyaw and Haruhiko Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:906

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Estimate the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ), its complications and healthcare utilization rates in adults (≥ 18-years-old) with a wide range of immunocompromised (IC) conditions compared to IC-free cohort.

    Authors: Cintia Muñoz-Quiles, Mónica López-Lacort, Javier Díez-Domingo and Alejandro Orrico-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:905

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major human threat, as evidenced by the large numbers of cases and deaths, particularly in developing countries with poor economic and educational statuses. Myanmar has one of the highes...

    Authors: Theint Theint Lwin, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Jongkon Saising, Panupong Upala, Ratipark Tamornpark, Chalitar Chomchoei, Fartima Yeemard, Wipob Suttana and Rachanee Sunsern

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:904

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The diagnosis of non-malarial aetiologies, which now represent the majority of febrile illnesses, has remained problematic in settings with limited laboratory capacity. We aimed to describe common aetiologies ...

    Authors: Techalew Shimelis, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Fitsum W/Gebriel, John A. Crump, Gill Schierhout, Sabine Dittrich, John M Kaldor and Susana Vaz Nery

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:903

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was ...

    Authors: Daniel Bekele Ketema, Fasil Wagnew, Moges Agazhe Assemie, Aster Ferede, Alehegn Aderaw Alamneh, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Pammla Petrucka, Animut Takele Telayneh and Animut Alebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:902

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) presents heterogeneously, owing to the differences in underlying host conditions and immune responses. Although Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important in recognizing S. au...

    Authors: Nak-Hyun Kim, Ji Yeon Sung, Yoon Jung Choi, Su-Jin Choi, Soyeon Ahn, Eunjeong Ji, Moonsuk Kim, Chung Jong Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Eu Suk Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Myoung-don Oh and Hong Bin Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:901

    Content type: Research article

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  28. South Africa has one of the highest tuberculosis incidence rates. Biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to descr...

    Authors: Tessa du Toit, Tonya M. Esterhuizen, Nicki Tiffin, Ahmed A. Abulfathi, Helmuth Reuter and Eric H. Decloedt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:900

    Content type: Research article

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  29. COVID-19 has become a major global threat. The present study aimed to develop a nomogram model to predict the survival of COVID-19 patients based on their clinical and laboratory data at admission.

    Authors: Xiaojun Ma, Huifang Wang, Junwei Huang, Yan Geng, Shuqi Jiang, Qiuping Zhou, Xuan Chen, Hongping Hu, Weifeng Li, Chengbin Zhou, Xinglin Gao, Na Peng and Yiyu Deng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:899

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Plasma proteins are known to interfere the drug metabolism during therapy. As limited information is available regarding the role of plasma proteins in HIV drug resistance during ART in HIV/AIDS patients, the ...

    Authors: Sushanta Kumar Barik, Keshar Kunja Mohanty, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Preeti Rawat, G. Gopal, Deepa Bisht, Shripad A. Patil, Rananjay Singh, Devesh Sharma, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Rekha Tandon, Tej Pal Singh and Srikanta Jena

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:898

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Belgium was among the first countries in Europe with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Since the first diagnosis on February 3rd, the epidemic has quickly evolved, with Belgium at the crossr...

    Authors: Karlijn van Halem, Robin Bruyndonckx, Jeroen van der Hilst, Janneke Cox, Paulien Driesen, Matthias Opsomer, Eveline Van Steenkiste, Björn Stessel, Jasperina Dubois and Peter Messiaen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:897

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:956

  32. Surgical site infection (SSI) is a devastating complication of orthopedic surgery, related with increased morbidity and mortality. This study was performed with the aim to compare the SSI rate in human immunod...

    Authors: Rui Ma, Jie He, Biao Xu, Changsong Zhao, Yao Zhang, Xin Li, Sheng Sun and Qiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:896

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Naser Gharebaghi, Rahim Nejadrahim, Seyed Jalil Mousavi, Seyyed-Reza Sadat-Ebrahimi and Reza Hajizadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:895

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:786

  34. Tuberculosis (TB) though primarily affects the lungs it may also affect the other parts of the body and referred as extra pulmonary (EPTB). This study is focused on understanding the genetic diversity and mole...

    Authors: Shanmugam Sivakumar, Yuvaraj Chandramohan, Gokul Raj Kathamuthu, Gomathi Sekar, Devika Kandhasamy, Venkatesan Padmanaban, Syed Hissar, Srikanth P. Tripathy, Ramalingam Bethunaickan, Baskaran Dhanaraj, Subash Babu and Uma Devi Ranganathan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:894

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is a gram-positive filamentous bacterium found primarily in soil and sewage that rarely causes human infection, especially in previously healthy adults, but when it does, it often ind...

    Authors: Huifang Zhang, Chunyan He, Rui Tian and Ruilan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:893

    Content type: Case report

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  36. A pneumatocele is a transient thin-walled lesion and rare complication in adult pneumonia.

    Authors: Masahiro Sano, Aya Shimamoto, Nozomi Ueki, Motohiro Sekino, Hiroshi Nakaoka, Masahiro Takaki, Yoshiro Yamashita, Takeshi Tanaka, Konosuke Morimoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Masahiro Nakashima, Kazuto Ashizawa and Koya Ariyoshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:892

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. About 10% of Hepatitis B vaccinated individuals mount no protective antibody levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag). Older age at primary immunization, obesity and smoking have previously been...

    Authors: Marc A. Meier and Christoph T. Berger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:891

    Content type: Research article

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  38. There is limited data to guide the prevention and management of surgical site infections (SSI) in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively studied aetiological agents associated with SSI and their co...

    Authors: Antoinette A. A. Bediako-Bowan, Jørgen A. L. Kurtzhals, Kåre Mølbak, Appiah-Korang Labi, Enid Owusu and Mercy J. Newman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:890

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Human papillomavirus infection is an important factor associated with cervical cancer (CC) development. The prevalence and genotype distribution vary greatly worldwide. Examining local epidemiological data con...

    Authors: Andrea Molina-Pineda, María Guadalupe López-Cardona, Laura Patricia Limón-Toledo, Juan Carlos Cantón-Romero, María Guadalupe Martínez-Silva, Holanda Vanesa Ramos-Sánchez, María Guadalupe Flores-Miramontes, Pedro de la Mata-González, Luis F. Jave-Suárez and Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:889

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is becoming a significant health burden. Recent advances in analysis techniques have allowed the accurate identification of previously unknown NTM speci...

    Authors: Tomoki Kuge, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Yuki Matsumoto, Yuko Abe, Eri Akiba, Kako Haduki, Haruko Saito, Tadayoshi Nitta, Akira Kawano, Takahiro Kawasaki, Takanori Matsuki, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Daisuke Motooka, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Mari Miki, Keisuke Miki…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:888

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disorder due to point mutation in the β-globin gene resulting in substitution of Valine for Glutamic acid. The SCD is prevalent in P. falciparum endemic regions such as we...

    Authors: Paul Kosiyo, Walter Otieno, Jesse Gitaka, Elly O. Munde and Collins Ouma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:887

    Content type: Research article

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  42. There is little information about the frequency of Leishmania infection in asymptomatic people living with HIV (PLWH) and about the performance of laboratory diagnostic methods in coinfected patients in Latin Ame...

    Authors: M. A. Cunha, B. J. Celeste, N. Kesper, M. Fugimori, M. M. Lago, A. S. Ibanes, L. M. Ouki, E. A. Simões Neto, F. F. Fonseca, M. A. L. Silva, W. L. Barbosa Júnior and J. A. L. Lindoso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:885

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a zoonotic disease that mostly infects slaughterhouse workers. Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is critical for effective clinical management ...

    Authors: Xiaobo Zhang, Zhaoping Wu and Kai Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:884

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Altered fat distribution and chronic inflammation are found in both persons living with HIV (PLWH) and persons with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). ...

    Authors: Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Julie Abildgaard, Marco Gelpi, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Lilian Kolte, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Birgitte Lindegaard and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:882

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The State of Ceará, in Northeastern Brazil, suffers from a triple burden of arboviruses (dengue, Zika and chikungunya). We measured the seroprevalence of chikungunya, dengue and Zika and its associated factors...

    Authors: Francisca Kalline de Almeida Barreto, Carlos Henrique Alencar, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Rhaquel de Morais Alves Barbosa Oliveira, John Washington Cavalcante, Daniele Rocha Queiroz Lemos, Luís Arthur Brasil Gadelha Farias, Isac Lucca Frota Boriz, Leticia Queiroz Medeiros, Marcelo Nunes Pereira Melo, Fábio Miyajima, André Machado Siqueira, André Ricardo Ribas Freitas and Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:881

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus which is estimated to infect 83% of the global population. Whilst many infections are asymptomatic, it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, part...

    Authors: Joanne R. Winter, Graham S. Taylor, Olivia G. Thomas, Charlotte Jackson, Joanna E. A. Lewis and Helen R. Stagg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:875

    Content type: Research article

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  47. World Health Organization estimated that 779 million people are at risk of getting schistosomiasis (SCH) and 240 million people were infected worldwide. SCH due to Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) is a wide publi...

    Authors: Yilma Chisha, Zerihun Zerdo, Mekuria Asnakew, Chuchu Churko, Manaye Yihune, Abinet Teshome, Nebiyu Nigussu, Fikire Seife, Birhanu Getachew and Markos Sileshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:872

    Content type: Research article

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  48. COVID-19 infection may present with atypical signs and symptoms and false negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests predisposing healthy people and health care workers to infection. The aim of the current...

    Authors: Maryam Haghighi-Morad, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Hooman Bahrami-Moltagh, Maryam Amerifar, Nasim Zamani and Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:870

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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