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  1. There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the per...

    Authors: Gang Wang, Feng Ming Luo, Dan Liu, Jia Sheng Liu, Ye Wang, Hong Chen, Pan Wen Tian, Tao Fan, Li Tang, He Yu, Lan Wang, Mei Feng, Zhong Ni, Bo Wang, Zhi Fang Song, Xiao Ling Wu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB; or resistant to rifampicin and isonia...

    Authors: Anne-Marie Demers, Soyeon Kim, Sara McCallum, Kathleen Eisenach, Michael Hughes, Linda Naini, Alberto Mendoza-Ticona, Neeta Pradhan, Kim Narunsky, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Caryn Upton, Elizabeth Smith, N. Sarita Shah, Gavin Churchyard, Amita Gupta…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In Mexico, the disease is rarely diagnosed in humans and there is no evidence of simultaneous environmental isolation of the pathogen. Her...

    Authors: Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, J. Antonio Ibarra, Adela Rascon-Alcantar, Jesús Contreras-Soto, Georgina Meza-Radilla, Alfredo G. Torres and Paulina Estrada-de los Santos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:204

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Quality of life (QOL) is one of the major factors to assessing the health and wellbeing of People living with HIV (PLWH). Likewise, improved QOL is among the prominent goals of patient treatment. This study wa...

    Authors: Nahid Khademi, Alireza Zanganeh, Shahram Saeidi, Raziyeh Teimouri, Mehdi Khezeli, Babak Jamshidi, Tan Yigitcanlar, Yahya Salimi, Ali Almasi and Kobra Gholami Kiaee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:203

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In Mozambique, infection by intestinal parasites is reported all over the country. However, infection in children with diarrhoea is mostly focused in the southern region of Mozambique. This work aims to determ...

    Authors: Adilson Fernando Loforte Bauhofer, Idalécia Laurinda Carlos Cossa-Moiane, Selma Domingos Amadeu Marques, Esperança Lourenço Alberto Mabandane Guimarães, Benilde António Munlela, Elda Muianga Anapakala, Jorfélia José Chiláule, Marta Cassocera, Jerónimo Souzinho Langa, Assucênio Chissaque, Júlia Assiat Monteiro Sambo, Lena Vânia Manhique-Coutinho, Diocreciano Matias Bero, Timothy Allen Kellogg, Luzia Augusta Pires Gonçalves and Nilsa de Deus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:201

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by cough, fever, and fatigue and 20% of cases will develop into severe conditions resulting from acute lung injury with the manifestat...

    Authors: Tingxuan Yin, Yuanjun Li, Ying Ying and Zhijun Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:200

    Content type: Research article

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  7. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Netherlands it was noticed that very few blood cultures from COVID-19 patients turned positive with clinically relevant bacteria. This was particu...

    Authors: Julinha M. Thelen, A. G. ( Noud) Buenen, Marjan van Apeldoorn, Heiman F. Wertheim, Mirjam H. A. Hermans and Peter C. Wever

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:199

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Elderly people in nursing homes are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 due to their age, the presence of comorbidities, and community living. On March 14, 2020, at the beginning of the first epidemic wave of ...

    Authors: A. Bernadou, S. Bouges, M. Catroux, J. C. Rigaux, C. Laland, N. Levêque, U. Noury, S. Larrieu, S. Acef, D. Habold, F. Cazenave-Roblot and L. Filleul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are increasing worldwide, making them an international public health problem. Surgical management is often indicated for localized infectious disease; however, mo...

    Authors: Yutaka Shishido, Hiroshi Hamakawa, Kazuhiro Minami, Shigeo Hara and Yutaka Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:196

    Content type: Case report

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  10. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Filippo Pieralli, Vieri Vannucchi, Carlo Nozzoli, Giuseppe Augello, Francesco Dentali, Giulia De Marzi, Generoso Uomo, Filippo Risaliti, Laura Morbidoni, Antonino Mazzone, Claudio Santini, Daniela Tirotta, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gerloni, Paola Gnerre, Gualberto Gussoni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:195

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:116

  11. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. Howeve...

    Authors: Manfred Accrombessi, Jackie Cook, Corine Ngufor, Arthur Sovi, Edouard Dangbenon, Boulais Yovogan, Hilaire Akpovi, Aurore Hounto, Charles Thickstun, Gil G. Padonou, Filemon Tokponnon, Louisa A. Messenger, Immo Kleinschmidt, Mark Rowland, Martin C. Akogbeto and Natacha Protopopoff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:194

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Scrub typhus is a largely ignored tropical disease and a leading cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the areas of tsutsugamushi triangle caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is frequently diagnosed in So...

    Authors: Meghnath Dhimal, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Guna Nidhi Sharma, Pratik Khanal, Kamal Ranabhat, Lalan Prasad Shah, Bibek Kumar Lal, Runa Jha, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyaya, Bhim Acharya, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Silas A. Davidson, Piyada Charoensinphon and Khem B. Karki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that has raised worldwide concern. This study aims to investigate the correlation between the extent of lung infection and relevant clinical lab...

    Authors: Xingrui Wang, Qinglin Che, Xiaoxiao Ji, Xinyi Meng, Lang Zhang, Rongrong Jia, Hairong Lyu, Weixian Bai, Lingjie Tan and Yanjun Gao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Developing disease risk maps for priority endemic and episodic diseases is becoming increasingly important for more effective disease management, particularly in resource limited countries. For endemic and eas...

    Authors: Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi, Frederick Otieno, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas, Obadiah Njagi, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bernard Bett and M. Kariuki Njenga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research article

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  15. PCRs targeting 16S ribosomal DNA (16S PCR) followed by Sanger’s sequencing can identify bacteria from normally sterile sites and complement standard analyzes, but they are expensive. We conducted a retrospecti...

    Authors: Axel Ursenbach, Frédéric Schramm, François Séverac, Yves Hansmann, Nicolas Lefebvre, Yvon Ruch and Xavier Argemi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:276

  16. Upper urinary tract infection (UTI) or pyelonephritis may increase the pathogenesis rate and risk of severe complications in children due to kidney atrophy.

    Authors: Daryoosh Fahimi, Leila Khedmat, Azadeh Afshin, Zahra Noparast, Maryam Jafaripor, Effat Hosseinali Beigi, Maryam Ghodsi, Anahita Izadi and Sayed Yousef Mojtahedi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects cats as definitive hosts and other warm-blooded animals including humans as intermediate hosts. It forms infectious cysts in the brain, muscle and other tiss...

    Authors: Andrey I. Egorov, Reagan R. Converse, Shannon M. Griffin, Jennifer N. Styles, Elizabeth Sams, Edward Hudgens and Timothy J. Wade

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays have typically been determined using samples from symptomatic, often hospitalised, patients. In this setting the sensitivity and specificity of the best performing ass...

    Authors: David W. Eyre, Sheila F. Lumley, Denise O’Donnell, Nicole E. Stoesser, Philippa C. Matthews, Alison Howarth, Stephanie B. Hatch, Brian D. Marsden, Stuart Cox, Tim James, Richard J. Cornall, David I. Stuart, Gavin Screaton, Daniel Ebner, Derrick W. Crook, Christopher P. Conlon…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) was first described in Tanzania in 1952. Several epidemics including East Africa have occurred, but there are no descriptions of longitudinal surveillance of endemic disease. Here, we...

    Authors: Doris K. Nyamwaya, Mark Otiende, Donwilliams O. Omuoyo, George Githinji, Henry K. Karanja, John N. Gitonga, Zaydah R. de Laurent, James R. Otieno, Rosemary Sang, Everlyn Kamau, Stanley Cheruiyot, Edward Otieno, Charles N. Agoti, Philip Bejon, Samuel M. Thumbi and George M. Warimwe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research article

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  20. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ling Xu, Wenxiu Peng, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Qiang Fu, Xiaoli Du, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:185

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:112

  21. Recent studies showed that plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA seems to be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. However, whether specific population can be at higher risk of viremia are to date unexplored.

    Authors: Luna Colagrossi, Maria Antonello, Silvia Renica, Marco Merli, Elisa Matarazzo, Giovanna Travi, Marta Vecchi, Jacopo Colombo, Antonio Muscatello, Giacomo Grasselli, Silvia Nerini Molteni, Vittorio Scaravilli, Emanuele Cattaneo, Diana Fanti, Chiara Vismara, Alessandra Bandera…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are unsatisfied to treat, pressing more effective and innovative treatment regimens. New efficient regimens for MDR-TB have obtained high treatment success rates. Howe...

    Authors: Taoping Weng, Feng Sun, Yang Li, Jiazhen Chen, Xinchang Chen, Rong Li, Shijia Ge, Yanlin Zhao and Wenhong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:183

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  23. The association between blood culture status and mortality among sepsis patients remains controversial hence we conducted a tri-center retrospective cohort study to compare the early and late mortality of cult...

    Authors: Aibo Liu, Chia-Hung Yo, Lu Nie, Hua Yu, Kuihai Wu, Hoi Sin Tong, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Wan-Ting Hsu and Chien-Chang Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has recently shown to be one of the most important strains of bacteria and alert pathogens in Europe among Intensive Care Unit patients that provide serious therapeutic problems because of ...

    Authors: Agnieszka Litwin, Stanislaw Rojek, Waldemar Gozdzik and Wieslawa Duszynska

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Perinatally chikungunya infected neonates have been reported to have high rates of post-infection neurologic sequelae, mainly cognitive problems. In older children and adults chikungunya does not appear to hav...

    Authors: Roelof van Ewijk, Minke H. W. Huibers, Meindert E. Manshande, Ginette M. Ecury-Goossen, Ashley J. Duits, Job C. Calis and Aleid G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Tuberculosis (TB) control relies on early diagnosis and treatment. International guidelines recommend systematic TB screening at health facilities, but implementation is challenging. We investigated completion...

    Authors: Helena R. A. Feasey, Elizabeth L. Corbett, Marriott Nliwasa, Luke Mair, Titus H. Divala, Wala Kamchedzera, Mc Ewen Khundi, Helen E. D. Burchett, Emily L. Webb, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, S. Bertel Squire and Peter MacPherson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Positive blood cultures showing Gram positive cocci in clusters signifies either Staphylococcus aureus or the less-virulent coagulase-negative staphylococci. Rapid identification and methicillin susceptibility de...

    Authors: Kessendri Reddy and Andrew Whitelaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Epidemiological and clinical features of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were well delineated. However, no researches described the patients complicated with pleural effusion (PE). In the pr...

    Authors: Na Zhan, Yingyun Guo, Shan Tian, Binglu Huang, Xiaoli Tian, Jinjing Zou, Qiutang Xiong, Dongling Tang, Liang Zhang and Weiguo Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  29. While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertens...

    Authors: Hee-Sung Kim, Minseok Kang and Gilwon Kang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. While surgical management is well defined, rifampicin (RIF) dose remains controversial. The aim of our study was...

    Authors: M. Tonnelier, A. Bouras, C. Joseph, Y. El Samad, B. Brunschweiler, J.-L. Schmit, C. Mabille and J-P Lanoix

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Blood cultures are one of the most important tests performed by microbiology laboratories. Many hospitals, particularly in low and middle-income countries, lack either microbiology services or staff to provide...

    Authors: Clare L. Ling, Tamalee Roberts, Sona Soeng, Tomas-Paul Cusack, David A. B. Dance, Sue J. Lee, Thomas A. N. Reed, Pattaraporn Hinfonthong, Somsavanh Sihalath, Amphone Sengduangphachanh, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Paul N. Newton, Francois H. Nosten, Paul Turner and Elizabeth A. Ashley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Swingers are members of a heterosexual couple who, as a couple, have sex with others. They constitute a hidden subpopulation that is at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aimed to dete...

    Authors: Anne-Marie Niekamp, Laura W. L. Spauwen, Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  33. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital mortality in patients with pyogenic liver abscess.

    Authors: Chang Hun Lee, Hoon Gil Jo, Eun Young Cho, Jae Sun Song, Gum Mo Jung, Yong Keun Cho, Seung Young Seo, Seong Hun Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Seung Ok Lee, Soo Teik Lee and In Hee Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:171

    Content type: Research article

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  34. There are limited number of studies with controversial findings regarding the association between anemia at admission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to ...

    Authors: Masood Faghih Dinevari, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Elham Sadeghi Majd, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Zeinab Nikniaz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Our main objectives were to estimate the incidence of illnesses presumably caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the lockdown period and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Authors: Fabrice Carrat, Mathilde Touvier, Gianluca Severi, Laurence Meyer, Florence Jusot, Nathanael Lapidus, Delphine Rahib, Nathalie Lydié, Marie-Aline Charles, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Alexandra Rouquette, Xavier de Lamballerie, Marie Zins and Nathalie Bajos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is an underreported, often misdiagnosed and mistreated parasitic disease mainly due to its low incidence. The aim of this study was to desc...

    Authors: Balázs Dezsényi, Zsolt Dubóczki, Tamás Strausz, Eszter Csulak, Veronika Czoma, Zsolt Káposztás, Mária Fehérvári, Áron Somorácz, András Csilek, Attila Oláh, Kálmán Almási, Attila Patonai, Dénes Görög, Zoltán Széll, Zoltán Tolnai, Tamás Sréter…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:168

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Characteristics of COVID-19 patients have mainly been reported within confirmed COVID-19 cohorts. By analyzing patients with respiratory infections in the emergency department during the first pandemic wave, w...

    Authors: Nicola Fink, Johannes Rueckel, Sophia Kaestle, Vincent Schwarze, Eva Gresser, Boj Hoppe, Jan Rudolph, Sophia Goller, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Jens Ricke and Bastian O. Sabel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

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  38. An unexpected dengue outbreak occurred in Hunan Province in 2018. This was the first dengue outbreak in this area of inland China, and 172 cases were reported.

    Authors: Jiaoqiong Guan, Zhanlong He, Meng Qin, Xialin Deng, Jun Chen, Suqin Duan, Xiaojun Gao, Yue Pan, Junying Chen, Yaping Yang, Shijun Feng and Qiangming Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) often suffer from opportunistic infections and related primary central nervous system lymphoma (AR-PCNSL). Both diseases showed multiple ring enhancemen...

    Authors: Jingjing Li, Ming Xue, Shuo Yan, Chunshuang Guan, Ruming Xie and Budong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Although vaccination is one of the main countermeasures against influenza epidemic, it is highly essential to make informed prevention decisions to guarantee that limited vaccination resources are allocated to...

    Authors: Jianqing Qiu, Huimin Wang, Lin Hu, Changhong Yang and Tao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not...

    Authors: Aya Banno, Toru Hifumi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Minori Masaki, Koichiro Seki, Shutaro Isokawa, Norio Otani, Kuniyoshi Hayashi and Shinichi Ishimatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research article

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  42. In June 2019, Nipah virus (NiV) infection was detected in a 21-year-old male (index case) of Ernakulum, Kerala, India. This study was undertaken to determine if NiV was in circulation in Pteropus species (spp) in...

    Authors: A. B. Sudeep, Pragya D. Yadav, Mangesh D. Gokhale, R. Balasubramanian, Nivedita Gupta, Anita Shete, Rajlaxmi Jain, Savita Patil, Rima R. Sahay, Dimpal A. Nyayanit, Sanjay Gopale, Prachi G. Pardeshi, Triparna D. Majumdar, Dilip R. Patil, A. P. Sugunan and Devendra T. Mourya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in the development of transmitted drug resistance (TDR), which reduces ART efficacy. We explored TDR prevalence and its associated risk factors i...

    Authors: Xianwu Pang, Kailing Tang, Qin He, Jinghua Huang, Ningye Fang, Xinjuan Zhou, Qiuying Zhu, Xiuling Wu, Zhiyong Shen and Shujia Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) is common among hospitalized patients. Though carbapenems are an effective treatment in the face of rising resistance, overuse drives carbapenem resistance (CR). We h...

    Authors: Marya D. Zilberberg, Brian H. Nathanson, Kate Sulham and Andrew F. Shorr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Increasing evidence indicate that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by renal dysfunction. However, the association of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced renal d...

    Authors: Hui-Xian Xiang, Jun Fei, Ying Xiang, Zheng Xu, Ling Zheng, Xiu-Yong Li, Lin Fu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in serious concerns in China and abroad. To investigate clinical features of confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 in west China, and to examine differences betwe...

    Authors: Wen Wang, Lei Chen, Qiao He, Mingqi Wang, Mei Liu, Taibing Deng, Xiaoju Deng, Jianrong Yang, Ou Jiang, Rongmei Li, Bo Long, Gang Mai, Wenhui Huan, Wenquan Li, Xin Jiang, Zeqiang Wen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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