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  1. Ordinal health longitudinal response variables have distributions that make them unsuitable for many popular statistical models that assume normality. We present a multilevel growth model that may be more suit...

    Authors: Zelalem G. Dessie, Temesgen Zewotir, Henry Mwambi and Delia North

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:447

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major healthcare concern worldwide. Here, we analyzed age-related trends in DR-TB rates in South Korea.

    Authors: Eung Gu Lee, Jinsoo Min, Ji Young Kang, Sung Kyoung Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Yong Hyun Kim, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Sang Haak Lee, Hyung Woo Kim and Ju Sang Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:446

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Although 10–20% of patients with COVID-19 have severe symptoms, little is known about the risk factors related to the aggravation of COVID-19 symp...

    Authors: Min Cheol Chang, Yu-Kyung Park, Bong-Ok Kim and Donghwi Park

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:445

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The syphilis epidemic continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, despite several recent disease control initiatives. Though our understa...

    Authors: Ethan Osias, Phoebe Hung, Lorenzo Giacani, Chrysovalantis Stafylis, Kelika A. Konda, Silver K. Vargas, E. Michael Reyes-Díaz, W. Scott Comulada, David A. Haake, Austin M. Haynes, Carlos F. Caceres and Jeffrey D. Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:444

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is one of the areas that most severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China, and virological failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is serious in this are...

    Authors: Dan Yuan, Meijing Liu, Peng Jia, Yiping Li, Yuling Huang, Li Ye, Laze Api, Maogang Chen, Liang Yao, Zixin Wang, Honglu Liu, Shu Liang and Shujuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:443

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Cerebral malaria is the most severe form of infection with Plasmodium falciparum characterized by a highly inflammatory response. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between TNF-α levels a...

    Authors: Luana Leão, Bruna Puty, Maria Fâni Dolabela, Marinete Marins Povoa, Yago Gecy De Sousa Né, Luciana Guimarães Eiró, Nathália Carolina Fernandes Fagundes, Lucianne Cople Maia and Rafael Rodrigues Lima

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:442

    Content type: Research article

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  7. PCRctic is an innovative assay based on 16S rDNA PCR technology that has been designed to detect a single intact bacterium in a specimen of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The assay’s potential for accurate, fast ...

    Authors: Arthur Abelian, Thomas Mund, Martin D. Curran, Stuart A. Savill, Nipa Mitra, Carol Charan, Amanda L. Ogilvy-Stuart, Hugh R. B. Pelham and Paul H. Dear

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:441

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Infection with the Cryptococcus neoformans yeast fungus is largely restricted to patients with HIV, sarcoidosis or immunosuppressive therapies. In sarcoidosis, there is intense local immune response in granuloma ...

    Authors: Johannes H. van der Stoep, Eva Sigstad and Anders Bredberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:440

    Content type: Case report

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  9. There is paucity of evidence on the magnitude of HIV patients’ retention and attrition in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pooled magnitude of HIV patient clinical retention and attr...

    Authors: Nurilign Abebe Moges, Adesina Olubukola, Okunlola Micheal and Yemane Berhane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:439

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Candida sp. osteoarticular infection is rare and most often due to hematogenous seeding during an episode of candidemia in immunocompromised patients. However, the diagnosis can be delayed in patients with subtle...

    Authors: Kwang Yun Song, Chulmin Park, Ji-Hyun Byun, Hye-Sun Chun, Jung-Hyun Choi, Eun Hee Han, Seung Ok Lee, Yeonjeong Jeong, Youn Jeong Kim and Si-Hyun Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:438

    Content type: Case report

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  11. The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) presents a major threat to public health and has rapidly spread worldwide since the outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019. To date, there have been few reports ...

    Authors: Mingliang Ying, Bin Lu, Jiangfeng Pan, Guanghong Lu, Shaobin Zhou, Dingjun Wang, Lu Li, Junkang Shen and Jiner Shu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:437

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Thyroid gland infections are rare. Their incidence is estimated to be less than 1% in immunocompromised hosts. Most common pathogens isolated are Gram positive aerobic cocci. Infections with Gram negative facu...

    Authors: Maha K. AlYousef, Ahmed A. Al-Sayed, Ayham Al Afif, Uthman Alamoudi, Jaclyn M. LeBlanc and Robin LeBlanc

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:436

    Content type: Case report

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  13. The aseptic meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation was less described in the literature, most of which were detected by means of polymerase chain reaction. The authors presented 4 adult...

    Authors: Lanlan Chen, Yao Xu, Chunfeng Liu, Hong Huang, Xingxing Zhong, Cancan Ma, Haina Zhao and Yingzhu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:435

    Content type: Case report

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  14. The novel coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) has spread around the world. We aimed to recapitulate the clinical and CT imaging features of COVID-19 and their differences in three age gr...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Xiandi Zhu, Zhihua Xu, Guangzhao Yang, Guoqun Mao, Yuzhu Jia, Zongyu Xie, Jing Wang and Weiqun Ao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:434

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The disease burden caused by pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Sichuan province still persisted at a high level, and large spatial variances were presented across regional distribution disparities. The socio-econ...

    Authors: Lan Xia, Sui Zhu, Chuang Chen, Zheng-Yuan Rao, Yong Xia, Dan-Xia Wang, Pei-Ru Zhang, Jinge He, Ju-Ying Zhang and Jian-Lin Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:433

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Identification of people living with HIV is key in HIV prevention and control. Partner Notification service is a World Health Organization backed strategy of reaching out to sexual partners of people diagnosed...

    Authors: Rewel Mwangi Kariuki, Gilbert Koome Rithaa, Elvis Omondi Oyugi and Daniel Muya Gachathi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:432

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Good’s syndrome (GS) is characterized by immunodeficiency, and can lead to severe infection, which is the most significant complication. Although Mycobacterium rarely causes infection in patients with GS, dissemi...

    Authors: Waki Imoto, Koichi Yamada, Yuriko Hajika, Kousuke Okamoto, Yuka Myodo, Makoto Niki, Gaku Kuwabara, Kazushi Yamairi, Wataru Shibata, Naoko Yoshii, Kiyotaka Nakaie, Kazutaka Yoshizawa, Hiroki Namikawa, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kazuhisa Asai, Hiroshi Moro…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:431

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Recently, continuous administration of piperacillin-tazobactam has been proposed as a valuable alternative to traditional intermittent administration especially in critically ill patients. However, antibiotic ...

    Authors: Sarah Fawaz, Stephen Barton and Shereen Nabhani-Gebara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:430

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Since December 2019, over 80,000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed in China. With the increasing number of recovered patients, more attention should be paid to the follow-up...

    Authors: Wang Deng, Tian-wen Guang, Mei Yang, Jian-rong Li, De-peng Jiang, Chang-yi Li and Dao-xin Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:429

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In March 2020, the WHO declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. Although the number of infected cases is increasing, information about its clinical characteristics in the Middle Ea...

    Authors: Reza Shahriarirad, Zohre Khodamoradi, Amirhossein Erfani, Hamidreza Hosseinpour, Keivan Ranjbar, Yasaman Emami, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mehrzad Lotfi, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh, Abolfazl Dorrani Nejad, Abdolrasool Hemmati, Mostafa Ebrahimi and Mohsen Moghadami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:427

    Content type: Research article

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  21. A previous phase 2 study demonstrated the immunogenicity of a single dose of meningococcal A, C, W, Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (MenACWY-TT) or polysaccharide (MenACWY-PS) vaccine for up to 5 years in individua...

    Authors: Charissa Fay Corazon Borja-Tabora, Paula Peyrani, Chris Webber, Marie Van der Wielen, Brigitte Cheuvart, Nathalie De Schrevel, Veronique Bianco, Emmanuel Aris, Mark Cutler, Ping Li and John L. Perez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:426

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Malaria remains a major tropical vector-borne disease of immense public health concern owing to its debilitating effects in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 30 years, the high altitude areas in Eastern Africa...

    Authors: Aggrey Siya, Bosco John Kalule, Benard Ssentongo, Akim Tafadzwa Lukwa and Anthony Egeru

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:425

    Content type: Research article

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  23. In malaria endemic areas, identifying spatio-temporal hotspots is becoming an important element of innovative control strategies targeting transmission bottlenecks. The aim of this work was to describe the spa...

    Authors: Sokhna Dieng, El Hadj Ba, Badara Cissé, Kankoe Sallah, Abdoulaye Guindo, Boukary Ouedraogo, Martine Piarroux, Stanislas Rebaudet, Renaud Piarroux, Jordi Landier, Cheikh Sokhna and Jean Gaudart

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:424

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Streptococcus pneumoniae infections can lead to severe morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). This study evaluated factors associated with pneumococcal disease, ...

    Authors: Tyson Chan, Min Zhi Tay, Win Mar Kyaw, Angela Chow and Hanley J. Ho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:423

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In Kenya, typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis present a huge burden of disease, especially in poor-resource settings where clean water supply and sanitation conditions are inadequate. The ep...

    Authors: Cecilia Mbae, Moses Mwangi, Naomi Gitau, Tabitha Irungu, Fidelis Muendo, Zilla Wakio, Ruth Wambui, Susan Kavai, Robert Onsare, Celestine Wairimu, Ronald Ngetich, Frida Njeru, Sandra Van Puyvelde, John Clemens, Gordon Dougan and Samuel Kariuki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:422

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The number of human Q fever cases in South Korea has been rapidly increasing since 2015. We report the first isolation of Coxiella burnetii in Korea in two patients who initially presented with non-specific febri...

    Authors: Seung Hun Lee, Jae Hoon Lee, Sungdo Park, Hae Kyung Lee, Seon Do Hwang, Hye Won Jeong, Jung Yeon Heo and Yeong Seon Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:421

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. The coinfection rate of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) can reach 52% in some areas, but the effects...

    Authors: Jiaojiao Gao, Lili Xu, Baoping Xu, Zhengde Xie and Kunling Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:420

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Four new variants of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCTs), detected in several countries, cause false-negative or equivocal results using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2; Hologic). We evaluated the clinical sensitivity an...

    Authors: Magnus Unemo, Marit Hansen, Ronza Hadad, Mirja Puolakkainen, Henrik Westh, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Carina Thilesen, Michelle J. Cole, Iryna Boiko, Pham T. Lan, Daniel Golparian, Shin Ito and Martin Sundqvist

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:419

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Cytomegalovirus infection is the most frequent viral congenital infection, with possible consequences such as deafness, or psychomotor retardation. In 2016, the French High Council of Public Health was mandate...

    Authors: Agathe Billette de Villemeur, Pierre Tattevin and Louis-Rachid Salmi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:418

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Most serious complications of infective endocarditis (IE) appear in the so-called “critical phase” of the disease, which represents the first days after diagnosis. The majority of patients overcoming the acute...

    Authors: Carmen Olmos, Isidre Vilacosta, Javier López, Carmen Sáez, Manuel Anguita, Pablo Elpidio García-Granja, Cristina Sarriá, Jacobo Silva, Belén Álvarez-Álvarez, María Amparo Martínez-Monzonis, Juan Carlos Castillo, José Seijas, Amanda López-Picado, Vicente Peral, Luis Maroto and J. Alberto San Román

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:417

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the primary pathogen associated with pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs). Moreover, there has been an increase in the proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing KP. ...

    Authors: Yue Ren, Hairui Wang, Zhihui Chang and Zhaoyu Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:416

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Mounting evidence suggested a complex correlation between host lipid metabolism and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. However, the inherent association between T. gondii infection and host lipid state rema...

    Authors: Fei Xu, Xiwan Lu, Ruitang Cheng, Yuwei Zhu, Sunhan Miao, Qinyi Huang, Yongliang Xu, Liying Qiu and Yonghua Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:415

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis larval tapeworm infections in humans that severely impairs the health of affected patients in the northern hemisp...

    Authors: Xiao Ma, Xuefei Zhang, Jia Liu, Yufang Liu, Cunzhe Zhao, Huixia Cai, Wen Lei, Junying Ma, Haining Fan, Jianye Zhou, Na Liu, Jingxiao Zhang, Yongshun Wang, Wei Wang, Peizhen Zhan, Xiongying Zhang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:414

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Successful control programs have impeded local malaria transmission in almost all Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. Nevert...

    Authors: Abir Al-Rumhi, Zainab Al-Hashami, Salama Al-Hamidhi, Amal Gadalla, Raeece Naeem, Lisa Ranford-Cartwright, Arnab Pain, Ali A. Sultan and Hamza A. Babiker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:413

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The SARS-CoV-2, which emerged from East Asia in December 2019, has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic infecting close to 7 million people. The current uncertainties regarding its impact on Africa calls for...

    Authors: Carlo Torti, Maria Mazzitelli, Enrico Maria Trecarichi and Owachi Darius

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:412

    Content type: Editorial

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  36. The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug r...

    Authors: Katharina L. Weber, Danielle S. LeSassier, Anthony D. Kappell, Kathleen Q. Schulte, Nicole Westfall, Nicolette C. Albright, Gene D. Godbold, Veena Palsikar, Carlos A. Acevedo, Krista L. Ternus and F. Curtis Hewitt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:411

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Current WHO guidelines (2018) recommend screening for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in HIV-infected persons with CD4+ T cell counts< 100 cells/μL, followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy among CrAg positive (...

    Authors: Yao Li, Xiaojie Huang, Hui Chen, Yuanyuan Qin, Jianhua Hou, Aixin Li, Hao Wu, Xiaofeng Yan and Yaokai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:410

    Content type: Review

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  38. Even though remarkable progress for diagnostics of pulmonary TB has been made, it is still a challenge to establish a definitive diagnosis for extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in clinical practice. Among all the prese...

    Authors: Weiwei Gao, Yi Zeng and Wei Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:409

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that primarily affects people with advanced HIV/AIDS and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. By far the most common presentati...

    Authors: Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel and Tamrat Abebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:407

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Challenges accessing nearby health facilities may be a barrier to initiating and completing tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We aimed to evaluate whether distance from residence to health facility chosen for treat...

    Authors: Katherine O. Robsky, Seamus Hughes, Alex Kityamuwesi, Emily A. Kendall, Peter James Kitonsa, David W. Dowdy and Achilles Katamba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:406

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Syphilis is a sexually and vertically transmitted infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum for which there are few proven alternatives to penicillin for treatment. For pregnant women infected with syph...

    Authors: Melanie M. Taylor, Edna Oliveira Kara, Maria Alix Leite Araujo, Mariangela Freitas Silveira, Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho, Maria Luiza Bazzo, Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Silvana Pereira Giozza, Ximena Pamela Díaz Bermudez, Maeve B. Mello, Ndema Habib, My Huong Nguyen, Soe Soe Thwin and Nathalie Broutet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:405

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Carbapenem is frequently used when gram negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia is detected especially in neutropenic patients. Consequently, appropriate treatment could be delayed in GNB bacteremia cases involving ...

    Authors: Dong Hoon Shin, Dong-Yeop Shin, Chang Kyung Kang, Suhyeon Park, Jieun Park, Kang Il Jun, Taek Soo Kim, Youngil Koh, Jun Shik Hong, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Sung-soo Yoon, Inho Kim and Myoung-don Oh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:404

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Current tools for diagnosing latent TB infection (LTBI) detect immunological memory of past exposure but are unable to determine whether exposure is recent. We sought to identify a whole-blood transcriptome si...

    Authors: Philip Kam Weng Kwan, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Paola Florez De Sessions, Wenwei Lin, James S. Molton, Claire M. Naftalin, Ahmad Nazri Mohamed Naim, Martin L. Hibberd and Nicholas I. Paton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:403

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections. MSM and transgender people in Nepal experience considerable discrimination and...

    Authors: Margrethe Storm, Keshab Deuba, Jose Damas, Upendra Shrestha, Bir Rawal, Rajan Bhattarai and Gaetano Marrone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:402

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Visceral leishmaniasis is an important but neglected disease that is spreading and is highly lethal when left untreated. This study sought to measure the Leishmania infantum seroprevalence in dogs, the coverage o...

    Authors: Patricia Marques Moralejo Bermudi, Danielle Nunes Carneiro Castro Costa, Caris Maroni Nunes, Jose Eduardo Tolezano, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco Rodas, Rafael Silva Cipriano, Marta Blangiardo and Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:401

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis is recommended after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In patients who are unable to take first-line prophylaxis, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, aero...

    Authors: Wedad B. Awad, Alaa Asaad, Nardin Al-Yasein and Rula Najjar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:400

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-characterized complication in immunocompromised patients with cryptococcal pneumonia or meningitis; however, isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis is a rare entity that occu...

    Authors: Takashi Matsuki, Shunsuke Miyamoto and Taku Yamashita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:399

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  48. Measles is a highly infectious viral disease. In August 2017, Lyantonde District, Uganda reported a measles outbreak to Uganda Ministry of Health. We investigated the outbreak to assess the scope, factors faci...

    Authors: Claire Biribawa, Joselyn Annet Atuhairwe, Lilian Bulage, Denis Othuba Okethwangu, Benon Kwesiga, Alex Riolexus Ario and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:398

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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