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  1. Antibiotic Resistance is an imminent global public health threat. Antibiotic resistance emerged in healthcare settings and has now moved on to the community settings.

    Authors: Thilini Munasinghe, Gihani Vidanapathirana, Shahlina Kuthubdeen, Asela Ekanayake, Sacheera Angulmaduwa, Kunchana De Silva, Susan Subhasinghe, Ruwani Kalupahana, Veranja Liyanapathirana and Margaret Ip

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:578

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become a world health threaten. Its risk factors with death were still not known. White blood cells (WBC) count as a reflection of inflammation has played a vital role in ...

    Authors: Bin Zhu, Xiaokai Feng, Chunguo Jiang, Song Mi, Liya Yang, Zhigang Zhao, Yong Zhang and Liming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:574

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The recent increase in cases of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) infections is a major clinical concern owing to its treatment limitations. Patient-derived ARAf occurs after prolonged azole treatment ...

    Authors: Yuya Ito, Takahiro Takazono, Satoru Koga, Yuichiro Nakano, Nobuyuki Ashizawa, Tatsuro Hirayama, Masato Tashiro, Tomomi Saijo, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Katsunori Yanagihara, Koichi Izumikawa and Hiroshi Mukae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:573

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria and represent a major healthcare burden. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Enterobacterales and non-lactose fe...

    Authors: Ryan K. Shields, Yun Zhou, Hemanth Kanakamedala and Bin Cai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:572

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Antibiotic resistance is increasing among urinary pathogens, resulting in worse clinical and economic outcomes. We analysed factors associated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in patients hospitalized ...

    Authors: Marion Opatowski, Christian Brun-Buisson, Mehdi Touat, Jérôme Salomon, Didier Guillemot, Philippe Tuppin and Laurence Watier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:571

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:615

  6. Cholera has been present and recurring in Zambia since 1977. However, there is a paucity of data on genetic relatedness and diversity of the Vibrio cholerae isolates responsible for these outbreaks. Understanding...

    Authors: John Mwaba, Amanda K. Debes, Kelsey N. Murt, Patrick Shea, Michelo Simuyandi, Natasha Laban, Katayi Kazimbaya, Caroline Chisenga, Shan Li, Mathieu Almeida, Jacquelyn S. Meisel, Aaron Shibemba, Timothy Kantenga, Victor Mukonka, Geoffrey Kwenda, David A. Sack…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:570

    Content type: Research

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  7. NEW LAV BLOT I and II (LAV I and LAV II), they were only option for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) confirmatory test, following HIV screening test using HIV Ag/Ab combination test in Japan. We evaluated th...

    Authors: Shigeru Kusagawa, Ai Kawana-Tachikawa, Keiji Matsubayashi, Yuji Hoshi, Ken Ishimaru and Isao Hamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:569

    Content type: Research

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  8. Increasing incidences of syphilis highlight the preoccupation with the occurrence of neurosyphilis. This study aimed to understand the current diagnostic tools and their performance to detect neurosyphilis, in...

    Authors: Gustavo Henrique Pereira Boog, João Vitor Ziroldo Lopes, João Vitor Mahler, Marina Solti, Lucas Tokio Kawahara, Andre Kakinoki Teng, João Victor Taba Munhoz and Anna S. Levin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:568

    Content type: Research

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  9. There is limited evidence on the efficacy and safety of nucleos(t) ide analogues (NAs) in the treatment of HBV-ACLF. Our objective was to evaluate the outcomes among TAF, TDF and ETV, three first-line antivira...

    Authors: Juan Li, Chunhua Hu, Yi Chen, Rou Zhang, Shan Fu, Mimi Zhou, Zhijie Gao, Mengjun Fu, Taotao Yan, Yuan Yang, Jianzhou Li, Jinfeng Liu, Tianyan Chen, Yingren Zhao and Yingli He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:567

    Content type: Research

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  10. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to favor a poorer outcome of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) levels are associated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels ...

    Authors: Irene Campi, Luigi Gennari, Daniela Merlotti, Christian Mingiano, Alessandro Frosali, Luca Giovanelli, Camilla Torlasco, Martino F. Pengo, Francesca Heilbron, Davide Soranna, Antonella Zambon, Marta Di Stefano, Carmen Aresta, Marco Bonomi, Biagio Cangiano, Vittoria Favero…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:566

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Rhodococcus kroppenstedtii is an aerobic, gram-positive bacterium firstly identified in the environment, which has not been reported in human-related infection. Herein, we reported the first case of peritoneal di...

    Authors: Yi Kang, Yuxin Chen, Zhifeng Zhang, Han Shen, Wanqing Zhou and Chao Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:565

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) has come to be a major public health issue of at-risk groups, causing high morbidity and mortality. Despite this data, studies are very limited in developing countries like Ethiopia. T...

    Authors: Lencho Girma, Alene Geteneh, Demisew Amenu and Tesfaye Kassa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:564

    Content type: Research

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  13. Psychological distress, a major comorbidities of tuberculosis (TB) patients, has posed a serious threat to the progress being made in global TB programs by affecting treatment adherence and health outcomes. Ho...

    Authors: Xu Chen, Ruiheng Wu, Jia Xu, Jiawei Wang, Mingcheng Gao, Yunting Chen, Yuanping Pan, Haoqiang Ji, Yuxin Duan, Meng Sun, Liang Du and Ling Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:563

    Content type: Research article

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  14. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with immuno-virological discordant responses are at an increased risk to develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and severe non AIDS events which...

    Authors: Genet Gebrehiwet Hailu and Araya Gebreyesus Wasihun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:561

    Content type: Research article

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  15. This study was performed with the intention of comparing the clinical, laboratory, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between severe and non-severe patients as well as between different age groups com...

    Authors: Meisam Hoseinyazdi, Saeid Esmaeilian, Reza Jahankhah, Arash Teimouri, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Faranak Rafiee, Reza Jalli and Sedighe Hooshmandi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:560

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are significant public health concerns globally. Nearly no gonococcal AMR data are available from Central Asia, and no data from Kyrgyzstan h...

    Authors: Saliya Karymbaeva, Iryna Boiko, Susanne Jacobsson, Galina Mamaeva, Ainagul Ibraeva, Dilara Usupova, Daniel Golparian and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:559

    Content type: Research

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  17. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) effectively detects the SARS-COV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 Nevertheless, some critical gaps remain in the identification and monitoring of a...

    Authors: Ariel Torres, Martha Fors, Tamaris Rivero, Karina Pantoja and Santiago Ballaz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:558

    Content type: Research

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  18. Despite the effectiveness of cART, people living with HIV still experience an increased risk of serious non-AIDS events, as compared to the HIV negative population. Whether pre-cART microbial translocation (MT...

    Authors: Esther Merlini, Alessandro Cozzi-lepri, Antonella Castagna, Andrea Costantini, Sergio Lo Caputo, Stefania Carrara, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Maria A. Ursitti, Andrea Antinori, Antonella D’Arminio Monforte and Giulia Marchetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:557

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:603

  19. We investigated for change in blood stream infections (BSI) with Enterobacterales, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus during the first UK wave of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Sarah Denny, Timothy M. Rawson, Peter Hart, Giovanni Satta, Ahmed Abdulaal, Stephen Hughes, Mark Gilchrist, Nabeela Mughal and Luke S. P. Moore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:556

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Covid-19 in Mexico is on the rise in different parts of the country. We aimed to study the symptoms and comorbidities that associate with this pandemic in 3 different regions of Mexico.

    Authors: Antonio Pizuorno, Nora A. Fierro, Edgar D. Copado-Villagrana, María E. Herrera-Solís, Gholamreza Oskrochi, Hassan Brim and Hassan Ashktorab

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:555

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Multicentric intraepithelial lesions of the lower genital tract (multicentric lesions) were defined as intraepithelial lesions of two or three sites within cervix, vagina, and vulva occurring synchronously or ...

    Authors: Jing Zhang, Guangcong Liu, Xiaoli Cui, Huihui Yu and Danbo Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:554

    Content type: Research

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  22. The global Immunisation Agenda 2030 highlights coverage and equity as a strategic priority goal to reach high equitable immunisation coverage at national levels and in all districts. We estimated inequities in...

    Authors: Simon Allan, Ifedayo M. O. Adetifa and Kaja Abbas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:553

    Content type: Research

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  23. Children affected by infectious diseases may not always have a detectable infectious etiology. Diagnostic uncertainty can lead to prolonged hospitalizations, inappropriately broad or extended courses of antibi...

    Authors: Julianne Wilke, Nanda Ramchandar, Christopher Cannavino, Alice Pong, Adriana Tremoulet, Leidy Tovar Padua, Helen Harvey, Jennifer Foley, Lauge Farnaes and Nicole G. Coufal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:552

    Content type: Research

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  24. Recent conflict and war in Yemen lead to collapse of the health system, decrease of immunization coverage and spread of many outbreaks. On May 22, 2018, the surveillance officer in Shabwah governorate reported...

    Authors: Abdulkareem Ali Hussein Nassar, Mohammed Abdullah Al Amad, Mohammed Qasim and Fekri Dureab

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:551

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Due to the latent onset of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to identify patients with increased probabilities for disease progression early in order to implement timely medical strate...

    Authors: Xiaowei Gong, Shiwei Kang, Xianfeng Guo, Yan Li, Haixiang Gao and Yadong Yuan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:549

    Content type: Research article

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  26. While invasive social distancing measures have proven efficient to control the spread of pandemics failing wide-scale deployment of vaccines, they carry vast societal costs. The development of a diagnostic met...

    Authors: André Voigt, Nikolay Martyushenko, Emil Karlsen, Martina Hall, Kristen Nyhamar, Stig William Omholt and Eivind Almaas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:548

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:653

  27. The rise of Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) poses a considerable burden on the healthcare systems, particularly in low-middle income countries like Pakistan. There is a scarcity of data on the carriage o...

    Authors: Sonia Qureshi, Noshi Maria, Mohammad Zeeshan, Seema Irfan and Farah Naz Qamar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:547

    Content type: Research

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  28. Sepsis is an overwhelming and life-threatening response to bacteria in bloodstream and a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding the etiology and potential risk factors for neonatal seps...

    Authors: Sulochana Manandhar, Puja Amatya, Imran Ansari, Niva Joshi, Nhukesh Maharjan, Sabina Dongol, Buddha Basnyat, Sameer M. Dixit, Stephen Baker and Abhilasha Karkey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:546

    Content type: Research

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  29. Effective treatment of sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) remains a challenge for clinicians worldwide. In recent years, the combination of antibiotics has become the preferred ...

    Authors: Alessia Savoldi, Elena Carrara, Laura J. V. Piddock, Francois Franceschi, Sally Ellis, Margherita Chiamenti, Damiano Bragantini, Elda Righi and Evelina Tacconelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:545

    Content type: Research article

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  30. SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged pandemic coronavirus (CoV) capable of causing severe respiratory illness. However, a significant number of infected people present as asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic. In this...

    Authors: Belinda M. Jackson-Thompson, Emilie Goguet, Eric D. Laing, Cara H. Olsen, Simon Pollett, K. Monique Hollis-Perry, Santina E. Maiolatesi, Luca Illinik, Kathleen F. Ramsey, Anatalio E. Reyes, Yolanda Alcorta, Mimi A. Wong, Julian Davies, Orlando Ortega, Edward Parmelee, Alyssa R. Lindrose…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:544

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the two-dose varicella vaccine for healthy children in China and explore the application of the approach of Grades of Recommenda...

    Authors: Zhujiazi Zhang, Luodan Suo, Jingbin Pan, Dan Zhao and Li Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:543

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Low BMD (bone mineral density) has been described as a non–AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)-related event in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-patients but it is poorly studied in young HIV-infected...

    Authors: Patricia Atencio, Alfonso Cabello, Francisco M. Conesa-Buendía, Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, Laura Prieto-Pérez, Irene Carrillo, Beatriz Álvarez, Rosa Arboiro-Pinel, Manuel Díaz-Curiel, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont, Aránzazu Mediero and Miguel Górgolas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:542

    Content type: Research

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  33. Bacterial and fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) are common after pediatric liver and kidney transplantations and associated with morbidity and mortality. However, knowledge about incidence rates, pathogen co...

    Authors: Dina Leth Møller, Søren Schwartz Sørensen, Neval Ete Wareham, Omid Rezahosseini, Andreas Dehlbæk Knudsen, Jenny Dahl Knudsen, Allan Rasmussen and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:541

    Content type: Research

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  34. A decision to diagnose certain skin diseases in patient undergoing psychotic break is challenging; this includes establishing the diagnosis of leprosy. Diagnosis of leprosy is established if there is at least ...

    Authors: Hendra Gunawan, Reyshiani Johan, Pati Aji Achdiat and Oki Suwarsa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:540

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. In sub-Saharan Africa, acute respiratory infections (ARI), acute gastrointestinal infections (GI) and acute febrile disease of unknown cause (AFDUC) have a large disease burden, especially among children, whil...

    Authors: Grit Schubert, Vincent Achi, Steve Ahuka, Essia Belarbi, Ouattara Bourhaima, Tim Eckmanns, Siobhan Johnstone, Firmin Kabore, Ouffoue Kra, Adriano Mendes, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Armel Poda, Arsène Satouro Some, Sara Tomczyk, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Jean-Marie Kayembe…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:539

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Invasive aspergillosis of the central nervous system is a rare but increasingly prevalent disease. We present the unusual case of an immunosuppressed patient suffering from unexpected superinfected invasive as...

    Authors: Basil Erwin Grüter, Anna Maria Reuss, Elisabeth Jane Rushing, Athina Pangalu and Markus Florian Oertel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:537

    Content type: Case report

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  37. At present, no agents are known to be effective at preventing COVID-19. Based on current knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease, we suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection might be attenuated by directly main...

    Authors: Michael V. Dubina, Veronika V. Gomonova, Anastasia E. Taraskina, Natalia V. Vasilyeva and Sergey A. Sayganov

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:536

    Content type: Research article

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  38. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic a mass casualty incident of ambulatory patients occurred at the COVID-19 rapid response infrastructure (CRRI) facility at the University Hospital of Cologne (UHC). We report the ...

    Authors: Jannik Stemler, Oliver A. Cornely, Torsten Noack-Schönborn, Corinna Fohrholz, Sofie Schumacher, Leonard Poluschkin, Bernd Binder, Clara Lehmann and Georg Langebartels

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:535

    Content type: Research

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  39. Prone positioning (PP) is a standard of care for patients with moderate–severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While adverse events associated with PP are well-documented in the literature, researc...

    Authors: Guillaume Louis, Thibaut Belveyre, Audrey Jacquot, Hélène Hochard, Nejla Aissa, Antoine Kimmoun, Christophe Goetz, Bruno Levy and Emmanuel Novy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:534

    Content type: Research

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  40. Many popular disease transmission models have helped nations respond to the COVID-19 pandemic by informing decisions about pandemic planning, resource allocation, implementation of social distancing measures, ...

    Authors: Soumik Purkayastha, Rupam Bhattacharyya, Ritwik Bhaduri, Ritoban Kundu, Xuelin Gu, Maxwell Salvatore, Debashree Ray, Swapnil Mishra and Bhramar Mukherjee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:533

    Content type: Review

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  41. Legionella bacteria is a common cause of pneumonia, but the infection may affect several organs in the most serious cases. A systemic involvement ab initio could be non-specific, leading to a diagnostic misint...

    Authors: Gabriella Serio, Francesco Fortarezza, Federica Pezzuto, Luigi Santacroce, Pietro Nazzaro, Emilio Bellitti, Domenica Cavone, Andrea Marzullo and Luigi Vimercati

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:532

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of invasive infection in neonates and infants. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and culture may not show evidence of infection early in GBS meningitis. Next-...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Horiba, Michio Suzuki, Nobuyuki Tetsuka, Yoshihiko Kawano, Makoto Yamaguchi, Toshihiko Okumura, Takako Suzuki, Yuka Torii, Jun-ichi Kawada, Makoto Morita, Shinya Hara, Tomoo Ogi and Yoshinori Ito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:531

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is reported to have thrombogenic characteristics that activate factor X in vitro and stimulate the production of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Thrombosis associated with CM...

    Authors: Kaisei Kamatani, Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ryu Sugimoto, Ayako Kumabe, Akihito Kitao and Hozuka Akita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:530

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) is a growing health-concern in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. iNTS is associated with fatal diseases such as HIV and malaria. Despite high case fatality rates, the dise...

    Authors: Jung-Seok Lee, Vittal Mogasale, Florian Marks and Jerome Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:529

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Syphilis in children is uncommon with the mode of infection for this rare condition likely being congenital or acquired. While most acquired cases of syphilis in children result from sexual abuse, children can...

    Authors: Wen-Jia Yang, Hong-Hao Hu, Yang Yang, Jiu-Hong Li and Hao Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:528

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  46. Klebsiella spp. are important pathogens associated with bacteremia among admitted children and is among the leading cause of death in children < 5 years in postmortem studies, supporting a larger role than previo...

    Authors: Arsénia J. Massinga, Marcelino Garrine, Augusto Messa Jr, Nélio A. Nobela, Nadia Boisen, Sergio Massora, Anélsio Cossa, Rosauro Varo, António Sitoe, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Jaume Ordi, Hélio Mucavele, Tacilta Nhampossa, Robert F. Breiman, Cynthia G. Whitney, Dianna M. Blau…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:526

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.