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  1. Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a severe and life-threatening disease that is associated with cognitive impairment including learning difficulties, cognitive slowness, short-term memory deficits and poor acade...

    Authors: Michael Kihara, Michelle de Haan, Eugene O Were, Harrun H Garrashi, Brian GR Neville and Charles RJC Newton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:79
  2. Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone u...

    Authors: Vitali Sintchenko, Qinning Wang, Peter Howard, Connie WY Ha, Katina Kardamanidis, Jennie Musto and Gwendolyn L Gilbert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:78
  3. Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri) is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubatio...

    Authors: Sushil B Tamrakar, Yin Huang, Sondra S Teske and Charles N Haas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:77
  4. Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to ...

    Authors: Dinesh Neupane, Vishnu Khanal, Kamal Ghimire, Arja R Aro and Anja Leppin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:76
  5. Leishmania preferentially infects macrophages, which allow the parasite to multiply but can also kill the parasite. Although the T cell response in human leishmaniasis is well-characterized, little is known abou...

    Authors: Angela Giudice, Célia Vendrame, Caroline Bezerra, Lucas P Carvalho, Thaís Delavechia, Edgar M Carvalho and Olívia Bacellar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:75
  6. The risk of acquisition of antibiotic resistant-bacteria during or shortly after antibiotic therapy is still unclear and it is often confounded by scarce data on antibiotic usage.

    Authors: Giulia De Angelis, Giovanni Restuccia, Silvia Venturiello, Roberto Cauda, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Jacques Schrenzel and Evelina Tacconelli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:74
  7. The low uptake of facility-based HIV counseling and testing (HCT) in South Africa, particularly amongst men and youth has hindered attempts to increase access to effective treatment and prevention strategies. ...

    Authors: Hanani Tabana, Tanya Doherty, Sonja Swanevelder, Carl Lombard, Debra Jackson, Wanga Zembe and Reshma Naik
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:73
  8. Late diagnosis is an important cause of HIV-related morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs in the UK and undiagnosed infection limits efforts to reduce transmission. National guidelines provide recommendati...

    Authors: Jared Wohlgemut, Timothy Lawes and Robert BS Laing
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:72
  9. S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resem...

    Authors: Barry Mook-Kanamori, Madelijn Geldhoff, Dirk Troost, Tom van der Poll and Diederik van de Beek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:71
  10. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most affected by HIV in th...

    Authors: Carrie Llewellyn, Charles Abraham, Alec Miners, Helen Smith, Alex Pollard, Paul Benn and Martin Fisher
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:70
  11. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage precedes invasive infection and is the source for dissemination of the disease. Differences in sampling methodology, isolation or identification techniques, as well as the ...

    Authors: María Ercibengoa, Nerea Arostegi, José M Marimón, Marta Alonso and Emilio Pérez-Trallero
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:69
  12. Little is known about the dynamics of colonizing Enterococcus faecium clones during hospitalization, invasive infection and after discharge.

    Authors: Maja Weisser, Evelien A Oostdijk, Rob JL Willems, Marc JM Bonten, Reno Frei, Luigia Elzi, Jörg Halter, Andreas F Widmer and Janetta Top
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:68
  13. Life-threatening infections present major challenges for health systems in Malawi and the developing world because routine microbiologic culture and sensitivity testing are not performed due to lack of capacit...

    Authors: Mwai H Makoka, William C Miller, Irving F Hoffman, Rushina Cholera, Peter H Gilligan, Debbie Kamwendo, Gabriel Malunga, George Joaki, Francis Martinson and Mina C Hosseinipour
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:67
  14. The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time is complex and has been divergently reported.

    Authors: Aase B Andersen, Nyagosya S Range, John Changalucha, George PrayGod, Jeremiah Kidola, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Henrik Krarup, Harleen MS Grewal and Henrik Friis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:66
  15. The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of...

    Authors: Alessia Mammone, Patrizio Pezzotti, Claudio Angeletti, Nicoletta Orchi, Angela Carboni, Assunta Navarra, Maria R Sciarrone, Catia Sias, Vincenzo Puro, Gabriella Guasticchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Piero Borgia and Enrico Girardi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:65
  16. In Africa, the wide genetic diversity of HIV has resulted in emergence of new strains, rapid spread of this virus in sub-Saharan populations and therefore spread of the HIV epidemic throughout the continent.

    Authors: Mélanie Caron, Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki, Maria Makuwa, Guy-Patrick Obiang-Ndong, Olivia Biba, Dieudonné Nkoghé and Mirdad Kazanji
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:64
  17. During the 2009-2010 pandemic in Norway, 12 513 laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). 2.2 million p...

    Authors: Bernardo Rafael Guzmán Herrador, Preben Aavitsland, Berit Feiring, Marianne A Riise Bergsaker and Katrine Borgen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:63
  18. Rotavirus affects 95% of children worldwide by age 5 years and is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea. The objective of this review was to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) i...

    Authors: Isla Ogilvie, Hanane Khoury, Mireille M Goetghebeur, Antoine C El Khoury and Carlo Giaquinto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:62
  19. Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying g...

    Authors: Stefan Weichert, Konrad Reinshagen, Katrin Zahn, Gernot Geginat, Annebärbel Dietz, Anna Kristina Kilian, Horst Schroten and Tobias Tenenbaum
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:61
  20. Human migration caused by political unrest, wars and poverty is a major topic in international health. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis follow their host, with potential impact on both the migrants and th...

    Authors: Zaza Kamper-Jørgensen, Aase Bengaard Andersen, Axel Kok-Jensen, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Peter Henrik Andersen, Vibeke Østergaard Thomsen and Troels Lillebaek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:60
  21. The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for inte...

    Authors: Sarah McCune, Carmen S Arriola, Robert H Gilman, Martín A Romero, Viterbo Ayvar, Vitaliano A Cama, Joel M Montgomery, Armando E Gonzales and Angela M Bayer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:58
  22. The most essential components of TB control are early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis may result in more extensive disease and more complications, increas...

    Authors: Denise Rossato Silva, Alice Mânica Müller and Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:57
  23. Prior antibiotic exposure has been associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in subsequent bacterial infections, whose outcomes are typically worse than similar infections with more antibiotic sus...

    Authors: Scott Micek, Michael T Johnson, Richard Reichley and Marin H Kollef
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:56
  24. Most pediatric adenovirus respiratory infections are mild and indistinguishable from other viral causes. However, in a few children, the disease can be severe and result in substantial morbidity. We describe t...

    Authors: Saleh Alharbi, Paul Van Caeseele, Raquel Consunji-Araneta, Taoufik Zoubeidi, Sergio Fanella, Abdul-Kader Souid and Ahmed R Alsuwaidi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:55
  25. In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to...

    Authors: Amare Deribew, Gemeda Abebe, Ludwig Apers, Alemseged Abdissa, Fetene Deribe, Kifle Woldemichael, Chali Jira, Markos Tesfaye, Jafar Shiffa, Abraham Aseffa, Mesele Bezabih, Tadiye Abeje and Robert Colebunders
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:54
  26. There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to determine the proporti...

    Authors: Carine Magoué Lonchel, Cécile Meex, Joseph Gangoué-Piéboji, Raphaël Boreux, Marie-Claire Okomo Assoumou, Pierrette Melin and Patrick De Mol
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:53
  27. Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemop...

    Authors: Robert Cohen, Edouard Bingen, Corinne Levy, Franck Thollot, Michel Boucherat, Véronique Derkx and Emmanuelle Varon
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:52
  28. Assessment of malaria endemicity at different altitudes and transmission intensities, in the era of dwindling vector densities in the highlands, will provide valuable information for malaria control and survei...

    Authors: Kingsley Badu, Yaw Asare Afrane, John Larbi, Virginia Ann Stewart, John Waitumbi, Evelina Angov, John M Ong'echa, Douglas J Perkins, Guofa Zhou, Andrew Githeko and Guiyun Yan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:50
  29. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay as a direct ...

    Authors: Dang Thi Minh Ha, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Marcel Wolbers, Vo sy Kiet, Hoang Thi Thanh Hang, Nguyen Hong Duc, To My Huong, Vuong Minh Bach, Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao, Tran Van Quyet, Nguyen Thi Bich Tuyen, Vo Thi Ha, Nguyen Thi Nho, Dai Viet Hoa, Phan Thi Hoang Anh, Nguyen Huy Dung…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:49
  30. The development of safe topical microbicides that can preserve the integrity of cervicovaginal tract epithelial barrier is of great interest as this may minimize the potential for increased susceptibility to S...

    Authors: Gracie Vargas, Igor Patrikeev, Jingna Wei, Brent Bell, Kathleen Vincent, Nigel Bourne and Massoud Motamedi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:48
  31. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall antigen, is a potentially attractive diagnostic. However, the LAM-ELISA assay has demonstrated variable sensitivity in diagnosing...

    Authors: Robin Wood, Kimberly Racow, Linda-Gail Bekker, Keren Middelkoop, Monica Vogt, Barry N Kreiswirth and Stephen D Lawn
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:47
  32. Dengue is considered one of the most common mosquito borne illnesses in the world. Although its clinical course is usually uneventful, complications have rarely been known to arise. These include neurological ...

    Authors: Eranda C Ratnayake, Chrishan Shivanthan and Bandula C Wijesiriwardena
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:46
  33. To measure Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization prevalence in household contacts of children with current community associated (CA)-MRSA infections (study group) in comparison wit...

    Authors: Yaseen Rafee, Nahed Abdel-Haq, Basim Asmar, Tanaz Salimnia, Celine Vidaillac Pharm, Michael J Rybak Pharm and Muhammad Amjad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:45
  34. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is associated with high morbidity and high mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patientsThe purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and ou...

    Authors: Chen-Yiu Hung, Kuo-Chin Kao, Po-Nan Wang, Han-Chung Hu, Meng-Jer Hsieh, Jui-Ying Fu, Chih-Hao Chang, Li-Fu Li, Chung-Chi Huang, Ying-Huang Tsai and Cheng-Ta Yang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:44
  35. Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased r...

    Authors: Anita E Heywood, Meng Zhang, C Raina MacIntyre and Holly Seale
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:43
  36. Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infection...

    Authors: Hakan Leblebicioglu, Nedim Cakir, Mustafa Celen, Halil Kurt, Hakan Baris and Joerg Laeuffer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:42
  37. Tuberculosis (TB) is an enduring health problem worldwide and the emerging threat of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB is of particular concern. A better understanding of bio...

    Authors: Raija K Ahmed, Zoyia Rohava, Kithiganahalli N Balaji, Sven E Hoffner, Hans Gaines, Isabelle Magalhaes, Alimuddin Zumla, Alena Skrahina and Markus J Maeurer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:41
  38. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM). Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillan...

    Authors: Laura Naranjo, Jose Antonio Suarez, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Francis Sanchez, Alberto Calvo, Enza Spadola, Nicolás Rodríguez, Omaira Andrade, Francisca Bertuglia, Nelly Márquez, Maria Mercedes Castrejon, Eduardo Ortega-Barria and Romulo E Colindres
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:40
  39. Infection with HIV may result in significant neuropsychological impairment, especially in late stage disease. To date, there have been no cohort studies of the impact of highly active anti-retroviral treatment...

    Authors: John A Joska, Jennifer Westgarth-Taylor, Jacqueline Hoare, Kevin GF Thomas, Robert Paul, Landon Myer and Dan J Stein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:39
  40. Increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. There is a paucity of prospective evaluations of bone markers after the initiation of drugs currently rec...

    Authors: Emanuele Focà, Davide Motta, Marco Borderi, Daria Gotti, Laura Albini, Alessandra Calabresi, Ilaria Izzo, Rita Bellagamba, Pasquale Narciso, Laura Sighinolfi, Alberto Clò, Davide Gibellini, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Nigritella Brianese, Bruno Mario Cesana, Maria Carla Re…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:38
  41. The emergence of drug resistance is one of the most important threats to tuberculosis control programs. This study was aimed to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with resistance to isoniazid (...

    Authors: Belay Tessema, Joerg Beer, Frank Emmrich, Ulrich Sack and Arne C Rodloff
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:37
  42. The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community ...

    Authors: Liana Martirosyan, W John Paget, Pernille Jorgensen, Caroline S Brown, Tamara J Meerhoff, Dmitriy Pereyaslov and Joshua A Mott
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:36
  43. The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisatio...

    Authors: Patricia Kaaijk, Arie van der Ende, Guy Berbers, Germie PJM van den Dobbelsteen and Nynke Y Rots
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:35
  44. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in the developed world. Little is known about its epidemiology in the developing world, where the majority of deaths from neonatal infections...

    Authors: Claudia Turner, Paul Turner, Linda Po, Naw Maner, Aruni De Zoysa, Baharak Afshar, Androulla Efstratiou, Paul T Heath and François Nosten
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:34
  45. Vaginal pH is related to genital tract inflammation and changes in the bacterial flora, both suggested cofactors for persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To evaluate the relationship between va...

    Authors: Megan A Clarke, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Julia C Gage, Rolando Herrero, Allan Hildesheim, Sholom Wacholder, Robert Burk and Mark Schiffman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:33
  46. Establishing antibody correlates of protection against malaria in human field studies and clinical trials requires, amongst others, an accurate estimation of antibody levels. For polymorphic antigens such as a...

    Authors: Kwadwo A Kusi, Daniel Dodoo, Samuel Bosomprah, Marjolein van der Eijk, Bart W Faber, Clemens HM Kocken and Edmond J Remarque
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:32
  47. Inter-rater agreement in the interpretation of chest X-ray (CXR) films is crucial for clinical and epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. We compared the readings of CXR films used for a survey of tuberculos...

    Authors: Shinsaku Sakurada, Nguyen TL Hang, Naoki Ishizuka, Emiko Toyota, Le D Hung, Pham T Chuc, Luu T Lien, Pham H Thuong, Pham TN Bich, Naoto Keicho and Nobuyuki Kobayashi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:31
  48. In acute-care hospitals, no evidence of a protective effect of healthcare worker (HCW) vaccination on hospital-acquired influenza (HAI) in patients has been documented. Our study objective was to ascertain the...

    Authors: Thomas Bénet, Corinne Régis, Nicolas Voirin, Olivier Robert, Bruno Lina, Silene Cronenberger, Brigitte Comte, Brigitte Coppéré and Philippe Vanhems
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:30

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