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  1. Bacterial meningitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction contributing to neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to obtain a comparative analysis of cytokines and chemokines in patients wit...

    Authors: Leonam G Coutinho, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L Leib and Lucymara F Agnez-Lima
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:326
  2. Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individ...

    Authors: Todd J Vento, Tatjana P Calvano, David W Cole, Katrin Mende, Elizabeth A Rini, Charla C Tully, Michael L Landrum, Wendy Zera, Charles H Guymon, Xin Yu, Miriam L Beckius, Kristelle A Cheatle and Clinton K Murray
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:325
  3. C. difficile (CD) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxin B gene (tcdB) is more sensitive, and reduces turnaround time when compared to toxin immunoassay. We noted typical amplification curves with h...

    Authors: Jerome A Leis, Wayne L Gold, John Ng, Zahir Hirji, Dylan R Pillai, George Broukhanski, Paula Raggiunti, Susy Hota, Allison McGeer and Susan M Poutanen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:324
  4. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public h...

    Authors: Wei Li, Lina Yi, Juan Su, Jing Lu, Hanri Zeng, Dawei Guan, Cong Ma, Wanly Zhang, Hong xiao, Hui Li, Yonghui Zhang, Jinyan Lin and Changwen Ke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:322
  5. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) continues to have a high mortality rate and often results in severe sequelae among survivors. Lately, an increased effort has been focused on describing the neuro...

    Authors: Jacob Bodilsen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder and Henrik Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:321

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:553

  6. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide including Bangladesh. Unlike what was seen in high-income countries, the licensed rotavirus vaccines did not show high ...

    Authors: Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Zahid Hassan, Saiada Farjana, Sayra Moni, Subarna Barua, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Tasnim Azim and Mustafizur Rahman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:320
  7. The systemic surveillance of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) from multicenters in Taiwan revealed the emergence of isolates with bla OXA-72. This study described their genetic makeup, mechanism ...

    Authors: Shu-Chen Kuo, Su-Pen Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Han-Chuan Chuang, Chien-Pei Chen, Chi-Ling Chang, Te-Li Chen, Po-Liang Lu, Po-Ren Hsueh and Chang-Phone Fung
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:319
  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nasopharyngeal colonization plays an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases, an...

    Authors: Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto, Mariane Alves Corrêa, Roberta dos Anjos Barreto, Laís de Souza Gouveia Moreira, Havana Gomes Rodrigues, Claudete Araújo Cardoso, Rosana Rocha Barros and Lúcia Martins Teixeira
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:318
  9. Rituximab (R) is a chimeric human-murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used to treat B-cell lymphomas. Despite R remarkable activity against malignant cells, there are concerns that R may facilitate the occurr...

    Authors: Simone Lanini, Aoife C Molloy, Archibald G Prentice, Giuseppe Ippolito and Christopher C Kibbler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:317
  10. Clostridium difficile infection poses a significant healthcare burden. However, the derivation of a simple, evidence based prediction rule to assist patient management has not yet been described.

    Authors: Emma Butt, Jane AH Foster, Edward Keedwell, Julia EA Bell, Richard W Titball, Aneel Bhangu, Stephen L Michell and Ray Sheridan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:316
  11. There is a lack of information on the clinical characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB in the Jiangxi Province of China; furthermore, data have no...

    Authors: Xiaoliang Yuan, Tiantuo Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Jiaxin Zhu, Wenzheng Zheng, Hongtao Li, Guofang Deng, Shaohua Tu and Weiyou Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:315
  12. To determine if tropism for CXCR4 or CCR5 correlates with cellular HIV DNA load, residual viraemia and CD4 count in 219 successfully treated naive subjects with HIV infection enrolled in five infectious diseas...

    Authors: Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Renzo Scaggiante, Mario Cruciani, Roberto Ferretto, Vinicio Manfrin, Sandro Panese, Monica Basso, Caterina Boldrin, Stefania Bressan, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni and Giorgio Palù
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:314
  13. Clinically, recurrence and life-threatening complications are challenging problems for chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the jaw (CSOJ), but there is no quantitative analysis or report about the causes of o...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Tangxin Li, Wei Jing, Wei Tang, Weidong Tian, Cai Li and Lei Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:313
  14. Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are ...

    Authors: Eileen M Dunne, Julia L Marshall, Ciara A Baker, Jayne Manning, Gena Gonis, Margaret H Danchin, Pierre R Smeesters, Catherine Satzke and Andrew C Steer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:312
  15. It is unknown whether there are differences between bacteremia caused by carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (CRAN). This study aims to investig...

    Authors: Ya-Sung Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Wen-Chiuan Tsai, Shu-Chen Kuo, Jun-Ren Sun, Chin-Hsuan Yang, Te-Li Chen, Jung-Chung Lin, Chang-Phone Fung and Feng-Yee Chang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:311
  16. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes glycoprotein B (gB), human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be classified into four gB genotypes. Previous studies have suggested an association between CMV gB g...

    Authors: Débora C Dieamant, Sandra HA Bonon, Renata MB Peres, Claudia RC Costa, Dúlcinéia M Albuquerque, Eliana CM Miranda, Francisco JP Aranha, Gislaine Oliveira-Duarte, Virginio CA Fernandes, Carmino A De Souza, Sandra CB Costa and Afonso C Vigorito
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:310
  17. Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and identifying pathogens based on patient clinical features is especially a challenge. CAP-associated m...

    Authors: Ya-Fen Liu, Yan Gao, Mei-Fang Chen, Bin Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang and Lai Wei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:309
  18. High risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are known to be extremely common, sexually transmitted infections, but more information is needed regarding the absolute risks of type-specific HR-HPV infections in th...

    Authors: Megan Clarke, Mark Schiffman, Sholom Wacholder, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Allan Hildesheim and Wim Quint
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:308
  19. A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) is often defined by skin induration of ≥10 mm in people who are HIV-seronegative. However, to increase sensitivity for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in th...

    Authors: Andrew D Kerkhoff, Ankur Gupta, Taraz Samandari and Stephen D Lawn
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:307
  20. Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis of diverse origins shows similar clinical symptoms, histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging, indicating that the patho mechanisms may be similar. There is no specific t...

    Authors: Daniel Růžek, Gerhard Dobler and Hans Helmut Niller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:306
  21. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in mainland China. HFRS is particularly endemic in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, with one of the highest incid...

    Authors: Hong Xiao, Xiaoling Lin, Lidong Gao, Cunrui Huang, Huaiyu Tian, Na Li, Jianxin Qin, Peijuan Zhu, Biyun Chen, Xixing Zhang and Jian Zhao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:305
  22. In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiolog...

    Authors: Andrea Streng, Veit Grote, David Carr, Christine Hagemann and Johannes G Liese
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:303
  23. Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Infection by one serotype elicits long-lasting immunity to that serotype but not the othe...

    Authors: Nora Zidane, Philippe Dussart, Laetitia Bremand and Hugues Bedouelle
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:302
  24. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) regimen on renal function in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Authors: Ying Cao, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Qu Cui, Lixia Zhang, Yijia Li, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song, Ting Zhu and Taisheng Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:301
  25. Transmission of drug susceptible and drug resistant TB occurs in health care facilities, and community and households settings, particularly in highly prevalent TB and HIV areas. There is a paucity of data reg...

    Authors: Melissa Lygizos, Sheela V Shenoi, Ralph P Brooks, Ambika Bhushan, James CM Brust, Daniel Zelterman, Yanhong Deng, Veronika Northrup, Anthony P Moll and Gerald H Friedland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:300
  26. Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea with the potential risk of progressing to severe clinical outcomes including death. It is not unusual for Clostridium diffic...

    Authors: Orville D Heslop, Karen Roye-Green, Kathleen Coard and Michael R Mulvey
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:299
  27. The study objective was to investigate the effect of the introduction of a sexual health practice nurse on HIV and STI testing in a general practice that specialized in gay men’s health.

    Authors: Anthony F Snow, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Christopher K Fairley, Carol El-Hayek, Rosey Cummings, Louise Owen, Norman Roth, Margaret E Hellard and Marcus Y Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:298
  28. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality in high HIV-prevalence populations. HIV is driving the TB epidemic in many countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to as...

    Authors: Balewgizie Sileshi, Negussie Deyessa, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese and Pedro Suarez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:297
  29. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pa...

    Authors: Kensuke Takahashi, Motoi Suzuki, Le Nhat Minh, Nguyen Hien Anh, Luu Thi Minh Huong, Tran Vo Vinh Son, Phan The Long, Nguyen Thi Thuy Ai, Le Huu Tho, Konosuke Morimoto, Paul E Kilgore, Dang Duc Anh, Koya Ariyoshi and Lay Myint Yoshida
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:296
  30. Efforts to develop malaria vaccines show promise. Mathematical model-based estimates of the potential demand, public health impact, and cost and financing requirements can be used to inform investment and adop...

    Authors: Julia K Nunes, Vicky Cárdenas, Christian Loucq, Nicolas Maire, Thomas Smith, Craig Shaffer, Kårstein Måseide and Alan Brooks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:295
  31. Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of th...

    Authors: Esther van Kleef, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit, Sarah R Deeny and William J Edmunds
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:294
  32. HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density.

    Authors: Eric Bonnet, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Anne Genoux, Laurence Mabile, Florian Busato, Martine Obadia, François Prévoteau, Bruno Marchou, Patrice Massip, Fabrice Marion-Latard, Cyrille Delpierre, Jacques Bernard and Bertrand Perret
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:293
  33. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Many of these deaths occur in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among...

    Authors: Kefyalew Addis Alene, Ansha Nega and Belaynew Wasie Taye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:292
  34. During a Legionnaires’ disease (LD) outbreak, combined epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted to identify prevention recommendations for facilities where elderly residents live indepen...

    Authors: Benjamin J Silk, Jennifer L Foltz, Kompan Ngamsnga, Ellen Brown, Mary Grace Muñoz, Lee M Hampton, Kara Jacobs-Slifka, Natalia A Kozak, J Michael Underwood, John Krick, Tatiana Travis, Olivia Farrow, Barry S Fields, David Blythe and Lauri A Hicks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:291
  35. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are ...

    Authors: Stephen D Persell, Mark W Friedberg, Daniella Meeker, Jeffrey A Linder, Craig R Fox, Noah J Goldstein, Parth D Shah, Tara K Knight and Jason N Doctor
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:290
  36. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the presence of microfungal contamination in the water supply system of the Oncology Paediatric Institute, São Paulo – Brazil after the occurrence of one invasive F...

    Authors: Sabrina Mesquita-Rocha, Patricio C Godoy-Martinez, Sarah S Gonçalves, Milton Daniel Urrutia, Fabianne Carlesse, Adriana Seber, Maria Aparecida Aguiar Silva, Antônio Sérgio Petrilli and Arnaldo L Colombo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:289
  37. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. Our study’s objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of HCV infection among the diffe...

    Authors: Yousra A Mohamoud, Ghina R Mumtaz, Suzanne Riome, DeWolfe Miller and Laith J Abu-Raddad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:288
  38. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa which infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study in-vivo induced antigens of this par...

    Authors: Atefeh Amerizadeh, Boon Yin Khoo, Ai Ying Teh, Majid Golkar, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Sabariah Osman, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus and Rahmah Noordin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:287
  39. As most data on hepatitis in resource-poor countries relate to urban communities, surveys in the rural environment are necessary to determine the ‘true’ prevalence of these viral infections. We undertook a sur...

    Authors: Narcisse P Komas, Ulrich Vickos, Judith M Hübschen, Aubin Béré, Alexandre Manirakiza, Claude P Muller and Alain Le Faou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:286
  40. Microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction is the central enigma in spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses. Angiogenin (ANG) is one of the earliest identified angiogenic factors, of which some are relevant...

    Authors: Bin Gong, Yong Sun Lee, Inhan Lee, Thomas R Shelite, Nawapol Kunkeaw, Guang Xu, Kwanbok Lee, Sung Ho Jeon, Betty H Johnson, Qing Chang, Tuha Ha, Nicole L Mendell, Xiaodong Cheng, Donald H Bouyer, Paul J Boor, Thomas G Ksiazek…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:285
  41. Ambulatory consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently associated with bloodstream infections but the spectrum of bacterial pathogens in this setting has not been well-described.

    Authors: Lalit Saini, Coleman Rostein, Eshetu G Atenafu and Joseph M Brandwein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:284
  42. Acute myopericarditis and exertional rhabdomyolysis, two uncommon but well-described diseases with potentially life-threatening effects, are generally considered as independent clinical entities. However, they...

    Authors: Guo-Shiang Tseng, Chung-Yueh Hsieh, Ching-Tsai Hsu, Jung-Chung Lin and Jenq-Shyong Chan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:283
  43. Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for large epidemics in hospitals, where it can persist for long time on abiotic surfaces. This study investigated some virulence-related traits of epidemic A. baumannii str...

    Authors: Maria Giannouli, Luísa CS Antunes, Veronica Marchetti, Maria Triassi, Paolo Visca and Raffaele Zarrilli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:282
  44. Acute pharyngitis is frequently seen in primary care. Acute viral pharyngitis may be easily misdiagnosed as acute bacterial pharyngitis. Laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of respiratory viruses is recommended. Th...

    Authors: Li Li, Qiao-Yan Chen, Yun-Ying Li, Yan-Fang Wang, Zi-Feng Yang and Nan-Shan Zhong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:281
  45. Nucleic acid amplification assays allow for the rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) directly in clinical specimens thereby facilitating diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the fully ...

    Authors: Uladzimir Antonenka, Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Laziz Turaev, Ainura Esenalieva, Mokhonim Abdulloeva, Evgeni Sahalchyk, Tarig Alnour and Harald Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:280
  46. Leprosy is a contagious and chronic systemic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In the pathogenesis of leprosy, granulomas play a key role, however, the mechanisms of the formation and maintena...

    Authors: Hongsheng Wang, Yumi Maeda, Yasuo Fukutomi and Masahiko Makino
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:279
  47. Traditional inflammatory markers are generally unhelpful in discerning septic arthritis from inflammatory joint disease due to their lack of specificity. We wished to explore the discriminatory power of the no...

    Authors: Oddvar Oppegaard, Brita Skodvin, Anne-Kristine Halse and Nina Langeland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:278
  48. The role of the surface capsular polysaccharides (CPs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the pathogenesis of infection and disease, as well their potential for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccine antigens...

    Authors: Wendy A Keitel, ZhongDong Dai, Robert W Awe, Robert L Atmar, Sheldon Morris, Rachel Schneerson and John B Robbins
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:276

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