Atashili J, Poole C, Ndumbe PM, Adimora AA, Smith JS. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies. AIDS. 2008;22:1493–501.
Taylor BD, Darville T, Haggerty CL. Does bacterial vaginosis cause pelvic inflammatory disease? Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:117–22.
Li J, McCormick J, Bocking A, Reid G. Importance of vaginal microbes in reproductive health. Reprod Sci. 2012;19:235–42.
Frank DN, Manigart O, Leroy V, Meda N, Valea D, Zhang W, et al. Altered vaginal microbiota are associated with perinatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV in African women from Burkina Faso. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60:299–306.
Cherpes TL, Meyn LA, Krohn MA, Lurie JG, Hillier SL. Association between acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 in women and bacterial vaginosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:319–25.
King CC, Jamieson DJ, Wiener J, Cu-Uvin S, Klein RS, Rompalo AM, et al. Bacterial vaginosis and the natural history of human papillomavirus. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:319460.
Wiesenfeld HC, Hillier SL, Krohn MA, Landers DV, Sweet RL. Bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:663–8.
Buve A, Jespers V, Crucitti T, Fichorova RN. The vaginal microbiota and susceptibility to HIV. AIDS. 2014;24:2333–44.
Srinivasan S, Fredricks DN. The human vaginal bacterial biota and bacterial vaginosis. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2008;2008:750479.
van de Wijgert JH, Borgdorff H, Verhelst R, Crucitti T, Francis S, Verstraelen H, et al. The vaginal microbiota: what have we learned after a decade of molecular characterization? PLoS One. 2014;9:e105998.
Mitchell C, Marrazzo J. Bacterial vaginosis and the cervicovaginal immune response. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2014;71:555–63.
Hickey RJ, Zhou X, Pierson JD, Ravel J, Forney LJ. Understanding vaginal microbiome complexity from an ecological perspective. Transl Res. 2012;160:267–82.
Jespers V, Menten J, Smet H, Poradosu S, Abdellati S, Verhelst R, et al. Quantification of bacterial species of the vaginal microbiome in different groups of women, using nucleic acid amplification tests. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:83.
Mauck CK. Biomarkers of semen exposure. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:S81–3.
Jespers V, Crucitti T, Menten J, Verhelst R, Mwaura M, Mandaliya K, et al. Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis in different sub-populations of women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2014;9:e109670.
Braunstein SL, Ingabire CM, Kestelyn E, Uwizera AU, Mwamarangwe L, Ntirushwa J, et al. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:385–94.
Braunstein SL, Ingabire CM, Geubbels E, Vyankandondera J, Umulisa MM, Gahiro E, et al. High burden of prevalent and recently acquired HIV among female sex workers and female HIV voluntary testing center clients in Kigali, Rwanda. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24321.
Nugent RP, Krohn MA, Hillier SL. Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29:297–301.
dos Lopes Santos Santiago G, Tency I, Verstraelen H, Verhelst R, Trog M, Temmerman M, et al. Longitudinal qPCR study of the dynamics of L. crispatus, L. iners, A. vaginae, (sialidase positive) G. vaginalis, and P. bivia in the vagina. PLoS One. 2012;7:e45281.
Ravel J, Gajer P, Abdo Z, Schneider GM, Koenig SS, McCulle SL, et al. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108 Suppl 1:4680–7.
Tamrakar R, Yamada T, Furuta I, Cho K, Morikawa M, Yamada H, et al. Association between Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria, and bacterial vaginosis scores in pregnant Japanese women. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:128.
Zariffard MR, Saifuddin M, Sha BE, Spear GT. Detection of bacterial vaginosis-related organisms by real-time PCR for Lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2002;34:277–81.
Mauck CK, Lai JJ, Weiner DH, Chandra N, Fichorova RN, Dezzutti CS, et al. Toward early safety alert endpoints: exploring biomarkers suggestive of microbicide failure. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:1475–86.
Byun R, Nadkarni MA, Chhour KL, Martin FE, Jacques NA, Hunter N. Quantitative analysis of diverse Lactobacillus species present in advanced dental caries. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3128–36.
De Backer E, Verhelst R, Verstraelen H, Alqumber MA, Burton JP, Tagg JR, et al. Quantitative determination by real-time PCR of four vaginal Lactobacillus species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae indicates an inverse relationship between L. gasseri and L. iners. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:115.
Chern EC, Siefring S, Paar J, Doolittle M, Haugland RA. Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;52:298–306.
Menard JP, Fenollar F, Raoult D, Boubli L, Bretelle F. Self-collected vaginal swabs for the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis and the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;31:513–8.
Hickey RJ, Abdo Z, Zhou X, Nemeth K, Hansmann M, Osborn III TW, et al. Effects of tampons and menses on the composition and diversity of vaginal microbial communities over time. BJOG. 2013;120:695–704.
Jin L, Tao L, Pavlova SI, So JS, Kiwanuka N, Namukwaya Z, et al. Species diversity and relative abundance of vaginal lactic acid bacteria from women in Uganda and Korea. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:1107–15.
Gustafsson RJ, Ahrne S, Jeppsson B, Benoni C, Olsson C, Stjernquist M, et al. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women. BMC Womens Health. 2011;11:17.
Mendes-Soares H, Suzuki H, Hickey RJ, Forney LJ. Comparative functional genomics of Lactobacillus spp. reveals possible mechanisms for specialization of vaginal lactobacilli to their environment. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:1458–70.
Boskey ER, Telsch KM, Whaley KJ, Moench TR, Cone RA. Acid production by vaginal flora in vitro is consistent with the rate and extent of vaginal acidification. Infect Immun. 1999;67:5170–5.
Anukam KC, Osazuwa EO, Ahonkhai I, Reid G. Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota of women attending a reproductive health care service in Benin city, Nigeria. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:59–62.
Mitchell C, Balkus JE, Fredricks D, Liu C, McKernan-Mullin J, Frenkel LM, et al. Interaction between lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital shedding in U.S. and Kenyan women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:13–9.
Benning L, Golub ET, Anastos K, French AL, Cohen M, Gilbert D, et al. Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US. PLoS One. 2014;9:e96844.
Aagaard K, Riehle K, Ma J, Segata N, Mistretta TA, Coarfa C, et al. metagenomic approach to characterization of the vaginal microbiome signature in pregnancy. PLoS One. 2012;7:e36466.
Petricevic L, Domig KJ, Nierscher FJ, Krondorfer I, Janitschek C, Kneifel W, et al. Characterisation of the oral, vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus flora in healthy pregnant and postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;160:93–9.
Romero R, Hassan SS, Gajer P, Tarca AL, Fadrosh DW, Nikita L, et al. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women. Microbiome. 2014;2:4.
Walther-Antonio MR, Jeraldo P, Berg Miller ME, Yeoman CJ, Nelson KE, Wilson BA, et al. Pregnancy’s stronghold on the vaginal microbiome. PLoS One. 2014;9:e98514.
Castro J, Henriques A, Machado A, Henriques M, Jefferson KK, Cerca N. Reciprocal interference between Lactobacillus spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis on initial adherence to epithelial cells. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10:1193–8.
Zhou X, Brown CJ, Abdo Z, Davis CC, Hansmann MA, Joyce P, et al. Differences in the composition of vaginal microbial communities found in healthy Caucasian and black women. ISME J. 2007;1:121–33.
Zhou X, Hansmann MA, Davis CC, Suzuki H, Brown CJ, Schutte U, et al. The vaginal bacterial communities of Japanese women resemble those of women in other racial groups. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:169–81.
Ling Z, Kong J, Liu F, Zhu H, Chen X, Wang Y, et al. Molecular analysis of the diversity of vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:488.
Drell T, Lillsaar T, Tummeleht L, Simm J, Aaspollu A, Vain E, et al. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women. PLoS One. 2013;8:e54379.
Shipitsyna E, Roos A, Datcu R, Hallen A, Fredlund H, Jensen JS, et al. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age–sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible? PLoS One. 2013;8:e60670.
Ma L, Lv Z, Su J, Wang J, Yan D, Wei J, et al. Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina. PLoS One. 2013;8:e70716.
Marrazzo JM. Interpreting the epidemiology and natural history of bacterial vaginosis: are we still confused? Anaerobe. 2011;17:186–90.
Schwebke JR, Desmond R. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:654–8.
Paramel Jayaprakash T, Schellenberg JJ, Hill JE. Resolution and characterization of distinct cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella vaginalis in the vaginal microbiota. PLoS One. 2012;7:e43009.
dos Lopez Santos Santiago GL, Deschaght P, El AN, Kiama TN, Verstraelen H, Jefferson KK, et al. Gardnerella vaginalis comprises three distinct genotypes of which only two produce sialidase. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:450–7.
O’Hanlon DE, Moench TR, Cone RA. In vaginal fluid, bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis can be suppressed with lactic acid but not hydrogen peroxide. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:200.
Kyongo JK, Jespers V, Goovaerts O, Michiels J, Menten J, Fichorova RN, et al. Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women. PLoS One. 2012;7:e43951.
Roberts CL, Rickard K, Kotsiou G, Morris JM. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011;11:18.
Hilber AM, Francis SC, Chersich M, Scott P, Redmond S, Bender N, et al. Intravaginal practices, vaginal infections and HIV acquisition: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2010;5:e9119.
Low N, Chersich MF, Schmidlin K, Egger M, Francis SC, van de Wijgert JH, et al. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000416.
Hull T, Hilber AM, Chersich MF, Bagnol B, Prohmmo A, Smit JA, et al. Prevalence, motivations, and adverse effects of vaginal practices in Africa and Asia: findings from a multicountry household survey. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20:1097–109.
Hernandez-Rodriguez C, Romero-Gonzalez R, Albani-Campanario M, Figueroa-Damian R, Meraz-Cruz N, Hernandez-Guerrero C. Vaginal microbiota of healthy pregnant Mexican women is constituted by four Lactobacillus species and several vaginosis-associated bacteria. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:851485.
Sha BE, Zariffard MR, Wang QJ, Chen HY, Bremer J, Cohen MH, et al. Female genital-tract HIV load correlates inversely with Lactobacillus species but positively with bacterial vaginosis and Mycoplasma hominis. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:25–32.
Schellenberg JJ, Links MG, Hill JE, Dumonceaux TJ, Kimani J, Jaoko W, et al. Molecular definition of vaginal microbiota in East African commercial sex workers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4066–74.
Eschenbach DA, Patton DL, Hooton TM, Meier AS, Stapleton A, Aura J, et al. Effects of vaginal intercourse with and without a condom on vaginal flora and vaginal epithelium. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:913–8.
Tameliene R, Barcaite E, Stoniene D, Buinauskiene J, Markuniene E, Kudreviciene A, et al. Escherichia coli colonization in neonates: prevalence, perinatal transmission, antimicrobial susceptibility, and risk factors. Medicina (Kaunas). 2012;48:71–6.