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Table 3 Factors associated with L. crispatus, L. iners, G. vaginalis, A. vaginae and Lactobacillus genus: results from a multiple logistic regression model for the reference women and for all women

From: The significance of Lactobacillus crispatus and L. vaginalis for vaginal health and the negative effect of recent sex: a cross-sectional descriptive study across groups of African women

Reference women N = 217 L. crispatus L. iners G. vaginalis A. vaginae Lactobacillusgenus*
  OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) Log concentrations (CI)
Parity p = 0.831 p = 0.003 p = 0.587 p = 0.265 p = 0.179
0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
1 – 2 0.82(0.36,1.88) 0.43(0.18,1.05) 1.40(0.67,2.93) 1.81(0.85,3.86) −0.79(−1.67,0.10)
>2 1.01(0.36,2.86) 0.16(0.05,0.47) 1.07(0.41,2.75) 1.93(0.72,5.16) −0.91(−2.06,0.24)
Seminal factor present p = 0.003 p = 0.715 p = 0.773 p = 0.435 p = 0.016
No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.34(0.16,0.72) 1.13(0.58,2.23) 1.09(0.60,1.97) 1.27(0.69,2.34) −0.89(−1.61,-0.17)
Nr of sexual partners last 3 months 1 p = 0.901 p = 0.049 p = 0.049 p = 0.204 p = 0.667
0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
1 1.16(0.36,3.72) 3.90(1.27,11.94) 4.17(1.22,14.23) 2.14(0.63,7.32) 0.49(−0.84,1.83)
>1 0.74(0.06,9.56) 1.97(0.22,17.63) 3.12(0.34,28.91) 6.83(0.74,63.15) −0.15(−2.74,2.44)
Intravaginal cleansing during bathing p = 0.420 p = 0.208 p = 0.281 p = 0.023 p = 0.007
No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.33(0.66,2.65) 1.55(0.78,3.09) 0.72(0.39,1.31) 0.49(0.26,0.91) 1.01(0.28,1.75)
Contraception use p = 0.259 p = 0.368 p = 0.008 p = 0.015 p = 0.606
None/Non-Hormonal Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Hormonal 0.66(0.32,1.36) 1.39(0.68,2.82) 0.42(0.22,0.88) 0.44(0.22,0.86) 0.21(−0.58,0.99)
Recent antibiotic use p = 0.360 p = 0.704 p = 0.697 p = 0.383 p = 0.980
No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.63(0.23,1.73) 0.83(0.33,2.13) 1.18(0.51,2.72) 1.45(0.63,3.35) −0.01(−1.03,1.00)
All women N = 426 L. crispatus L. iners G. vaginalis A. vaginae Lactobacillus genus*
Parity p = 0.324 p = 0.002 p = 0.477 p = 0.793 p = 0.763
0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
1 – 2 0.76(0.43,1.36) 0.94 (0.54,1.66) 1.13(0.69,1.84) 1.15(0.70,1.87) 0.03(−0.58,0.64)
>2 1.24(0.59,2.62) 0.33 (0.16,0.67) 0.75(0.39,1.46) 0.99(0.51,1.94) −0.19(−1.01,0.64)
Seminal factor present p = 0.001 p = 0.933 p = 0.744 p = 0.503 p = 0.001
No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.36(0.21,0.61) 1.01(0.63,1.61) 1.07(0.71,1.61) 1.13(0.75,1.70) −1.00 (−1.51,-0.49)
Nr of sexual partners last 3 months 1 p = 0.319 p = 0.003 p = 0.022 p = 0.095 p = 0.310
0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
1 0.50(0.21,1.17) 4.40 (1.86,10.41) 2.47 (1.02,5.98) 1.61 (0.64,4.02) 0.20(−0.85,1.25)
>1 0.51(0.17,1.58) 3.05 (1.06,8.79) 4.35 (1.48,12.74) 2.91 (0.99,8.61) 0.82(−0.46,2.10)
Intravaginal cleansing during bathing p = 0.408 p = 0.057 p = 0.557 p = 0.178 p = 0.099
No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.81(0.50,1.32 1.58 (0.99,2.53) 0.88(0.58,1.34) 0.75(0.50,1.14) 0.44 (−0.08,0.96)
Contraception use p = 0.224 p = 0.445 p = 0.293 p = 0.373 p = 0.125
None/Non-Hormonal Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Hormonal 0.70(0.41,1.22) 0.78(0.47,1.31) 0.83(0.52,1.30) 0.83(0.52,1.32) −0.53(−1.09,0.04)
Recent antibiotic use p = 0.110 p = 0.606 p = 0.054 p = 0.052 p = 0.832
No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.63(0.33,1.21) 0.65(0.38,1.13) 1.76 (0.98,3.15) 1.74 (1.00,3.03) −0.64(−1.26,-0.01)
  1. Results that remained significant (using a p = 0.05 cut-off) in the model are depicted in bold. *: non- logistic regression model. qPCR: quantitative polymerase chain reaction. 1Data collected at the screening visit up to two months before the enrolment visit. Nr: number. The numbers in each category for the variables are listed in the Additional file 2.