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Table 1 Presence and concentrations of vaginal microbiota species

From: The significance of Lactobacillus crispatus and L. vaginalis for vaginal health and the negative effect of recent sex: a cross-sectional descriptive study across groups of African women

  Reference group Pregnant women Adolescents Intravaginal practices Sex workers HIV-positive
  Kenya N = 109 South Africa N = 108 Kenya N = 30 South Africa N = 30 Kenya N = 29 South Africa N = 30 South Africa N = 30 Rwanda N = 30 Rwanda N = 30
Presence of species by qPCR N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Lactobacillus genus 101(93) 98(91) 30(100) 30(100) 27(93) 24(80) 28(93) 28(93) 24(80)
Lactobacillus crispatus 29(27) 26(24) 6(20) 7(23) 11(38) 6(20) 5(17) 5(17) 5(17)
Lactobacillus iners 75(69) 82(76) 24(80) 23(77) 23(79) 20(67) 26(87) 18(60) 19(63)
Lactobacillus jensenii 19(17) 25(23) 6(20) 10(23) 7(24) 2(7) 6(20) 1(3) 3(10)
Lactobacillus gasseri 7(6) 8(7) 3(10) 3(10) 4(14) 2(7) 2(7) 4(13) 3(10)
Lactobacillus vaginalis 33(30) 28(26) 9(30) 7(23) 14(48) 7(23) 5(17) 8(27) 9(30)
Gardnerella vaginalis 59(54) 49(45) 14(47) 15(50) 17(59) 19(63) 16(53) 23(73) 21(70)
Atopobium vaginae 46(42) 37(34) 9(30) 11(37) 10(34) 19(43) 11(37) 17(57) 14(47)
Prevotella bivia 97(89) 83(77) 29(97) 21(70) 24(83) 12(40) 22(63) 30(100) 27(70)
Escherichia coli 28(26) 29(27) 6(20) 10(23) 8(28) 4(13) 9(30) 21(70) 6(20)
Candida albicans 15(14) 12(11) 4(13) 1(3) 3(10) 0 5(17) 4(13) 3(10)
Vaginal species concentrations by qPCR 1 Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Lactobacillus genus 6.4(2.1) 6.9(1.7) 7.5(1) 6.5(2.3) 7.5(1.1) 5.3(2.5) 6.4(2.1) 7.1(1.7) 6.5(2.4)
Lactobacillus crispatus 6.8(2.2) 7.2(1.6) 8(0.4) 7.6(1.5) 7.3(2.2) 7.1(1.3) 7.5(1.3) 7.8(1.1) 4.7(3.4)
Lactobacillus iners 6.6(2.2) 7(2) 7.6(1.1) 6.9(1.6) 7.4(1.7) 4.9(3.1) 6.7(2.3) 8.1(1.1) 7.3(2.4)
Lactobacillus jensenii 5.6(2.5) 6.3(1.9) 6.6(1) 7.7(0.9) 5.5(3.1) 3.5(3.6) 5(3.2) 8.3(NA) 6.3(1)
Lactobacillus gasseri 3.3(2.9) 5.3(1.9) 6.3(1.3) 5.1(3.8) 4.7(2.5) 6.4(0.4) 3.8(4) 4.1(3.5) 1(NA)
Lactobacillus vaginalis 2.6(3) 3.8(3.2) 3.9(3.4) 4.4(3.9) 5.2(2.8) 6.2(0.7) 3.1(4.4) 4.8(3.2) 4.1(2.7)
Gardnerella vaginalis 5.4(1.1) 5.3(0.9) 5.5(1.2) 5.2(0.9) 5.5(0.8) 4.6(1.2) 5.2(1.4) 6.2(1) 5.6(1)
Atopobium vaginae 5.5(1.8) 5.1(1.5) 7(1) 5.2(1.7) 5.4(2.4) 5(1.7) 5.7(1.3) 6.6(1.8) 5.5(1.5)
Prevotella bivia 3.1(1.2) 3.2(1.1) 3.1(1.3) 3.3(0.9) 3.3(1.3) 3.2(1.1) 3.5(1.1) 3.6(1.1) 3.3(1)
Escherichia coli 5.2(0.4) 5.1(0.6) 5(0.5) 5.2(0.5) 5.1(0.4) 4.8(0.3) 4.9(0.3) 5.3(0.6) 5.9(1.1)
Candida albicans 4.9(1.3) 5.1(0.7) 5.7(1) 4.6(NA) 6(0.7) 0(NA) 5.3(0.8) 5.4(1.2) 4.9(0.2)
Nugent score 2 and vaginal pH          
Vaginal pH 5.1(0.9) 4.5(0.6) 4.8(0.8) 4.3(0.5) 4.7(0.7) 4.4(0.6) 4.6(0.6) 5.1(0.6) 4.7(0.6)
Nugent 0–3: normal 55(56) 63(66) 19(68) 18(62) 18(67) 13(45) 16(59) 6(24) 13(48)
Nugent 4–6: intermediate 8(8) 6(6) 1(4) 2(7) 4(15) 4(14) 1(4) 2(8) 1(4)
Nugent 7–10: bacterial vaginosis 36(36) 27(28) 8(29) 9(31) 5(19) 12(41) 10(37) 17(68) 13(48)
  1. Quantitative PCR data was available for 426 of the 430 women. 1mean (SD) quantity log concentrations of the microbiota for women who had that particular species detected and quantified as log genome equivalents/ml. 2Nugent score data were available for 387 of the 426 women due to unreadable Gram stained slides. qPCR: quantitative polymerase chain reaction.