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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with vaginal Lactobacillus , and BV-related species presence 1

From: The significance of Lactobacillus crispatus and L. vaginalis for vaginal health and the negative effect of recent sex: a cross-sectional descriptive study across groups of African women

N = 426   L. crispatus   L. iners   L. vaginalis   G. vaginalis   A. vaginae   P. bivia
  % OR (CI) % OR (CI) % OR (CI) % OR (CI) % OR (CI) % OR (CI)
Country   p = 0.207   p = 0.084   p = 0.126   p = 0.006   p = 0.182   p = <0.001
Kenya 27.4   72.6   33.3   53.6 Ref 38.7   89.3 Ref
Rwanda 16.7   61.7   28.3   73.3 2.38(1.25,4.55) 51.7   85.0 0.68(0.29,1.61)
South Africa 22.2   76.3   23.7   50.0 0.87(0.57,1.31) 39.4   69.7 0.28(0.16,0.49)
Group   p = 0.580   p = 0.174   p = 0.591   p = 0.026   p = 0.190   p = <0.001
Reference group 25.3   72.4   28.1   49.8 Ref 38.2   82.9 Ref
Pregnant women 21.7   78.3   26.7   48.3 0.94(0.53,1.67) 33.3   83.3 1.03(0.48,2.21)
Adolescents 28.8   72.9   35.6   61.0 1.58(0.88,2.84) 49.2   61.0 0.32(0.17,0.61)
Intravaginal practices 16.7   86.7   16.7   53.3 1.15(0.54,2.48) 36.7   73.3 0.57(0.23,1.37)
Sex workers 16.7   60.0   26.7   76.7 3.32(1.37,8.05) 56.7   100 No estimate
HIV-positive women 16.7   63.3   30.0   70.0 2.35(1.03,5.37) 46.7   70.0 0.48(0.2,1.37)
Age   p = 0.376   p = 0.046   p = 0.554   p = 0.640   p = 0.556   p = <0.001
<18 years 28.8   72.9 Ref 35.6   61.0   49.2   61.0 Ref
18 – 24 years 20.3   77.0 1.25(0.63,2.49) 25.7   56.1   40.5   84.5 3.98(1.93,8.24)
25 – 29 years 21.7   75.4 1.14(0.57,2.27) 27.5   52.2   39.1   83.3 3.37(1.62,7.03)
30 years or more 28.4   60.5 0.57(0.28,1.18) 28.4   51.9   38.3   77.8 2.46(1.08,5.58)
Parity   p = 0.106   p = 0.001   p = 0.03   p = 0.418   p = 0.840   p = 0.164
0 27.5   76.5 Ref 34.2 Ref 54.4   40.3   75.2  
1 – 2 19.2   75.7 0.96(0.59,1.56) 22.4 0.56(0.35,0.89) 57.0   42.1   83.2  
>2 28.6   54.0 0.36(0.19,0.67) 33.3 0.96(0.51,1.79) 47.6   38.1   77.8  
RTI 2   p = 0.014   p = 0.406   p = 0.031   p = 0.019   p = 0.003   p = 0.977
No RTI 25.8 Ref 72.0   30.3 Ref 52.1 Ref 37.7 Ref 79.6  
1 or more RTI 12.3 0.40(0.19,0.85) 76.7   17.8 0.50(0.26,0.95) 67.1 1.88(1.10,3.19 56.2 2.12(1.27,3.53) 79.5  
Nr of sexual partners last 3 months 3   p = 0.060   p = <0.001   p = 0.669   p = 0.033   p = 0.129   p = 0.053
0 42.3   42.3 Ref 30.8   34.6 Ref 30.8   76.9 Ref
1 22.5   75.8 4.27(1.89,9.64) 27.3   54.6 2.28(0.99,5.24) 40   78.0 1.07(0.41,2.74)
>1 20.0   66.7 2.73(1.01,7.37) 33.3   66.7 3.78(1.36,10.46) 53.3   93.3 4.2(0.95,18.54)
Seminal factor PSA present 4   p = <0.001   p = 0.464   p = <0.001   p = 0.259   p = 0.308   p = 0.128
No 32.1 Ref 70.9   34.6 Ref 52.1   38.5   82.9  
Yes 13.2 0.32(0.19,0.54) 74.2   19.8 0.47(0.3,0.73) 57.7   43.4   76.9  
  1. Results that remained significant (using a p = 0.05 cut-off) in the multivariate logistic regression are depicted in bold. 1: Univariate analysis with p-values from chi-squared tests; 2RTI: excluding HIV, HSV-2, Candida.3Data collected at the screening visit up to two months before the enrolment visit. 4Prostate specific antigen present in vaginal fluid, including weak reaction. RTI: reproductive tract infections.