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  1. Ireland frequently reports the highest annual Crude Incidence Rates (CIRs) of cryptosporidiosis in the EU, with national CIRs up to ten times the EU average. Accordingly, the current study sought to examine th...

    Authors: M. Boudou, E. Cleary, C. ÓhAiseadha, P. Garvey, P. McKeown, J. O’Dwyer and Paul Hynds

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:880

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Healthcare Workers (HCW) are repeatedly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCW in one of the largest cities in Colombia.

    Authors: Merida Rodriguez-Lopez, Beatriz Parra, Enrique Vergara, Laura Rey, Mercedes Salcedo, Gabriela Arturo, Liliana Alarcon, Jorge Holguin and Lyda Osorio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:878

    Content type: Research

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  3. Antimicrobial resistance is fueled by inappropriate use of antibiotics. Global and national strategies support rational use of antibiotics to retain treatment options and reduce resistance. In Germany, the ARe...

    Authors: Regina Poss-Doering, Dorothea Kronsteiner, Martina Kamradt, Edith Andres, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Michel Wensing and Joachim Szecsenyi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:877

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The irregular use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and late diagnosis still account for a large part of HIV-associated mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Herein, we describe HIV-associated morbidity a...

    Authors: Wellington Mota Gama, Carlos Henrique Michiles Frank, Taynná Vernalha Rocha Almeida, Daniel Silva dos Santos, Yury Oliveira Chaves, Danielle Furtado da Silva, Patrícia Puccinelli Orlandi, Flávio Ribeiro Pereira, Gleicienne Feliz Magalhães, Bárbara Jóse Baptista, Viviane Lago de Oliveira Silva, Antônio Alcirley da Silva Balieiro, Monique Freire Santana, Roberta Lins Gonçalves, Allyson Guimarães da Costa, Marcelo Cordeiro dos Santos…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:876

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To explore associations between PON1 rs854560, rs662, 705,379, HCV clearance, and interactions between tested PON1 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and interferon-λ4 gene (IFNL4) rs368234815 variant in hemodialy...

    Authors: Alicja E. Grzegorzewska, Adrianna Mostowska, Wojciech Warchoł and Paweł P. Jagodziński

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:875

    Content type: Research

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  6. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the most pressing One Health issues. While interventions and policies with various targets and goals have been implemented, evidence about factors underpinning success a...

    Authors: Anaïs Léger, Irene Lambraki, Tiscar Graells, Melanie Cousins, Patrik J. G. Henriksson, Stephan Harbarth, Carolee A. Carson, Shannon E. Majowicz, Max Troell, E. Jane Parmley, Peter S. Jørgensen and Didier Wernli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:873

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Respiratory diseases are a major reason for refugees and other immigrants seeking health care in countries of arrival. The burden of respiratory diseases in refugees is exacerbated by sometimes poor living con...

    Authors: Jan-Frederic Lambert, Katarina Stete, James Balmford, Annabelle Bockey, Winfried Kern, Siegbert Rieg, Martin Boeker and Berit Lange

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:872

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Epidemic projections and public health policies addressing Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 have been implemented without data reporting on the seroconversion of the population since scalable antibody testing ha...

    Authors: Daniel J. Nesbitt, Daniel P. Jin, Joseph W. Hogan, Jenny Yang, Haidee Chen, Philip A. Chan, Melissa J. Simon, Matthew Vargas, Ewa King, Richard C. Huard, Utpala Bandy, Christopher D. Hillyer and Larry L. Luchsinger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:871

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Respiratory tract infections are the most common infections that lead to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early recognition and precise diagnosis of microbial etiology is important to treat LRTIs promptly, s...

    Authors: Huan Zhao, Yichao Yang, Jiangfeng Lyu, Xuyi Ren and Wei Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:870

    Content type: Research

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  10. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommends against screening for and/or treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). This study aims to evaluate the inappropriate use of antibiotics in ASB before...

    Authors: Ahlam Alghamdi, Majid Almajid, Raneem Alalawi, Amjad Alganame, Shorooq Alanazi, Ghaida Alghamdi, Salman Alharthi and Isra Alghamdi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:869

    Content type: Research

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  11. Dengue fever is a mosquito born disease associated with self-limited to life threatening illness. First detected in Senegal in the nineteenth century, and despite its growing incidence this last decade, signif...

    Authors: Idrissa Dieng, Marie Henriette Dior Ndione, Cheikh Fall, Moussa Moïse Diagne, Mamadou Diop, Aboubacry Gaye, Mamadou Aliou Barry, Boly Diop, Mamadou Ndiaye, Abdoulaye Bousso, Gamou Fall, Cheikh Loucoubar, Oumar Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall and Ousmane Faye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:867

    Content type: Research

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  12. In recent years, talaromycosis is reportedly on the rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients. However, the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of talaromycosis is more likely in HIV-uninfected ...

    Authors: Qiuhua Chen, Ye Qiu, Wen Zeng, Xuan Wei and Jianquan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:865

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Stratification by clinical scores of patients suspected of infection can be used to support decisions on treatment and diagnostic workup. Seven clinical scores, SepsisFinder (SF), National Early Warning Score ...

    Authors: Steen Andreassen, Jens Kjølseth Møller, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Gorm Lisby and Logan Ward

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:864

    Content type: Research article

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  14. It remains challenging to differentiate tuberculosis (TB) from non-TB pulmonary infections in HIV-infected patients. Herein, we developed a scoring system aimed to rapidly determine the likelihood of TB or non...

    Authors: Jing Ouyang, Jing Yuan, Yaling Chen, Yanming Zeng, Vijay Harypursat, Yanqiu Lu, Hui Chen and Yaokai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:863

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Serious bacterial infection rates in febrile infants < 60 days are about 8–11%. Less than 1% of febrile infants with no respiratory symptoms will have pneumonia however, chest radiography (CXR) rates remain be...

    Authors: Ali Ozcan, Evelyn Laskowski, Shashi Sahai and Kelly Levasseur

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:862

    Content type: Research article

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  16. To investigate the correlation between pleural fluid interleukin-33 (IL-33) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) and peripheral blood tuberculosis T cell spot detection (T-SPOT.TB), and the combined value of the thre...

    Authors: Jin Fenhua, Wang Daohui, Lin Hui, Xia Xiaodong and Huang Wen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:861

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has quickly spread worldwide since its outbreak in December ...

    Authors: Kesheng Li, Chongxiang Tong, Xiaoqin Ha, Chaoning Zeng, Xia Chen, Feifei Xu, Jinhong Yang, Huifen Du, Yuxin Chen, Jing Cai, Zengwei Yang, Zhongyi Jiang, Dandan Chai, Xueliang Zhang, Xun Li, Junfeng Li…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:860

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Mobile text reminder (SMS) system is considered a viable strategy for targeting/facilitating healthy behavioural change including adherence to prescribed physical exercises (PE) and medication (antiretroviral ...

    Authors: Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Sandra C. Ndukwu, Hellen Myezwa, Franklin Onyedinma Irem, Fortune Elochukwu Ezenwankwo, Adedayo Tunde Ajidahun, Amarachi D. Ezuma, Amaka Nnamani, Obinna Onodugo, Gerhard Fortwengel and Victor C. Uwakwe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:859

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Diagnosing neuritis in leprosy patients with neuropathic pain or chronic neuropathy remains challenging since no specific laboratory or neurophysiological marker is available.

    Authors: Louise Mara Giesel, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Izabela Jardim Rodrigues Pitta, Lígia Rocha Andrade, Debora Bartzen Moraes, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno and Marcia Rodrigues Jardim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:858

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of hospitalization and death in young children. The majority of deaths (99%) occur in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Vaccines ...

    Authors: Yvette N. Löwensteyn, Natalie I. Mazur, Harish Nair, Joukje E. Willemsen, Ghislaine van Thiel and Louis Bont

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:857

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:962

  21. In a previous study, using a molecular approach, we reported the presence of P. vivax in Namibia. Here, we have extended our investigation to the Duffy antigen genetic profile of individuals of the same cohort wi...

    Authors: Daniel Hosea Haiyambo, Larysa Aleksenko, Davies Mumbengegwi, Ronnie Bock, Petrina Uusiku, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia and Isaac Kweku Quaye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:856

    Content type: Research

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  22. Mortality rates of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) continue to rise across the world. The impact of several risk factors on coronavirus mortality has been previously reported in several meta‐analyses limit...

    Authors: Zelalem G. Dessie and Temesgen Zewotir

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:855

    Content type: Research

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  23. Several independent risk factors have been reported to influence viral shedding following COVID-19 infection, but the influence of host-related molecular factors has not yet been described. We report a case of...

    Authors: Farzana Haque, Patrick Lillie, Farhana Haque and Anthony Maraveyas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:854

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  24. Malaria causes major public health problems globally and drug resistance hinders its control and elimination. Molecular markers associated with drug resistance are considered as a beneficial tool to monitor th...

    Authors: Xingyi Jin, Sujuan Zhu, Weimin Xu, Junfang Chen, Wei Ruan and Xiaoxiao Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:853

    Content type: Research

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  25. Inconclusive results in SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays cause confusion among clinicians and delay appropriate infection prevention and control. In this study, we aimed to characterize the respiratory specimens as...

    Authors: Yong Kwan Lim, Oh Joo Kweon, Hye Ryoun Kim, Tae-Hyoung Kim and Mi-Kyung Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:851

    Content type: Research

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  26. Although the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality have been identified, there is limited information about the risk factors for disease progression after hospitalization among Japanes...

    Authors: Toshifumi Ninomiya, Kohei Otsubo, Teppei Hoshino, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Megumi Nakazawa, Yoriko Sato, Hironori Mikumo, Satoru Kawakami, Shun Mizusaki, Yusuke Mori, Hidenobu Arimura, Yuko Tsuchiya-Kawano, Koji Inoue, Yujiro Uchida and Yoichi Nakanishi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:850

    Content type: Research

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  27. A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused huge damage to public health around the world. Revealing the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and control efficiency is important for containing the spread of...

    Authors: Chaoyuan Cheng, Xinru Wan and Zhibin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:849

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Campylobacter spp. cause mostly self-limiting enterocolitis, although a significant proportion of cases require hospitalisation highlighting potential for severe disease. Among people admitted, blood culture spec...

    Authors: Cameron R. M. Moffatt, Karina J. Kennedy, Ben O’Neill, Linda Selvey and Martyn D. Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:848

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication after heart transplantation (HTX) with remarkable mortality. Intrathoracic infection is a well-documented predisposing factor for this disease. Staphylococcus ...

    Authors: Szilvia Kugler, Miklós Pólos, Ákos Király, Ákos Pataki, Ádám Koppányi, Tamás Varga, Zsófia Szakál-Tóth, Nóra Parázs, Tímea Teszák, Zoltán Tarjányi, Gyula Prinz, István Hartyánszky, Zoltán Szabolcs, Béla Merkely and Balázs Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:847

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. A proactive approach to preventing and responding to emerging infectious diseases is critical to global health security. We present a three-stage approach to modeling the spatial distribution of outbreak vulne...

    Authors: Julianne Meisner, Lauren A. Frisbie, César V. Munayco, Patricia J. García, César P. Cárcamo, Cory W. Morin, David M. Pigott and Peter M. Rabinowitz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:846

    Content type: Research

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  31. Lifestyle changes can protect or improve brain health in older adults. However, sustained lifestyle change is difficult for everyone and may be more difficult for those with executive dysfunction, including so...

    Authors: Adria Quigley, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K. Fellows and Nancy Mayo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:843

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Trichomonas tenax may appear in the oral cavity of humans due to poor dentition or oral hygiene. Pyopneumothorax is a serious complication of lower respiratory tract infections that very rarely can be caused by a...

    Authors: Yuhui Wu, Yuanzhen Ye, Yanlan Yang, Weiguo Yang, Jiayin Lin and Ke Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:842

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. This study has conducted a comparative analysis of common carbapenemases harboring, the expression of resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family efflux pumps, and biofilm formation potential associated w...

    Authors: Yanpeng Zhang, Bing Fan, Yong Luo, Zhiyuan Tao, Yongbo Nie, Yongtao Wang, Fanglin Ding, Yanwu Li and Dayong Gu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:841

    Content type: Research

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  34. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). China is the third in top 8 high TB burden countries and Guangxi is one of the high incidence areas in South China. Determine ba...

    Authors: Dingwen Lin, Junning Wang, Zhezhe Cui, Jing Ou, Liwen Huang and Ya Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:840

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is still attracting public attention because of its outbreak in various cities in China. Predicting future outbreaks or epidemics disease based on past incidence da...

    Authors: Cai-Xia Lv, Shu-Yi An, Bao-Jun Qiao and Wei Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:839

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The extraordinary olfactory sense of canines combined with the possibility to learn by operant conditioning enables dogs for their use in medical detection in a wide range of applications. Research on the abil...

    Authors: Paula Jendrny, Friederike Twele, Sebastian Meller, Albertus Dominicus Marcellinus Erasmus Osterhaus, Esther Schalke and Holger Andreas Volk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:838

    Content type: Review

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  37. Acute pneumonia remains a leading cause of death among children below 5 years of age in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), despite introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PC...

    Authors: Archippe M. Birindwa, Jerry K. Kasereka, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Shadi Geravandi, Mambo Mwilo, Léonard K. Tudiakwile, Néné L. Mwinja, Balthazar Muhigirwa, Théophile Kashosi, Jeanière T. Manegabe, Elie B. Bugashane, Stay M. Saili, Clement Mungo, Rickard Nordén, Rune Andersson and Susann Skovbjerg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:837

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a worldwide pandemic and has a huge impact on public health and socio-economic development. The purpose of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of the...

    Authors: Weiping Lu, Jianguo Wei, Tingting Xu, Miao Ding, Xiaoyan Li, Mengxue He, Kai Chen, Xiaodan Yang, Huiyuan She and Bingcang Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:836

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is now available in several world regions to better estimate transmission dynamics. However, to date, there is no epidemiological data regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 pre...

    Authors: Cristina Díaz-Salazar, Adriana Sánchez-García, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Donato Saldívar-Rodríguez and José Gerardo González-González

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:835

    Content type: Research article

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  40. To verify the efficacy and safety of an inexpensive standardized regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with low resistance to isoniazid (INH), a multicenter prospective study was conducted in e...

    Authors: Wenwen Sun, Zheyuan Wu, Ying Zhou, Fan Xia, Qin Tang, Jie Wang, Jinghui Yang, Fangyou Yu, Hua Yang, Heping Xiao and Lin Fan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:834

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Bordetella avium, an aerobic bacterium that rarely causes infection in humans, is a species of Bordetella that generally inhabits the respiratory tracts of turkeys and other birds. It causes a highly contagious ...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Liping Hu, Chong Xu, Jianhua Wu, Changzhong Xu and Chao Feng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:833

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  42. Nocardia-related endocarditis is rare. Intravenous drug use with nonsterile injection practices is a potential risk factor for nocardia infection. Disseminated nocardiosis with endovascular involvement is rare...

    Authors: Chukwunyelu Enwezor, Courtney L. Russ-Friedman, Zachary P. Gruss, Adam Murphy, Elizabeth L. Palavecino and Niyati Jakharia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:832

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease with rising health and economic concerns in many areas worldwide. Musculoskeletal pains are among the main complications of human brucellosis, which are often difficu...

    Authors: Saeed Alamian, Afshar Etemadi, Mohammad Reza Samiee and Maryam Dadar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:831

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Although neutropenia is relatively frequent in infants and children and is mostly a benign condition with a self-limited course, it can lead to life-threatening severe infections.

    Authors: Ignacio Callejas Caballero, Marta Illán Ramos, Arantxa Berzosa Sánchez, Eduardo Anguita and José Tomás Ramos Amador

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:830

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. We report a mononucleosis-like illnesses case due to co-infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR), which to the best of our knowledge, h...

    Authors: Bin Zhao, Haohua Hou, Ran Gao, Bing Tian and Baocheng Deng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:829

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  46. Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are viral antigen tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 that produce a rapid result, are inexpensive and easy to operate. They have been advocated for use by the World Health Organi...

    Authors: Dylan A. Mistry, Jenny Y. Wang, Mika-Erik Moeser, Thomas Starkey and Lennard Y. W. Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:828

    Content type: Research

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  47. The most common pathological cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-aged women is bacterial vaginosis (BV). Amsel’s criteria and Nugent scoring systems are commonly employed approaches for the dia...

    Authors: Rajshree Bhujel, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Santosh Kumar Yadav, Kesang Diki Bista and Keshab Parajuli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:825

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Developing nosocomial sepsis within intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and length of hospital stay. But information is scarce regarding nosocomial sepsis in intensive ...

    Authors: Tsega Cherkos Dawit, Reiye Esayas Mengesha, Mohamedawel Mohamedniguss Ebrahim, Mengistu Hagazi Tequare and Hiluf Ebuy Abraha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:824

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.