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  1. Inhalation anthrax is characterized by a systemic spread of the challenge agent, Bacillus anthracis. It causes severe damage, including multiple hemorrhagic lesions, to host tissues and organs. It is widely belie...

    Authors: Serguei G Popov, Taissia G Popova, Svetlana Hopkins, Raymond S Weinstein, Rebecca MacAfee, Karl J Fryxell, Vikas Chandhoke, Charles Bailey and Ken Alibek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:25
  2. The increasing problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has led to re-use of polymyxins in several countries. However, there are already clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacter...

    Authors: Matthew E Falagas, Ioannis A Bliziotis, Sofia K Kasiakou, George Samonis, Panayiota Athanassopoulou and Argyris Michalopoulos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:24
  3. Hydroxyurea (HU) is an immunomodulatory agent that has been documented to enhance the antiretroviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as abacavir (ABC) and didanosine (ddI), and wo...

    Authors: Susan Swindells, Calvin J Cohen, Daniel S Berger, Karen T Tashima, Qiming Liao, Bonnie F Pobiner, Jerry W Snidow, Gary E Pakes and Jaime E Hernandez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:23
  4. Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay an...

    Authors: Ming-Fang Cheng, Yun-Liang Yang, Tzy-Jyun Yao, Chin-Yu Lin, Jih-Shin Liu, Ran-Bin Tang, Kwok-Woon Yu, Yu-Hua Fan, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Monto Ho and Hsiu-Jung Lo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:22
  5. An association between Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and seropositivity for Bartonella henselae (BH) has been described. The objective of this study was to see if such an association exists in northern Alberta.

    Authors: Joan L Robinson, Donald W Spady, Errol Prasad, Dorothy McColl and Harvey Artsob
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:21
  6. Seasonal RSV infections occur every year and affect particularly children under six months of age. Passive immunoprophylaxis with monoclonal antibody Palivizumab is recommended in the period with high risk of ...

    Authors: Elena Terletskaia-Ladwig, Gisela Enders, Gunnar Schalasta and Martin Enders
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:20
  7. Tuberculosis poses a great challenge, especially in children. The response of BCG Test may be different in previously vaccinated children and needs to be considered before interpreting positivity for TB. This ...

    Authors: Mohit Singla, Vaibhav Sahai, Sukhbir Sodhi and Rakesh Pal Gupta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:19
  8. Leishmaniases are among the most proteiform parasitic infections in humans ranging from unapparent to cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral diseases. The various clinical issues depend on complex and still poor...

    Authors: Yves JF Garin, Pascale Meneceur, Francine Pratlong, Jean-Pierre Dedet, Francis Derouin and Frédéric Lorenzo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:18
  9. Trying to confront with the widespread burden of infectious diseases, the society worldwide invests considerably on research. We evaluated the contribution of different world regions in research production in ...

    Authors: Ioannis A Bliziotis, Konstantinos Paraschakis, Paschalis I Vergidis, Antonia I Karavasiou and Matthew E Falagas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:16
  10. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA persists in infected cells, even after prolonged successful HAART. In the present study, a relative quantification assay of HIV-1 proviral DNA by Li...

    Authors: Benoît Kabamba-Mukadi, Philippe Henrivaux, Jean Ruelle, Nicole Delferrière, Monique Bodéus and Patrick Goubau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:15
  11. Scrapie and BSE belong to a group of fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative diseases called TSE. In order to minimize the risk of natural scrapie and presumed natural BSE in sheep, breeding programmes towards...

    Authors: Mario Van Poucke, Jo Vandesompele, Marc Mattheeuws, Alex Van Zeveren and Luc J Peelman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:13
  12. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV...

    Authors: Edward Demba, Linda Morison, Maarten Schim van der Loeff, Akum A Awasana, Euphemia Gooding, Robin Bailey, Philippe Mayaud and Beryl West
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:12
  13. Rabies is the most important viral zoonosis from a global perspective. Worldwide efforts to combat the disease by oral vaccination of reservoirs have managed to eradicate wildlife rabies in large areas of cent...

    Authors: Dirk Eisinger, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Thomas Selhorst and Thomas Müller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:10
  14. Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein) against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present ...

    Authors: Fatih M Uckun, Larisa Rustamova, Alexei O Vassilev, Heather E Tibbles and Alexander S Petkevich
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:9
  15. In Malaysia, Shigella spp. was reported to be the third commonest bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. Currently, isolation of the bacterium and confirmation of the disease by microbiological and ...

    Authors: Kwai Lin Thong, Susan Ling Ling Hoe, SD Puthucheary and Rohani Md Yasin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:8
  16. This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany.

    Authors: Dirk Werber, Johannes Dreesman, Fabian Feil, Ulrich van Treeck, Gerhard Fell, Steen Ethelberg, Anja M Hauri, Peter Roggentin, Rita Prager, Ian ST Fisher, Susanne C Behnke, Edda Bartelt, Ekkehard Weise, Andrea Ellis, Anja Siitonen, Yvonne Andersson…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:7
  17. Four human coronaviruses are currently known to infect the respiratory tract: human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and 229E (HCoV-229E), SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified human...

    Authors: Elien Moës, Leen Vijgen, Els Keyaerts, Kalina Zlateva, Sandra Li, Piet Maes, Krzysztof Pyrc, Ben Berkhout, Lia van der Hoek and Marc Van Ranst
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:6
  18. Many studies associated nosocomial infections with increased hospital costs due to extra days in hospital, staff time, extra investigations and drug treatment. The cost of antibiotic treatment for these infect...

    Authors: Dilara Inan, Rabin Saba, Filiz Gunseren, Gozde Ongut, Ozge Turhan, Ata Nevzat Yalcin and Latife Mamikoglu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:5
  19. In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid ...

    Authors: Kym S Blackwood, Tamara V Burdz, Christine Y Turenne, Meenu K Sharma, Amin M Kabani and Joyce N Wolfe
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:4
  20. Enterococcal meningitis is an uncommon disease usually caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and is associated with a high mortality rate. Enterococcus casseliflavus has been implicated in a wi...

    Authors: Chiara Iaria, Giovanna Stassi, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Rita Di Leo, Antonio Toscano and Antonio Cascio
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:3
  21. Hyperlipidemia secondary to protease inhibitors (PI) may abate by switching to anti-HIV medications without lipid effects.

    Authors: Philip H Keiser, Michael G Sension, Edwin DeJesus, Allan Rodriguez, Jeffrey F Olliffe, Vanessa C Williams, John H Wakeford, Jerry W Snidow, Anne D Shachoy-Clark, Julie W Fleming, Gary E Pakes and Jaime E Hernandez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:2
  22. The intravenous use of polymyxins has been considered to be associated with considerable nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. For this reason, the systemic administration of polymyxins had been abandoned for abou...

    Authors: Matthew E Falagas, Michael Rizos, Ioannis A Bliziotis, Kostas Rellos, Sofia K Kasiakou and Argyris Michalopoulos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:1
  23. MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major cause of treatment failure in tuberculosis patients, especially in immunosuppressed. We described a young polymyositis patient on immunosuppressive therapy who was star...

    Authors: Chiranjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ankita Garg and Archana Ayyagari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:63
  24. Micrococcus species may cause intracranial abscesses, meningitis, pneumonia, and septic arthritis in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent hosts. In addition, strains identified as Micrococcus spp. have been repor...

    Authors: Fevzi Altuntas, Orhan Yildiz, Bülent Eser, Kürsat Gündogan, Bulent Sumerkan and Mustafa Çetin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:62
  25. Wasting and micronutrient malnutrition have not been well characterized in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. We hypothesized that micronutrient malnutrition is associated with wasting and higher plasma human...

    Authors: Monique van Lettow, Anthony D Harries, Johnny J Kumwenda, Ed E Zijlstra, Tamara D Clark, Taha E Taha and Richard D Semba
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:61
  26. Since the mid-1980's there has been a worldwide resurgence of severe disease from group A streptococcus (GAS), with clonal clusters implicated in Europe and the United States. However GAS associated sepsis and...

    Authors: Marilyn Hassell, Peter Fagan, Phillip Carson and Bart J Currie
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:60
  27. Tertiary care hospitals are a potential source for development and spread of bacterial resistance being in the loop to receive outpatients and referrals from community nursing homes and hospitals. The liberal ...

    Authors: Lexley M Pinto Pereira, Marjorie Phillips, Hema Ramlal, Karen Teemul and P Prabhakar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:59
  28. Management of patients with bleeding oesophageal varices comprises of mainly diagnostic endoscopy, sclerotherapy and band ligation. One of the major problems to do any of the above is the active bleeding which...

    Authors: Shyama Chatterjee and Eric Van Marck
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:58
  29. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is an important opportunistic infection among immunosuppressed patients, especially in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The clinical presentation of...

    Authors: Alan KL Wu, Vincent CC Cheng, Bone SF Tang, Ivan FN Hung, Rodney A Lee, David S Hui and Kwok Y Yuen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:57
  30. TT virus is prevalent worldwide, but its prevalence and genotype distribution in Central and East-Europe has not been determined. The high prevalence of TTV in multiply-transfused patients points to the import...

    Authors: Martina Saláková, Vratislav Němeček, Jaroslav König and Ruth Tachezy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:56
  31. Molecular detection of herpesviruses DNA is considered as the reference standard assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections. In this study nested PCR and real time PCR techniques for detection of...

    Authors: Lorenzo Drago, Alessandra Lombardi, Elena De Vecchi, Giuseppe Giuliani, Rosaria Bartolone and Maria Rita Gismondo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:55
  32. Prion diseases are caused by the accumulation of an aberrantly folded isoform of the prion protein, designated PrPSc. In a cell-based assay, quinacrine inhibits the conversion of normal host prion protein (PrPC) ...

    Authors: Lotus Yung, Yong Huang, Pierre Lessard, Giuseppe Legname, Emil T Lin, Michael Baldwin, Stanley B Prusiner, Chongsuk Ryou and B Joseph Guglielmo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:53
  33. Literature on the spectrum of opportunistic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from developing countries is sparse. The objective of this study was to document the spectrum and det...

    Authors: SK Sharma, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Amit Banga, Tarun Goyal, Indrish Bhatia and PK Saha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:52
  34. Old, stationary cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contain a majority of bacteria that can grow in broth cultures but cannot grow on solid medium plates. These may be in a non-replicating, dormant growth phas...

    Authors: Jasvir Dhillon, Douglas B Lowrie and Denis A Mitchison
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:51
  35. The process of elimination of intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania, requires a Th1 type immune response, whereas a dominant Th2 response leads to exacerbated disease. Experimental human zinc deficiency dec...

    Authors: Johan Van Weyenbergh, Gisélia Santana, Argemiro D'Oliveira Jr, Anibal F Santos Jr, Carlos H Costa, Edgar M Carvalho, Aldina Barral and Manoel Barral-Netto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:50
  36. Past estimates have put the prevalence of schistosomiasis between 40% and 50% in the Malawi population overall based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. More recent surveys in known high risk areas fi...

    Authors: Cameron Bowie, Bernadette Purcell, Bina Shaba, Peter Makaula and Maria Perez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:49
  37. An increase in the number of attendees due to acute gastroenteritis and fever was noted at one hospital emergency room in Taiwan over a seven-day period from July to August, 2001. Molecular and epidemiological...

    Authors: Po-Liang Lu, In-Jane Hwang, Ya-Lina Tung, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Chun-Lu Lin and LK Siu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:48
  38. Diagnosis of HIV infection is recently occurring with increasing frequency in middle-aged and in older individuals. As HAART became available, a minimal beneficial effect on immunological outcome in older in r...

    Authors: Mario Tumbarello, Ricardo Rabagliati, Katleen de Gaetano Donati, Silvia Bertagnolio, Eva Montuori, Enrica Tamburrini, Evelina Tacconelli and Roberto Cauda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:46
  39. Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, S...

    Authors: Hanne M Eriksen, Philippe J Guerin, Karin Nygård, Marika Hjertqvist, Birgitta de Jong, Angela MC Rose, Markku Kuusi, Ulrike Durr, AG Rojas, Cato Mør and Preben Aavitsland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:45
  40. Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in the world and drug-resistant (DR) disease beckons new treatments.

    Authors: Roberto Suárez-Méndez, Idrian García-García, Norma Fernández-Olivera, Magalys Valdés-Quintana, María T Milanés-Virelles, Dalia Carbonell, Delfina Machado-Molina, Carmen M Valenzuela-Silva and Pedro A López-Saura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:44
  41. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the leading pathogenic cause of nosocomial infections, especially in bacteraemia and sepsis. The essential therapy for MRSA infection is glycopeptides. Therap...

    Authors: Emine Alp, Suveyda Gozukucuk, Ozlem Canoz, Beyhan Kirmaci and Mehmet Doganay
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:43
  42. For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vac...

    Authors: A Robert Neurath, Nathan Strick, Yun-Yao Li and Asim K Debnath
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:41
  43. Schistosomiasis is one of the major health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries, with school age children usually being the most affected group. In 1998 the Department of Health of the province of K...

    Authors: Elmar Saathoff, Annette Olsen, Pascal Magnussen, Jane D Kvalsvig, Wilhelm Becker and Chris C Appleton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:40
  44. A dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2 Tonga/74) isolated from a 1974 epidemic was characterized by mild illness and belongs to the American genotype of DEN-2 viruses. To prepare a vaccine candidate, a previously descri...

    Authors: Joseph E Blaney Jr, Christopher T Hanson, Kathryn A Hanley, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:39

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