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  1. Syndromic surveillance is increasingly being evaluated for its potential for early warning of increased disease activity in the population. However, interpretation is hampered by the difficulty of attributing ...

    Authors: Suzanne K Schindeler, David J Muscatello, Mark J Ferson, Kris D Rogers, Paul Grant and Tim Churches
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:190
  2. Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to sc...

    Authors: Beatrice Lyons, Russel Stothard, David Rollinson, Simba Khamis, Khamis A Simai and Paul R Hunter
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:189
  3. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy describes a family of diseases affecting both man and animals. Current tests for the diagnosis of these diseases are based on the detection of an abnormal misfolded form...

    Authors: Janice B Barr, Michael Watson, Mark W Head, James W Ironside, Nathan Harris, Caroline Hogarth, Janet R Fraser and Rona Barron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:188
  4. Mathematical modelling of infectious disease is increasingly used to help guide public health policy. As directly transmitted infections, such as influenza and tuberculosis, require contact between individuals...

    Authors: Niel Hens, Girma Minalu Ayele, Nele Goeyvaerts, Marc Aerts, Joel Mossong, John W Edmunds and Philippe Beutels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:187
  5. Antigen specificity and IgG subclass could be significant in the natural history of Chagas' disease. The relationship between the different stages of human Chagas' disease and the profiles of total IgG and its...

    Authors: Ivonne D Flechas, Adriana Cuellar, Zulma M Cucunubá, Fernando Rosas, Víctor Velasco, Mario Steindel, María del Carmen Thomas, Manuel Carlos López, John Mario González and Concepción Judith Puerta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:186
  6. Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening an...

    Authors: Hee-Soon Juon, Kui Son Choi, Eun-Cheol Park, Min-Son Kwak and Sunmin Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:185
  7. Shigellosis causes diarrheal disease in humans from both developed and developing countries, and multi-drug resistance is an emerging problem. The objective of this study is to present a unified approach that ...

    Authors: Sawsan Al-Nimri, Woutrina A Miller, Barbara A Byrne, Gerry Guibert and Lily Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:184
  8. There is limited information in the literature on the presentation and prognosis of candidal urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    Authors: Joan L Robinson, H Dele Davies, Michelle Barton, Karel O'Brien, Kim Simpson, Elizabeth Asztalos, Anne Synnes, Earl Rubin, Nicole Le Saux, Charles Hui, Joanne M Langley, Reg Sauve, Louis de Repentigny, Lajos Kovacs, Ben Tan and Susan E Richardson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:183
  9. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) were designed to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, discrepancies were found between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRAs results that can...

    Authors: Ornella Butera, Teresa Chiacchio, Stefania Carrara, Rita Casetti, Valentina Vanini, Serena Meraviglia, Giuliana Guggino, Francesco Dieli, Marco Vecchi, Francesco N Lauria, Almerico Marruchella, Patrizia Laurenti, Mahavir Singh, Nadia Caccamo, Enrico Girardi and Delia Goletti
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:182
  10. To design an effective strategy for the control of malaria requires a map of infection and disease risks to select appropriate suites of interventions. Advances in model based geo-statistics and malaria parasi...

    Authors: Abdisalan M Noor, Peter W Gething, Victor A Alegana, Anand P Patil, Simon I Hay, Eric Muchiri, Elizabeth Juma and Robert W Snow
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:180
  11. Cryptosporidium parvum, the protozoan parasite, causes a significant enteric disease in immunocompromised hosts such as HIV patients. The present study was aimed to compare serum IgG, IgM and IgA responses to cr...

    Authors: Kirti Kaushik, Sumeeta Khurana, Ajay Wanchu and Nancy Malla
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:179
  12. Moraxella catarrhalis causes approximately 10% of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and also colonizes the lower airway in stable patients. Little is known about the effects of coloni...

    Authors: Ganapathi I Parameswaran, Catherine T Wrona, Timothy F Murphy and Sanjay Sethi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:178
  13. We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP) technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR) for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of...

    Authors: Beata Krawczyk, Justyna Leibner-Ciszak, Anna Mielech, Magdalena Nowak and Józef Kur
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:177
  14. Surgeons may improve their decision making by assessing the extent to which their initial clinical diagnosis of a surgical site infection (SSI) was supported by culture results. Aim of the present study was to...

    Authors: Marco Krukerink, Job Kievit and Perla J Marang-van de Mheen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:176
  15. In February 2005, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the new meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) for routine use among 11- to 12-year-olds (at the preadolescent health-care visi...

    Authors: Suchita A Lorick, Daniel Fishbein, Eric Weintraub, Pascale M Wortley, Grace M Lee, Fangjun Zhou and Robert Davis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:175
  16. Chemokines have been reported to play an important role in granulomatous inflammation during Schistosoma mansoni infection. However there is less information on their role in Schistosoma haematobium infection, or...

    Authors: RBL Zinyama-Gutsire, E Gomo, P Kallestrup, C Erikstrup, H Ullum, AE Butterworth, S Munyati and T Mduluza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:174
  17. In Germany, the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 occurred among wild birds on the island of Ruegen between February and April 2006. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of...

    Authors: Wei Cai, Brunhilde Schweiger, Udo Buchholz, Silke Buda, Martina Littmann, Jörg Heusler and Walter Haas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:170
  18. Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barrier...

    Authors: Janneke H van Dijk, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Bornface Munsanje, Francis Hamangaba, Philip E Thuma and William J Moss
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:169
  19. There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) was established in ...

    Authors: Sek Mardy, Sovann Ly, Seng Heng, Sirenda Vong, Chea Huch, Chea Nora, Nima Asgari, Megge Miller, Isabelle Bergeri, Sybille Rehmet, Duong Veasna, Weigong Zhou, Takeshi Kasai, Sok Touch and Philippe Buchy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:168
  20. The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal eco...

    Authors: Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Inge Tency, Geert Claeys, Hans Verstraelen, Bart Saerens, Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Ellen De Backer, Piet Cools, Marleen Temmerman, Rita Verhelst and Mario Vaneechoutte
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:167
  21. The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisat...

    Authors: Robin Goodwin, Shamsul Haque, Felix Neto and Lynn B Myers
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:166
  22. Local reactions are the most commonly reported adverse events following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine and the risk of local reactions may increase with number of prior Td vaccinations.

    Authors: Lisa A Jackson, Onchee Yu, Edward A Belongia, Simon J Hambidge, Jennifer Nelson, Roger Baxter, Allison Naleway, Charlene Gay, James Nordin, James Baggs and John Iskander
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:165
  23. Computer keyboards and mice are potential reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, but routine disinfection for non-water-proof computer devices is a problem. With better hand hygiene compliance of health-care work...

    Authors: Po-Liang Lu, LK Siu, Tun-Chieh Chen, Ling Ma, Wen-Gin Chiang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Sheng-Fung Lin and Tyen-Po Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:164
  24. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for insect pest control in Cameroon. In certain insect species, particularly the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, resistance to this class of insecticides is a source of g...

    Authors: Philippe Nwane, Josiane Etang, Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Jean Claude Toto, Clément Kerah-Hinzoumbé, Rémy Mimpfoundi, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene and Frédéric Simard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:163
  25. World Health Organization (WHO) targets for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, including the notification of a minimum rate of AFP among children, are used to assess the adequacy of AFP surveillance f...

    Authors: Rochelle E Watkins, P Anthony J Martin, Heath Kelly, Ben Madin and Charles Watson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:162
  26. Infective endocarditis is significantly more common in haemodialysis patients as compared with the general population, the causative pathogen is generally Staphylococcus aureus; there have been no previously repo...

    Authors: Yusuke Tsugawa, Miyuki Futatsuyama, Keiichi Furukawa, Fumika Taki, Yuji Nishizaki, Keiichi Tamagaki, Yuki Kaneshiro and Yasuhiro Komatsu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:161
  27. Some island nations have explicit components of their influenza pandemic plans for providing travel warnings and restricting incoming travellers. But the potential value of such restrictions has not been quant...

    Authors: Martin Eichner, Markus Schwehm, Nick Wilson and Michael G Baker
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:160
  28. Ebola and Marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) in Gabon and Republic of C...

    Authors: Xavier Pourrut, Marc Souris, Jonathan S Towner, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol, Jean-Paul Gonzalez and Eric Leroy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:159
  29. The ocular manifestations of HIV may lead to visual impairment or blindness. In India, patients typically initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) with low CD4 cell counts when the risk of ocular complications ...

    Authors: Sophia Pathai, Alaka Deshpande, Clare Gilbert and Stephen D Lawn
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:158
  30. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) is considered useful in predicting the likeliness of developing bacterial infections in emergency setting. In this study, we describe PCT levels overtime and their relationship with b...

    Authors: Cédric Daubin, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Sabine Fradin, Astrid Vabret, Michel Ramakers, Nicolas Terzi, François Freymuth, Pierre Charbonneau and Damien du Cheyron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:157
  31. Interferon has been widely used in the treatment of genital warts for its immunomodulatory, antiproliferative and antiviral properties. Currently, no evidence that interferon improves the complete response rat...

    Authors: Jin Yang, Yu-guo Pu, Zhong-ming Zeng, Zhi-jian Yu, Na Huang and Qi-wen Deng
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:156
  32. HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and ...

    Authors: Shimelis Assefa, Berhanu Erko, Girmay Medhin, Zelalem Assefa and Techalew Shimelis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:155
  33. Tipranavir (TPV) is a recently approved nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI) of HIV-1 and has been indicated for those infected with PIs-resistant HIV-1. However, in clinical practice, whether the HIV-1 from th...

    Authors: Szu-Min Hsieh, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chien-Ching Hung, Wang-Huei Sheng, Mao-Yuan Chen and Shan-Chwen Chang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:154
  34. Group B streptococci (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae, are the leading bacterial cause of meningitis and bacterial sepsis in newborns. Here we compared different culture media for GBS detection and we compared ...

    Authors: Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Inge Tency, Geert Claeys, Bart Saerens, Ellen De Backer, Marleen Temmerman, Rita Verhelst and Mario Vaneechoutte
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:153
  35. Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, has recently been used as an agent of bioterrorism. The innate immune system initially appears to contain the pathogen at the site of entry. Because the human ...

    Authors: Mikhail Dozmorov, Wenxin Wu, Kaushik Chakrabarty, J Leland Booth, Robert E Hurst, K Mark Coggeshall and Jordan P Metcalf
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:152
  36. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers better opportunities to study links between tuberculosis (TB) cases and can highlight relevant issues in urban TB control in low-endemic countries.

    Authors: Gerard de Vries, Rob AH van Hest, Conny CA Burdo, Dick van Soolingen and Jan H Richardus
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:151
  37. With the control of many infections through national vaccination programmes, varicella is currently the most widespread preventable childhood disease in industrialized nations. In 2005 varicella vaccination wa...

    Authors: Vincenzo Baldo, Tatjana Baldovin, Francesca Russo, Marta Cecilia Busana, Cinzia Piovesan, Greta Bordignon, Aurore Giliberti and Renzo Trivello
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:150
  38. Knowledge of HBV genotype is very important for clinical treatment. Studies have suggested possible pathogenic and therapeutic differences among HBV genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine HBV subtyp...

    Authors: Priscila A Tonetto, Neiva SL Gonçales, Viviane C Fais, Aline G Vigani, Eduardo SL Gonçales, Adriana Feltrin and Fernando L Gonçales Jr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:149
  39. Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS) disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk o...

    Authors: Martina Wernecke, Ciara Mullen, Vimla Sharma, John Morrison, Thomas Barry, Majella Maher and Terry Smith
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:148
  40. Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the...

    Authors: Ann Florence B Victoriano, Lee D Smythe, Nina Gloriani-Barzaga, Lolita L Cavinta, Takeshi Kasai, Khanchit Limpakarnjanarat, Bee Lee Ong, Gyanendra Gongal, Julie Hall, Caroline Anne Coulombe, Yasutake Yanagihara, Shin-ichi Yoshida and Ben Adler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:147
  41. The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are colonised by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and other Enterobacteriaceae, ...

    Authors: Edward Hurrell, Eva Kucerova, Michael Loughlin, Juncal Caubilla-Barron, Anthony Hilton, Richard Armstrong, Craig Smith, Judith Grant, Shiu Shoo and Stephen Forsythe
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:146
  42. To allow direct comparison of bloodstream infection (BSI) rates between hospitals for performance measurement, observed rates need to be risk adjusted according to the types of patients cared for by the hospit...

    Authors: ENC Tong, ACA Clements, MA Haynes, MA Jones, AP Morton and M Whitby
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:145
  43. Within outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), at least 10–15% of cases are thought to have been acquired by secondary transmission. However, there has been little systematic quantification or characte...

    Authors: Kate G Snedeker, Darren J Shaw, Mary E Locking and Robin J Prescott
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:144
  44. There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening...

    Authors: Cara Franey, Deborah Knott, Till Barnighausen, Martin Dedicoat, Ahmed Adam, Richard J Lessells, Marie-Louise Newell and Graham S Cooke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:143
  45. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST) capacity are limited in resource-poor...

    Authors: Paolo Miotto, Nuccia Saleri, Mathurin Dembelé, Martial Ouedraogo, Gisèle Badoum, Gabriele Pinsi, Giovanni B Migliori, Alberto Matteelli and Daniela M Cirillo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:142
  46. The development and evaluation of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is essential to improve tuberculosis (TB) control in developing countries. In a previous study, the first release of a urine LAM-ELISA ...

    Authors: Klaus Reither, Elmar Saathoff, Jutta Jung, Lilian T Minja, Inge Kroidl, Eiman Saad, Jim F Huggett, Elias N Ntinginya, Lucas Maganga, Leonard Maboko and Michael Hoelscher
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:141

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