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  1. Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcγRIIb) is an important inhibitory receptor that plays vital roles in regulating various immune response processes and the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. The purpose of our r...

    Authors: Jinglan Jin, Yuwei Liu, Xiaotong Xu, Zhongfeng Wang and Junqi Niu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1235

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. In the absence of affordable point-of-care STI tests, WHO recommends STI t...

    Authors: Katharina Kranzer, Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Ioana D. Olaru, Chido Dziva Chikwari, Kevin Martin, Nicol Redzo, Tsitsi Bandason, Mandikudza Tembo, Suzanna C. Francis, Helen A. Weiss, Richard J. Hayes, Constancia Mavodza, Tsitsi Apollo, Gertrude Ncube, Anna Machiha…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1234

    Content type: Research

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  3. The British Thoracic Society (BTS) recommends that all patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia should have a chest X-ray (CXR) and clinical follow-up at 6 or 12 weeks, depending on the disease severity. Litt...

    Authors: C. A. Musat, M. Hadzhiivanov, V. Durkowski, A. Banerjee, A. Chiphang, M. Diwan, M. S. Mahmood, M. N. Shami and A. Nune

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1233

    Content type: Research

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  4. Previous studies have described some risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in urinary tract infection (UTI). However, the clinical impact of MDR bacteria on older hospitalized patients with commu...

    Authors: Manuel Madrazo, Ana Esparcia, Ian López-Cruz, Juan Alberola, Laura Piles, Alba Viana, José María Eiros and Arturo Artero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1232

    Content type: Research

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  5. Leptospirosis is a common infectious disease in tropical and semitropical regions, and it is typically neglected. Leptospirosis-associated acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is one of its fatal complications. T...

    Authors: Meiqin Chen, Weili Lu, Shugen Wu, Shun Wang, Tao Lu and Chunxian Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1230

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic fungus that causes infections in immunosuppressed patients. It is rarely seen in children and immunocompetent hosts. The mortality rates are still high despite early treatm...

    Authors: Miral Al Momani, Dawood H. Yusef, Du’a Hamasha, Moh’d Rawhi Abu Hamad and Sara Farran

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1229

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of public health concern in Algeria. The immunocompromised patients with HIV, autoimmune diseases, or chronic alcohol abuse are at a higher risk of leishmaniasis. ...

    Authors: Arezki Izri, Amina Bendjaballah-Laliam, Denis Sereno, Ihcene Kherachi Djenad, Zoubir Harrat and Mohammad Akhoundi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1227

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Kyasanur forest disease (KFD), known as monkey fever, was for the first time reported in 1957 from the Shivamogga district of Karnataka. But since 2011, it has been spreading to the neighbouring state of Keral...

    Authors: Malay Pramanik, Poonam Singh and Ramesh C. Dhiman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1226

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Increasing macrolide resistance makes treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infections challenging. The second-line treatment is moxifloxacin, an antibiotic drug best avoided due to the potential of severe side effe...

    Authors: M. Gossé, S. A. Nordbø and B. Pukstad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1225

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Nocardia is a relatively rare opportunistic pathogenic bacteria group, commonly seen in patients with immunocompromised or defective immune system. It can affect multiple organs of the body and cause disseminated...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Xiaoran Li, Tao Zhang, Xin Lin and Yu-Chen Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1224

    Content type: Case report

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  11. To manage severe or potentially severe cases of CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting Spike protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ha...

    Authors: Honorine Fenaux, Romain Gueneau, Amal Chaghouri, Benoît Henry, Lina Mouna, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso and Christelle Vauloup-Fellous

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1223

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The World Health Organization recommends dolutegravir (DTG) as the for first-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide. However, little is known about the acceptability and tolerability of DT...

    Authors: Henry Zakumumpa, Freddy Eric Kitutu, Helen Byomire Ndagije, Nakitto-Kesi Diana, Jacquellyn Nambi Ssanyu and Ronald Kiguba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1222

    Content type: Research

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  13. The current group B streptococcal (GBS) preventive measures had reduced invasive GBS early onset disease (EOD) incidences worldwide, but the late onset disease (LOD) incidences had remained unchanged. Administ...

    Authors: Kai-Qian Kam, Koh Cheng Thoon, Wen Sim Nancy Tee, Michelle Lay Teng Ang, Natalie Woon Hui Tan, Kee Thai Yeo, Jiahui Li and Chia Yin Chong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1221

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces, especially in children. Here, we present a case of musculoskeletal actinomycosis in a 5-year-old girl from China.

    Authors: Yani Mou, Qin Jiao, Yizhong Wang, Xiaolu Li, Yongmei Xiao, Lihua Zhao and Ting Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1220

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  15. Scrub typhus is caused by O. tsutsugamushi and spreads through mite larvae biting the skin. Classic symptoms of the disease are eschar and lymphadenopathy. Previous reports have revealed clinical manifestations o...

    Authors: Mei-fang Liu, Yong Liu, De-rong Xu, La-gen Wan and Rui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1219

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Several repurposed drugs such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been investigated for treatment of COVID-19, but none was confirmed to be efficacious. While in vitro studies have demonstrated antiviral properti...

    Authors: Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Jerome Roy Semakula, Jane Nakibuuka, Joseph Musaazi, James Kayima, Cornelius Sendagire, David Meya, Bruce Kirenga, Sarah Nanzigu, Arthur Kwizera, Fred Nakwagala, Ivan Kisuule, Misaki Wayengera, Henry G. Mwebesa, Moses R. Kamya…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1218

    Content type: Research

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  17. Little is known about the exact incidence of necrotizing soft tissue infections. The few incidences reported in international literature are not directly relatable to the Netherlands, or other European countri...

    Authors: Femke Nawijn, Brechje de Gier, Diederik A. H. Brandwagt, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Jort Keizer and Falco Hietbrink

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1217

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with bronchiectasis and nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) pulmonary disease are challenging issues and the treatment is also prolonged and depends on the species. There...

    Authors: Hongjun Yin, Xiaoying Gu, Yimin Wang, Guohui Fan, Binghuai Lu, Min Liu, Chunlei Wang, Bin Cao and Chen Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1216

    Content type: Research

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  19. Baseline hospitalization, mortality, and in-hospital fatality rates for meningococcal infection are required to evaluate preventive interventions, such as the inclusion of the conjugated quadrivalent meningoco...

    Authors: Stefan Walter, Ruth Gil-Prieto, Mario Gil-Conesa, Gil Rodriguez-Caravaca, Jesús San Román and Angel Gil de Miguel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1215

    Content type: Research

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  20. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy of people with migratory backgrounds among Turkish- and German-speaking patients in Munich.

    Authors: Zekeriya Aktürk, Klaus Linde, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Raphael Kunisch and Antonius Schneider

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1214

    Content type: Research

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  21. Antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) help determine previous infection in individuals, regardless of whether they are asymptomatic or symptomatic. The detection of an...

    Authors: Hatairat Lerdsamran, Anek Mungaomklang, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Jarunee Prasertsopon, Kriengkrai Prasert, Poj Intalapaporn, Nirada Siriyakorn, Witthawat Wiriyarat, Nattakan Thinpan, Suteema Sawadpongpan, Somrak Sirikhetkon, Noparat Mongkalangoon, Suwanna Petto and Pilaipan Puthavathana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1213

    Content type: Research

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  22. Despite having a high mortality rate, Asian studies about the characteristics of adult listeriosis are limited. We investigated the incidence of listeriosis per admissions, associated factors, and rate of mort...

    Authors: Yusuke Watanabe, Itaru Nakamura, Yuri Miura and Hidehiro Watanabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1212

    Content type: Research

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  23. To establish a prediction of HBsAg seroconversion in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), so as to help clinicians to choose therapeutic strategy.

    Authors: Yan-Wei Zhong, Yan-Min Shi, Fang Chu, Jie Liu, Ce Shi, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Peng Liu, Yan-Jie Bai, Xiao-He Xiao, Xiu-Chang Zhang and Min Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1211

    Content type: Research article

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  24. To assess the utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) velocity to discriminate between patients with acute viral and bacterial infections who presented with relatively low CRP concentrations and were suspected of ...

    Authors: Daniel Bernstein, Dan Coster, Shlomo Berliner, Itzhak Shapira, David Zeltser, Ori Rogowski, Amos Adler, Ora Halutz, Tal Levinson, Omri Ritter, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty and Asaf Wasserman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1210

    Content type: Research article

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  25. There was a complete lack of information about the treatment outcomes of rifampicin/multidrug resistant (RR/MDR) childhood TB patients (age ≤ 14 years) from Pakistan, an MDR-TB 5th high burden country. Therefo...

    Authors: Farah Naz, Nafees Ahmad, Abdul Wahid, Izaz Ahmad, Asad Khan, Muhammad Abubakar, Shabir Ahmed Khan, Amjad Khan, Abdullah Latif and Abdul Ghafoor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1209

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare lung condition that is associated with acute lung injury. Its etiology may be idiopathic or secondary to a series of conditions, including immune-relat...

    Authors: Xiaojing Wu, Kejing Wang, Yayue Gao, Ying Cai, Wenqiao Wang, Dingrong Zhong and Qingyuan Zhan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1207

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Approximately one-fourth of the global population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An understanding of the burden of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among immigrants compared with the ge...

    Authors: Sarah Yu, Dawoon Jeong and Hongjo Choi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1206

    Content type: Research

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  28. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection despite being a vaccine preventable disease remains a global public health problem. In Cameroon, the hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the expanded program on immunisation...

    Authors: Ephesians N. Anutebeh, Lambed Tatah, Vitalis F. Feteh, Desmond Aroke, Jules C. N. Assob and Simeon Pierre Choukem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1205

    Content type: Research

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  29. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at an increased risk of developing secondary bacterial infections. These are both difficult to diagnose and are associated with an increased mortality. Metabolomics ma...

    Authors: Gordan McCreath, Phillip D. Whitfield, Andrew J. Roe, Malcolm J. Watson and Malcolm A. B. Sim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1204

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Mexico is on the top five countries with the highest number of TB cases in America continent, nevertheless, information about genotypes circulating is practically unknown. Considering the above this study aims...

    Authors: Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas, Daniela Munro-Rojas, Damián Pérez-Martínez, Esdras Fernandez-Morales, Ana C. Jimenez-Ruano, Hilda Montero, Leila Escobar, Everest de Igartua, Ángel Trigos and Javier Fuentes-Dominguez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1202

    Content type: Research

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  31. Blood stream infections are serious infections that usually induce prolongation of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality in several countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine bacteri...

    Authors: Etsehiwot Adamu Tsegaye, Dejenie Shiferaw Teklu, Zelalem Tazu Bonger, Abebe Aseffa Negeri, Tesfaye Legesse Bedada and Adane Bitew

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1201

    Content type: Research

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  32. Non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a fulminant disease with an increasing incidence. The serum beta-d-glucan (BDG) assay is used as an adjunct to the diagnosis of PCP; however,...

    Authors: Jumpei Taniguchi, Kei Nakashima, Hiroki Matsui, Tomohisa Watari, Ayumu Otsuki, Hiroyuki Ito and Yoshihito Otsuka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1200

    Content type: Research

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  33. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple-to-use nomogram for the prediction of syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangdong Province.

    Authors: Peizhen Zhao, Ziying Yang, Baohui Li, Mingzhou Xiong, Ye Zhang, Jiyuan Zhou and Cheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1199

    Content type: Research

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  34. Truck, bus, transit drivers, and men with mobile jobs are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV and risky behaviors among truck and bus drivers in Kurdis...

    Authors: Aisan Karimi, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh, Obeidollah Faraji and Khaled Rahmani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1198

    Content type: Research

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  35. This study mainly evaluates the clinical characteristics and chest chest computed tomography (CT) findings of AFB-positive and AFB-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients to explore the relationship bet...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Xiaoqian Shang, Liang Wang, Jiahui Fan, Fengming Tian, Xuanzheng Wang, Weina Kong, Jing Wang, Yunling Wang and Xiumin Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1197

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Carbapenem resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) and Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) are emerging multidrug resistant bacteria with very limited treatment options in case of infection. Both are well-known causes...

    Authors: Patrick Chhatwal, Ella Ebadi, Frank Schwab, Stefan Ziesing, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Nicolas Simon, Svetlana Gerbel, Dirk Schlüter, Franz-Christoph Bange and Claas Baier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1196

    Content type: Research

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  37. Extensive parasitic diseases epidemiology in Zhejiang province has not been carried out since the second national survey in 2004. Therefore, dynamics in prevalence and infection pattern of the major intestinal...

    Authors: Yan Feng, Kegen Yu, Hualiang Chen, Xuan Zhang, Qiaoyi Lu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xueying Zhang, Linong Yao and Wei Ruan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1195

    Content type: Research article

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  38. To examine whether outdoor transmission may contribute to the COVID-19 epidemic, we hypothesized that slower outdoor wind speed is associated with increased risk of transmission when individuals socialize outs...

    Authors: Sean A. P. Clouston, Olga Morozova and Jaymie R. Meliker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1194

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Bacteremia due to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is associated with specific diseases, such as colorectal cancer and infective endocarditis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinica...

    Authors: Yuki Kaiki, Hiroki Kitagawa, Kayoko Tadera, Hiroyuki Taogoshi, Mitsuyasu Ikeda, Mikihiro Kano, Toshie Harino, Toshihito Nomura, Keitaro Omori, Norifumi Shigemoto, Shinya Takahashi and Hiroki Ohge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1192

    Content type: Research

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  40. The high misdiagnosis rate of asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) has long challenged infectious disease clinicians. We aim to develop a model for diagnosing ANS in asymptomatic syphilis (AS) patients without CSF...

    Authors: Weijie Li, Jiaqi Han, Pan Zhao, Dagang Wang, Tianhao Sun, Jie Guo, Yanqun He, Pei Qu, Ying Liu, Congle Shen and Yajie Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1191

    Content type: Research

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  41. Identifying the biological subclasses of septic shock might provide specific targeted therapies for the treatment and prognosis of septic shock. It might be possible to find biological markers for the early pr...

    Authors: Songchang Shi, Xiaobin Pan, Hangwei Feng, Shujuan Zhang, Songjing Shi and Wei Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1190

    Content type: Research

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  42. This study aimed to assess the seasonality of confirmed malaria cases in Togo and to provide new indicators of malaria seasonality to the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP).

    Authors: Anne Thomas, Tchaa A. Bakai, Tinah Atcha-Oubou, Tchassama Tchadjobo, Nadine Bossard, Muriel Rabilloud and Nicolas Voirin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1189

    Content type: Research

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  43. Increasing numbers of tick-borne pathogens are being discovered, including those that infect humans. However, reports on co-infections caused by two or more tick-borne pathogens are scarce.

    Authors: Yu Zhang, Liang Jiang, Yicheng Yang, Songsong Xie, Wumei Yuan and Yuanzhi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1187

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a systemic inflammatory response caused by the rickettsial bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI) are rare complications of HGA....

    Authors: Jeong Min Cho, Jeonghyun Chang, Dong-Min Kim, Yee Gyung Kwak, Chong Rae Cho and Je Eun Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1184

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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