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  1. Content type: Research article

    Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by various enteroviruses. The disease has imposed increased burden on children younger than 5 years old. We aimed to determine t...

    Authors: Hong Ji, Huan Fan, Peng-xiao Lu, Xue-Feng Zhang, Jing Ai, Chao Shi, Xiang Huo, Chang-jun Bao, Jun Shan and Yu Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:79

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Recognizing patients with encephalitis may be challenging. The cardinal symptom, encephalopathy, has a wide array of differential diagnoses. In this prospective study we aimed to explore the etiology of enceph...

    Authors: Else Quist-Paulsen, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Elisabeth S. Lindland, Katrine Ellefsen, Leiv Sandvik, Oona Dunlop and Vidar Ormaasen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:80

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The human respiratory tract represents the major portal of entry for numerous microorganisms, primarily those occurring as airborne particles such as viral and bacterial entities, or fungal spores. Microorgani...

    Authors: Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Antonia Susca, Giulia Scioscia, Donato Lacedonia, Grazia Cotugno, Piera Soccio, Sonia Santamaria, Onofrio Resta, Giuseppe Logrieco and Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:78

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Cholera has been endemic in Ghana since its detection in 1970. It has been shown that long-term survival of the bacteria may be attained in aquatic environments. Consequently, cholera outbreaks may be triggere...

    Authors: David Abana, Elizabeth Gyamfi, Magdalene Dogbe, Grace Opoku, David Opare, Gifty Boateng and Lydia Mosi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:76

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Periodontal disease, including periodontitis, has been reported to be a rare cause of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE). It is however extremely difficult to isolate the causative pathogen of periodontal disease...

    Authors: Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Masamichi Yokoe and Yoshinori Noguchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:74

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, remaining a major public health concern, especially affecting children under 5 years old from low-income...

    Authors: Stephanie Saiki-Macedo, Jorge Valverde-Ezeta, Angela Cornejo-Tapia, Maria Esther Castillo, Verónica Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Luis J. del Valle, Erico Cieza-Mora, Carlos Bada, Olguita del Aguila, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Johanna Martins-Luna, Fernando Vasquez-Achaya and Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:75

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The roll out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa led to a decrease in mortality. Few studies have documented the causes of deaths among patients on long term antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Sah...

    Authors: Agnes N. Kiragga, Frank Mubiru, Andrew D. Kambugu, Moses R. Kamya and Barbara Castelnuovo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:77

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is becoming endemic in São Paulo state, in the southeastern region of Brazil. Unusual manifestations with non-specific signs and symptoms may make diagnosis difficult and delay trea...

    Authors: Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Patricia Rodrigues Naufal Spir, Mateus Fontanesi, Karen Gabriella Pereira Garcia, Francisco Assis da Silva, Edilson Ferreira Flores and Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:70

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Human schistosomiases are acute and chronic infectious diseases of poverty. Currently, epidemiological data of urinary schistosomiasis (US) in school-age children (SAC) and adults are often reported together m...

    Authors: Tolulope Ebenezer Atalabi and Taiwo Oluwakemi Adubi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:73

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium found in the nose and throat of healthy individuals, and presents risk factors for infection and death. We investigated environmental contamination of fitness facilitie...

    Authors: Mark Dalman, Sabana Bhatta, Nagashreyaa Nagajothi, Dipendra Thapaliya, Hailee Olson, Haji Mohammad Naimi and Tara C. Smith

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:69

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii. Its incidence at 2 years or more after liver transplant (LT) is < 0.1%. PCP-related spontaneous pneumothorax and/...

    Authors: Wong Hoi She, Kenneth S. H. Chok, Iris W. S. Li, Ka Wing Ma, Sui Ling Sin, Wing Chiu Dai, James Y. Y. Fung and Chung Mau Lo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:66

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Excess water in all its forms (moisture, dampness, hidden water) in buildings negatively impacts occupant health but is hard to reliably detect and quantify. Recent advances in through-wall imaging recommend m...

    Authors: Andrew Horsley and David S. Thaler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:67

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Infectious mononucleosis is one of the main manifestations of Epstein – Barr virus, which is characterized by fever, tonsillar-pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and atypical lymphocytes. Although 60% of patients wi...

    Authors: Chinthana Dematapitiya, Chiara Perera, Wajira Chinthaka, Solith Senanayaka, Deshani Tennakoon, Anfas Ameer, Dinesh Ranasinghe, Ushani Warriyapperuma, Suneth Weerarathna and Ravindra Satharasinghe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:68

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  14. Content type: Technical advance

    Rapid and accurate pathogen identification in blood cultures is very important for septic patients and has major consequences on morbidity and mortality rates. In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption...

    Authors: Maya Azrad, Yoram Keness, Orna Nitzan, Nina Pastukh, Linda Tkhawkho, Victoria Freidus and Avi Peretz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:72

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  15. Content type: Research article

    To provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer (CC), we investigated the distribution characteristics and genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the prevalence of multip...

    Authors: Xiao-wen Yuan, Yi-Jian Li, Quan Qiu, Zi-yuan Luo and Xue-feng Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:71

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programmes have substantially reduced HIV infections among infants in Yunnan Province, China. We conducted a macro-level economic evaluation of Yunnan’...

    Authors: Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Jiarui Zheng and Lin Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:64

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Direct comparisons between lamivudine plus bPIs and lamivudine plus dolutegravir as maintenance strategies in virologically-suppressed HIV positive patients are lacking.

    Authors: Alberto Borghetti, Francesca Lombardi, Roberta Gagliardini, Gianmaria Baldin, Arturo Ciccullo, Davide Moschese, Arianna Emiliozzi, Simone Belmonti, Silvia Lamonica, Francesca Montagnani, Elena Visconti, Andrea De Luca and Simona Di Giambenedetto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:59

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has various presentations, depending on the patient’s immune status, age, and the route of transmission. In adults, HSV type 1 is found predominantly in the oral area, and HSV type 2...

    Authors: Shuhei Kurosawa, Noritaka Sekiya, Kazuaki Fukushima, Kazuhiko Ikeuchi, Akito Fukuda, Hideyuki Takahashi, Fangyi Chen, Hideki Hasegawa, Harutaka Katano, Tsunekazu Hishima and Keigo Setoguchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:65

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Every year around 4 million people with tuberculosis (TB) are not detected. Thus may not get the medical care that they need and deserve from their respective health systems. Ethiopia is included in the 12 cou...

    Authors: Dawit Assefa, Feleke Belachew, Getachew Wondimagegn and Eveline Klinkenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:60

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in Sub Saharan Africa including Tanzania. Provision of isoniazid pre...

    Authors: Amon Sabasaba, Henry Mwambi, Geoffrey Somi, Angella Ramadhani and Michael J. Mahande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:62

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Antifungal resistance rates are increasing. We investigated the mechanisms of azole resistance of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates obtained from a surveillance study conducted between 2012 and 2015.

    Authors: Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo, Shannon Jing-Yi Lee, Ai-Ling Tan, Robyn Su-May Lim, Yiying Cai, Tze-Peng Lim and Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:63

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common pathogens causing genital tract infections. Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are the key population to be affected by sexually transmitted ...

    Authors: Alelign Tadele, Siraj Hussen and Techalew Shimelis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:61

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The mechanism behind HIV mediated immune activation remains debated, although the role of virus replication in this process is increasingly evident. Toll like Receptor 9 (TLR9) has been implicated in HIV media...

    Authors: Anjali Joshi, Erin B. Punke, Tugba Mehmetoglu-Gurbuz, Diego P. Peralta and Himanshu Garg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:56

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Extracellular hydrolases (phospholipase, aspartyl protease and haemolysin) and biofilm production are considered as major virulence factors of the opportunistic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. However, the im...

    Authors: Houdaii H. El-Houssaini, Omnia M. Elnabawy, Hebatallah A. Nasser and Walid F. Elkhatib

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:54

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health concern on a global scale, especially in developing nations. So far, no formal guidelines are available for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis pleurisy....

    Authors: Yimin Tang, Juanjuan Zhang, Huarong Huang, Xing He, Jiaohong Zhang, Min Ou, Guobao Li, Changchun Zeng, Taosheng Ye, Lili Ren, Yingxia Liu and Guoliang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:55

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  26. Content type: Case report

    After allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), Hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) can be observed in patients with previous resolved Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Nephrotic syn...

    Authors: Jing-Wen Zhang, Xiang-Zhong Zhang, Yan-Ling Sun, Bing Long, Xiao-Zhen Wang and Xu-Dong Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:57

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Leprosy is an ideal human disease to study T cell regulation as patients show correlation between cytokine skewed Th1-Th2 responses and clinical forms of the disease. The Role of transcription factors on the m...

    Authors: Rajni Upadhyay, Bhavyata Dua, Bhawna Sharma, Mohan Natrajan, Ajai Kumar Jain, Balaji Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy and Beenu Joshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:52

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Stool consistency is an important diagnostic criterion in both research and clinical medicine and is often used to define diarrheal disease.

    Authors: Kristen Aiemjoy, Eda Altan, Solomon Aragie, Dionna M. Fry, Tung G. Phan, Xutao Deng, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E. Kelly Callahan, Eric Delwart and Jeremy D. Keenan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:53

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of diarrhea and continues to be a major burden within healthcare institutions and in the community. For a small subset of patients with frequently relap...

    Authors: Kevin Zhang, Patricia Beckett, Salaheddin Abouanaser, Vida Stankus, Christine Lee and Marek Smieja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:51

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  30. Content type: Case report

    For patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis in less developed western regions in China, due to constraints of local economic conditions, the choice of treatment measures is often limited. However if pa...

    Authors: Yue-Rong Zhang, De-Ming Wu, Xiong-Chang Liu, Ning Zhou, Chang-Chun Cao, Wu-Hua Liu, Chun-Xia Wang and Hui Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:49

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Biofilm production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been implicated in the pathogenesis of otitis media, mainly in chronic and recurrent cases. We studied the in vitro biofilm producti...

    Authors: Quentin Vermee, Robert Cohen, Constantin Hays, Emmanuelle Varon, Stephane Bonacorsi, Stephane Bechet, Franck Thollot, François Corrard, Claire Poyart, Corinne Levy and Josette Raymond

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:44

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Kenya immunization program in July 2014. Pre-vaccine disease burden estimates are important for assessing vaccine impact.

    Authors: Richard Omore, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, John B. Ochieng, Jane Juma, Stephen Munga, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, J. Pekka Nuorti, Frank Odhiambo, Jason M. Mwenda, Robert F. Breiman, Umesh D. Parashar and Jacqueline E. Tate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:47

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Malaysia has rising dengue incidence. World Health Organization clinical practice guidelines for managing dengue have been adapted by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia, with evidence of good awareness by clin...

    Authors: Alexandra Wharton-Smith, Judith Green, Ee Chin Loh, Alexander Gorrie, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Loraine Bacchus and Lucy Chai See Lum

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:45

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in humans. Several studies have been performed to reveal the prevalence rate of C. difficile in cats and dogs. However, litt...

    Authors: Yanxia Wei, Mingchuang Sun, Yuhan Zhang, Jing Gao, Fanyun Kong, Dianbin Liu, Hao Yu, Jinxin Du and Renxian Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:46

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Nigeria accounts for a significant proportion of the global drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) burden, a large proportion of which goes untreated. Different models for managing DR-TB treatment with varying le...

    Authors: Florence O. Bada, Evaezi Okpokoro, Nick Blok, Emmanuel Meribole, Saswata Dutt, Patrick Dakum, Alash’le Abimiku, Alice Zwerling and Sandra V. Kik

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:41

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Bovine tuberculosis is among the primary zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis which has significant impact on the health of livestock and human. It has been significantly a cause for great economic loss...

    Authors: Jelalu Kemal, Berhanu Sibhat, Aklilu Abraham, Yitagele Terefe, Ketema Tafess Tulu, Kiros Welay and Nejib Getahun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:39

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Urinary tract infection (UTIs) is a significant health problem in diabetic patients because of the multiple effects of this disease on the urinary tract and host immune system. Complicated UTIs occur most comm...

    Authors: Hiwot Ketema Woldemariam, Dereje Assefa Geleta, Kassu Desta Tulu, Negga Asamene Aber, Melese Hailu Legese, Genet Molla Fenta and Ibrahim Ali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:43

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Influenza is a global infectious disease with a large burden of illness and high healthcare costs. Those who experience greater burden of disease include younger and older people, and pregnant women. Although ...

    Authors: Kam Cheong Wong, Georgina M. Luscombe and Catherine Hawke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:42

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Acute pericarditis may occur frequently after viral infections. To our knowledge, influenza B virus infection complicated by pericarditis without myocardial involvement has never been reported. We report the f...

    Authors: Silvia Spoto, Emanuele Valeriani, Luciana Locorriere, Giuseppina Beretta Anguissola, Angelo Lauria Pantano, Francesca Terracciani, Elisabetta Riva, Massimo Ciccozzi, Sebastiano Costantino and Silvia Angeletti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:40

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) and 7 (HAdV-7) cause significant morbidity and develop severe complications and long-term pulmonary sequelae in children. However, epidemiologic reports have suggested that nea...

    Authors: Yangxi Fu, Zhengzhen Tang, Zhixu Ye, Shi Mo, Xingui Tian, Ke Ni, Luo Ren, Enmei Liu and Na Zang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:36

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has recently become a challenging problem worldwide and in Japan. We experienced 10 pediatric patients infected with CA-MRSA an...

    Authors: Yuki Uehara, Takashi Sasaki, Tadashi Baba, Yujie Lu, Eri Imajo, Yuka Sato, Shigeru Tanno, Munehiro Furuichi, Miki Kawada and Keiichi Hiramatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:35

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The preventive effect of laminar air flow (LAF) on aspergillosis has been observed in patients with hematological malignancies. However, the short follow-up period limits the interpretation of study results.

    Authors: Makoto Iwasaki, Junya Kanda, Masakatsu Hishizawa, Toshiyuki Kitano, Tadakazu Kondo, Kouhei Yamashita and Akifumi Takaori-Kondo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:38

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  43. Content type: Case report

    Cytomegalovirus is responsible for an opportunistic infection that can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients, while it is usually mild or completely asymptomatic in immunocompetent subjects. In the...

    Authors: Giovanni Carpani, Sergio Foresti, Raffaella Dell’Oro, Guido Grassi and Michele Bombelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:34

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  44. Content type: Case report

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide zoonosis and the liver is the most commonly affected organ. Clinical manifestations range from completely asymptomatic cysts to a potential lethal cyst rupture and ana...

    Authors: Flaminia Coluzzi, Roberto Luca Meniconi, Damiano Caruso, Flaminia Rivosecchi, Linda Petrone, Delia Goletti and Giuseppe Maria Ettorre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:37

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Hepatic clonorchiasis is one of the most prevalent food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. Clonorchis sinensis, the pathogen, is the major parasitic trigger contributing to cholangitis, cholelithiasis, and even ...

    Authors: Xialei Liu, Genglong Zhu, Chaonong Cai, Zhiyue Lv and Jian Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:33

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) urethritis has been increasing for the past 10 years. There is little data regarding the screening of Ct infection in asymptomatic men in France, despite the national r...

    Authors: Paul Rondeau, Nadia Valin, Dominique Decré, Pierre-Marie Girard, Karine Lacombe and Laure Surgers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:31

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Viruses are commonly found in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, the viral etiologies and clinical characteristics of outpatients with ARIs are poorly understood in China. Here, we ide...

    Authors: Xiaohong Wen, Qiuling Huang, Hong Tao, Weihua Zou, Min Gao, Huihui Guo, Xing Yao, Dawei Cui and Xiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:32

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