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  1. Reports on the effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting. We performed this meta-analysis to find con...

    Authors: Yihienew M. Bezabih, Alemayehu Bezabih, Endalkachew Alamneh, Gregory M. Peterson and Woldesellassie Bezabhe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:527

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Navigating the rapidly growing body of scientific literature on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is challenging, and ongoing critical appraisal of this output is essential. We aimed to summarize and critically appraise...

    Authors: Israel Júnior Borges do Nascimento, Dónal P. O’Mathúna, Thilo Caspar von Groote, Hebatullah Mohamed Abdulazeem, Ishanka Weerasekara, Ana Marusic, Livia Puljak, Vinicius Tassoni Civile, Irena Zakarija-Grkovic, Tina Poklepovic Pericic, Alvaro Nagib Atallah, Santino Filoso, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi and Milena Soriano Marcolino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:525

    Content type: Research article

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  3. With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a r...

    Authors: Wen Sun, Ji-Ping Liao, Kun-Yao Yu, Jian-Xing Qiu, Chen-Li Que, Guang-Fa Wang and Jing Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:524

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Vaginal candidiasis is frequent in women of reproductive age. Accurate identification Candida provides helpful information for successful therapy and epidemiology study; however, there are very limited data from ...

    Authors: Do Ngoc Anh, Dao Nguyen Hung, Tran Viet Tien, Vu Nhat Dinh, Vu Tung Son, Nguyen Viet Luong, Nguyen Thi Van, Nguyen Thi Nhu Quynh, Nguyen Van Tuan, Le Quoc Tuan, Nguyen Duy Bac, Nguyen Khac Luc, Le Tran Anh and Do Minh Trung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:523

    Content type: Research

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  5. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic state to a fatal multiorgan dysfunction. Neurological manifestations includi...

    Authors: Jayawardane Pathiranage Roneesha Lakmali, Kanapathipillei Thirumavalavan and Danapala Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:522

    Content type: Case report

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  6. The clinical manifestations of recent syphilis can be variable, with typical and atypical patterns. Several conditions may cause atypical clinical aspects, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infec...

    Authors: F. Magri, M. G. Donà, C. Panetta, M. Pontone, F. Pimpinelli, N. Cameli, A. Cristaudo, M. Zaccarelli and A. Latini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:521

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Limited antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available in Eastern Europe. We investigated AMR in N. gonorrhoeae isolates in the Republic of Belarus from 2009 to 2019, antimicrobial tr...

    Authors: Aliaksandra Aniskevich, Iryna Shimanskaya, Iryna Boiko, Tatyana Golubovskaya, Daniel Golparian, Iryna Stanislavova, Susanne Jacobsson, Aliaksandr Adaskevich and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:520

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Late presentation remains a key barrier towards controlling the HIV epidemic. Indicator conditions (ICs) are those that are AIDS-defining, associated with a prevalence of undiagnosed HIV > 0.1%, or whose clini...

    Authors: Saskia J. Bogers, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Udi Davidovich, Anders Boyd, Marc van der Valk, Kees Brinkman, Godelieve J. de Bree, Peter Reiss, Jan E. A. M. van Bergen and Suzanne E. Geerlings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:519

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive non-spore-forming rods usually found in the microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genitourinary tract. Also, they are commonly used in the ...

    Authors: David Ramos-Coria, Jorge Canto-Losa, Daniel Carrillo-Vázquez, Leonardo Carbajal-Morelos, Rodrigo Estrada-León and Eduardo Corona-Rodarte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:518

    Content type: Case report

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  10. We report an unusual case of infective colitis by Yersinia enterocolitica complicated by microliver abscesses mimicking multiple liver metastases in a 79 yr old female without any risk factors for bacteriaemia by...

    Authors: Rosario Luca Norrito, Chiara Pintus, Marco Cataldi, Alessandro Del Cuore, Mario Daidone, Valerio Vassallo, Maria Grazia Puleo, Tiziana Di Chiara, Salvatore Miceli, Giuseppina Maria Pizzo, Giuseppe Brancatelli, Antonino Tuttolomondo and Antonio Pinto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:517

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Empiric antibiotics for community acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) are often prescribed to patients with COVID-19, despite a low reported incidence of co-infections. Stewardship interventions targeted at fa...

    Authors: Natasha N. Pettit, Cynthia T. Nguyen, Alison K. Lew, Palak H. Bhagat, Allison Nelson, Gregory Olson, Jessica P. Ridgway, Mai T. Pho and Jade Pagkas-Bather

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:516

    Content type: Research article

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  12. SARS-CoV-2 can affect the human brain and other neurological structures. An increasing number of publications report neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19. However, no studies have comprehensiv...

    Authors: Juan I. Guerrero, Luis A. Barragán, Juan D. Martínez, Juan P. Montoya, Alejandra Peña, Fidel E. Sobrino, Zulma Tovar-Spinoza and Kemel A. Ghotme

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:515

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Talaromyces marneffei (TM) bloodstream infection is common in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with extreme immunodeficiency in Southeast Asia and South China, however, clinical case study on...

    Authors: Jianjun Sun, Weiwei Sun, Yang Tang, Renfang Zhang, Li Liu, Yinzhong Shen, Jiangrong Wang, Jun Chen, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Wei Song, Yixiao Lin, Shuibao Xu and Hongzhou Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:514

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In resource-limited settings, sputum smear conversion is used to document treatment response. Many People living with HIV (PLHIV) are smear-negative at baseline. The Xpert MTB/RIF test can indirectly measure b...

    Authors: Juliet Namugenyi, Joseph Musaazi, Achilles Katamba, Joan Kalyango, Emmanuel Sendaula, Andrew Kambugu, Jan Fehr, Barbara Castelnouvo, Yukari C. Manabe, Willy Ssengooba and Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:513

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Migrants are a high priority group for TB control measures due to their high exposure to risk factors such as poverty and social vulnerability. The study aimed to identify factors associated with latent TB amo...

    Authors: Sonia Vivian de Jezus, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio, Keila Cristina Mascarello, Carolina Maia Martins Sales, Maysa Mabel Fauth, Nahari de Faria Marcos Terena, Raphael Florindo Amorim, Vania Maria Silva Araujo, Miguel Angel López Aragón and Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:512

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:591

  16. Discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment (DTT) among children in sub-Saharan Africa is a major obstacle to effective tuberculosis (TB) control and has the potential to worsen the emergence of multi-drug resis...

    Authors: Leonard Kibirige, Jonathan Izudi and Stephen Okoboi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:511

    Content type: Research

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  17. To determine the prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis in patients with hematological neoplasms at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City using the Tuberculin skin test (TST).

    Authors: Erick Antonio Osorio-López, Diana Vilar-Compte, Jaquelyn García-Tirado and Alexandra Martin-Onraet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:510

    Content type: Research

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  18. Readily-available diagnostics do not reliably discriminate between viral and bacterial pediatric uncomplicated pneumonia, both of which are common. Some have suggested that assessment of pneumococcal carriage ...

    Authors: Jeffrey M. Pernica, Kristin Inch, Haifa Alfaraidi, Ania Van Meer, Redjana Carciumaru, Kathy Luinstra and Marek Smieja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:509

    Content type: Research

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  19. Hepatitis B and C infections and transmission are a serious challenge to all healthcare systems. We studied seroprevalence rates of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases (TTD) among blood bank donors in Jordan from...

    Authors: Lina Souan, Mahmoud Siag, Hala Al-Salahat, Tareq Al-Atrash and Maher A. Sughayer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:508

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hematological abnormalities are common features in falciparum malaria but vary among different populations across countries. Therefore, we compared hematological indices and abnormalities between Plasmodium falci...

    Authors: Ahmed M. E. Elkhalifa, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Abdelhakam G. Tamomh, Nur Eldin Eltaher, Nada Y. Ali, Moataz M. Ali, Elsharif A. Bazie, Aboagla KhirAlla, Fatin A. DfaAlla and Omnia A. M. Alhasan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:507

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for this disease. However, there is limited l...

    Authors: Jong Hoon Hyun, Moo Hyun Kim, Yujin Sohn, Yunsuk Cho, Yae Jee Baek, Jung Ho Kim, Jin Young Ahn, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Sup Yeom, Mi Young Ahn, Eun Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Baek, Young Keun Kim, Heun Choi and Su Jin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:506

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Youth are at high risk for HIV, but are often left out of designing interventions, including those focused on adolescents. We organized a designathon for Nigerian youth to develop HIV self-testing (HIVST) stra...

    Authors: Kadija M. Tahlil, Chisom Obiezu-Umeh, Titi Gbajabiamila, Ucheoma Nwaozuru, David Oladele, Adesola Z. Musa, Ifeoma Idigbe, Jane Okwuzu, Agatha N. David, Tajudeen A. Bamidele, Collins O. Airhihenbuwa, Nora E. Rosenberg, Weiming Tang, Jason J. Ong, Donaldson F. Conserve, Juliet Iwelunmor…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:505

    Content type: Research article

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  23. HPV self-sampling has been widely supported by the scientific community following a strong body of literature on the subject. Self-sampling is important in cervical cancer screening as it has been shown to imp...

    Authors: C. E. Aranda Flores, G. Gomez Gutierrez, J. M. Ortiz Leon, D. Cruz Rodriguez and S. W. Sørbye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:504

    Content type: Research article

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  24. In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, several countries adopted measures of social distancing to a different degree. For many countries, after successfully curbing the initial wave, lockdown measures w...

    Authors: Pietro Coletti, Pieter Libin, Oana Petrof, Lander Willem, Steven Abrams, Sereina A. Herzog, Christel Faes, Elise Kuylen, James Wambua, Philippe Beutels and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:503

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor GATA2 result in a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, including monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection (MonoMAC) syndrome. Patients with...

    Authors: Mizuki Haraguchi, Norihiro Harada, Junko Watanabe, Hitomi Yoshikawa, Yukina Shirai, Moegi Komura, Mika Koyama, Jun Ito, Yutaka Tsukune, Yoshiya Horimoto, Takuo Hayashi, Tetsutaro Nagaoka, Toshimasa Uekusa and Kazuhisa Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:502

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Tick-borne pathogens other than Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato – the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis – are common in Ixodes ricinus ticks. How often these pathogens cause human disease is unknown. In additio...

    Authors: D. Hoornstra, M. G. Harms, S. A. Gauw, A. Wagemakers, T. Azagi, K. Kremer, H. Sprong, C. C. van den Wijngaard and J. W. Hovius

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:501

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Cryptococcal Meningitis (CM) is a common opportunistic infection in the late stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the wide use of effective antiretroviral and antifungal therapy in AIDS ...

    Authors: Aixin Li, Wenjiao Zhu, Jiming Yin, Xiaojie Huang, Lijun Sun, Wei Hua, Wen Wang, Tong Zhang, Lili Dai and Hao Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:500

    Content type: Research article

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  28. SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is associated with various complications. PMA (primary meningococcal arthritis) is a rare meningococcus-associated disease causing arthrit...

    Authors: Norman Ducatez, Marine Chancel, Youcef Douadi, Charles Dayen, Rémi Suguenot, Emmanuelle Lecuyer, Benoit Brihaye and Houcine Bentayeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:499

    Content type: Case report

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  29. The purpose of this study was to examine the value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay and detection of additional Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species antigens from intestinal tissue samples in differentiating i...

    Authors: Baoying Fei, Lin Zhou, Yu Zhang, Linhe Luo and Yuanyuan Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:498

    Content type: Research article

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  30. African tick bite fever (ATBF) caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks is one of the zoonotic tick-borne fevers from the spotted fever group (SFG) of rickettsiae, which is an emerging...

    Authors: Tandiwe Katswara and Samson Mukaratirwa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:497

    Content type: Research article

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  31. COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. During the global vaccination rollout, it is vital to thoroughly understand the modes of transmission of the virus in order to prevent further spread of varian...

    Authors: Lucas Zhou, Samuel K. Ayeh, Vignesh Chidambaram and Petros C. Karakousis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:496

    Content type: Review

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  32. The literature examining healthcare-associated infections (HAI) points to two main problems in conforming to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines among healthcare professionals (HP). One is the di...

    Authors: Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Ricky Cohen, Adva Mir Halavi and Mina Zemach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:495

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global pandemic. The understanding of the transmission and the duration of viral shedding in SA...

    Authors: Hedvig Glans, Sara Gredmark-Russ, Mikaela Olausson, Sara Falck-Jones, Renata Varnaite, Wanda Christ, Kimia T. Maleki, Maria Lind Karlberg, Sandra Broddesson, Ryan Falck-Jones, Max Bell, Niclas Johansson, Anna Färnert, Anna Smed-Sörensen, Jonas Klingström and Andreas Bråve

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:494

    Content type: Research

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  34. Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which may be a causative agent of meningitis in premature infants and enterocolitis and bacteremia in neonates and adults. While there...

    Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Neville Mobarakai, Allison Glaser, Ahmad Jahangir and Muhammad Ans Sharif

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:493

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis. However, GBS was infrequently reported in the developing world in contrast to western countries. This study assessed the prevale...

    Authors: Yanmei Ge, Fei Pan, Rui Bai, Yuan Mao, Wenli Ji, Fenfang Wang and Huacheng Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:492

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Syphilis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Increasing syphilis testing is important to syphilis control. However, in low- and middle-income countries like ...

    Authors: Yajie Wang, Wei Zhang, Dongping Bao, Jason J. Ong, Joseph D. Tucker, Rouxuan Ye, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang and Cheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:491

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  37. Novel-coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease is currently a worldwide health risk and public health emergency concern. The virus is transmitted from an infected person to another person through close contact and ...

    Authors: Dereje Tsegaye, Muluneh Shuremu, Dereje Oljira, Sileshi Dubale, Getachew Befekadu and Kebebe Bidira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:490

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic illness caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The disease spectrum ranges from a mild influenza-like presentation to a more serious Weil’s syndrome. Leptospirosis r...

    Authors: A. G. N. M. K. Bandara, G. Kalaivarny, Nilanka Perera and J. Indrakumar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:488

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted a reduction in viral hepatitis-related mortality by 65% and incidence by 90% by 2030, necessitating enhanced hepatitis B treatment and prevention programmes in ...

    Authors: Alexander J. Stockdale, Niza M. Silungwe, Isaac Thom Shawa, Benno Kreuels, Melita A. Gordon and Anna Maria Geretti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:487

    Content type: Research

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  40. In countries with a high tuberculosis incidence such as Gabon, healthcare workers are at enhanced risk to become infected with tuberculosis due to their occupational exposure. In addition, transmission can occ...

    Authors: Anja Vigenschow, Jean Ronald Edoa, Bayode Romeo Adegbite, Pacome Achimi Agbo, Ayola A. Adegnika, Abraham Alabi, Marguerite Massinga-Loembe and Martin P. Grobusch

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:486

    Content type: Research

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  41. After relaxing social distancing measures, South Korea experienced a resurgent second epidemic wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to identify the transmission dynamics of seve...

    Authors: Sukhyun Ryu, Sheikh Taslim Ali, Eunbi Noh, Dasom Kim, Eric H. Y. Lau and Benjamin J. Cowling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:485

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:660

  42. Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) is a Gram-negative saprophytic bacterium that is widespread in tropical and subtropical environments, and belongs to conditional pathogenic bacteria. Human infection with

    Authors: Lijuan Lang, Menglei Wang, Xiaowen Huang, Hao Zhou, Zaigao Zhou, Liang Huang, Huanxin Zheng, Kang Zeng and Li Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:484

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) for whose management remains controversial. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of MG infection in patients attending ...

    Authors: Roxane Begnis, Nicolas Bouscaren, Loic Raffray, Cécile Saint Pastou Terrier, Fanny Andry, Malik Boukerrou, Yatrika Koumar, Marie-Pierre Moiton, Patrick Gerardin and Antoine Bertolotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:482

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated.

    Authors: Qing-Bin Lu, Hai-Yang Zhang, Tian-Le Che, Han Zhao, Xi Chen, Rui Li, Wan-Li Jiang, Hao-Long Zeng, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Hui Long, Qiang Wang, Ming-Qing Wu, Michael P. Ward, Yue Chen, Zhi-Jie Zhang, Yang Yang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:481

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Hemoptysis is very common and can be life threatening in clinical practice for nontuberculous mycobacteria. The serum antibody against the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC-Ab), the majority of nontuberculous myco...

    Authors: Hiroaki Ogata, Atsushi Moriwaki, Taisuke Nakagawa, Soichiro Sakoda, Akiko Ishimatsu, Kazuhito Taguchi, Hiroshi Aso, Hiroko Nogami, Masako Kadowaki, Yuko Tateshi and Makoto Yoshida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:480

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Cross-sectional studies have provided variable rates of seroprevalence in HCWs. Longitudinal assessments of the serological response to Cov...

    Authors: Mirentxu Iruretagoyena, Macarena R. Vial, Maria Spencer-Sandino, Pablo Gaete, Anne Peters, Iris Delgado, Inia Perez, Claudia Calderon, Lorena Porte, Paulette Legarraga, Alicia Anderson, Ximena Aguilera, Pablo Vial, Thomas Weitzel and Jose M. Munita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:478

    Content type: Research

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  47. Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and in infants, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised it can be serious. The best way to prevent c...

    Authors: Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Silvio Tafuri, Angela Maria Vittoria Larocca, Cinzia Annatea Germinario and Pasquale Stefanizzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:475

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.