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  1. Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem in South Korea. Although TB notification rate in Korea is gradually decreasing, still highest among the member countries of the Organization for Economi...

    Authors: Eun Hye Lee, Nak-Hoon Son, Se Hyun Kwak, Ji Soo Choi, Min Chul Kim, Chang Hwan Seol, Sung-Ryeol Kim, Byung Hoon Park and Young Ae Kang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer. Characteristics of HPV infections, including the HPV genotype and duration of infection, determine a patient’s risk of high-grade lesi...

    Authors: Ruizhe Chen, Yunfeng Fu, Bingbing You, Ying Li, Yeli Yao, Xinyu Wang and Xiaodong Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1158

    Content type: Research

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  3. Cryptococcal meningitis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii complex. We compared the clinical, biological, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates from HIV-Infected Patients (HIVIP) w...

    Authors: Bive Zono, Michel Moutschen, Hippolyte Situakibanza, Rosalie Sacheli, Gaultier Muendele, Pius Kabututu, Adolphe Biakabuswa, Nicole Landu, Georges Mvumbi and Marie-Pierre Hayette

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1157

    Content type: Research

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  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major cause of bacterial meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in children. Inappropriate choice of antibiotic can have important adverse consequences for both the ind...

    Authors: Tian-ming Chen, Wen-hui Li, Fang Wang, Kun Tan, Qing-xiong Zhu, Kai Zhou, Shi-hua Liu, Jing Liu, Jing Bi, Hui-ling Deng, Xue-xia Chen, Juan Li, Yu-min Wang, Qing Zhao, Liang Zhu, Hui-xuan Ma…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1156

    Content type: Research

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  5. In 2019, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended Dolutegravir (DTG) as the preferred first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all persons with HIV. ART regimen switches may affect HIV treatment ad...

    Authors: Adelline Twimukye, Miriam Laker, Eva Agnes Laker Odongpiny, Florence Ajok, Henry Onen, Ivan Kalule, Phoebe Kajubi, Kay Seden, Noela Owarwo, Agnes Kiragga, Mari Armstrong-Hough, Anne Katahoire, Andrew Mujugira, Mohammed Lamorde and Barbara Castelnuovo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1154

    Content type: Research

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  6. Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) can limit the effectiveness of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of PDR among HIV-positive individuals that initiated antir...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Xu, Liuhong Luo, Chang Song, Jianjun Li, Huanhuan Chen, Qiuying Zhu, Guanghua Lan, Shujia Liang, Zhiyong Shen, Zhiqiang Cao, Yi Feng, Lingjie Liao, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao and Yuhua Ruan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1153

    Content type: Research

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  7. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic gonorrhoea prevalence assessments in the general population or proxies thereof (including pregnant women, women attending family planning clinics, milita...

    Authors: Jane Whelan, Victoria Abbing-Karahagopian, Laura Serino and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1152

    Content type: Research

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  8. Varicella is a highly contagious infection that typically occurs in childhood. While most cases have a generally benign outcome, infection results in a considerable healthcare burden and serious complications ...

    Authors: Jessica Vandenhaute, Elyonore Tsakeu, Pierre Chevalier, Manjiri Pawaskar, Goran Benčina and Jan Vertriest

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1150

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Digital adherence technologies (DATs) are recommended to support patient-centred, differentiated care to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes, but evidence that such technologies improve adherence is l...

    Authors: Amare W. Tadesse, Zemedu Mohammed, Nicola Foster, Matthew Quaife, Christopher Finn McQuaid, Jens Levy, Kristian van Kalmthout, Job van Rest, Degu Jerene, Tofik Abdurhman, Hiwot Yazew, Demekech G. Umeta, Demelash Assefa, Gedion T. Weldemichael, Ahmed Bedru, Taye Letta…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Tuberculosis (TB) reactivation has been increasingly identified following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy for cancer patients. However there has been no report on TB reactivation in the gastrointesti...

    Authors: Kin-Sang Lau, Ben Man-Fei Cheung, Ka-On Lam, Sum-Yin Chan, Ka-Ming Lam, Chun-Fai Yeung, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Dora Lai-Wan Kwong, Chi-Chung Tong, To-Wai Leung, Mai-Yee Luk, Anne Wing-Mui Lee, Kwok-Keung Yuen and Victor Ho-Fun Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1148

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  11. Dengue, chikungunya and zika infections occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We describe the utilization of an in-house nucleic acid test (NAT) targeting all three viruses for febrile return...

    Authors: Saugata Choudhury, Raymond Tellier, Kevin Fonseca and Byron M. Berenger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1147

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Residual malaria is probably an important source for the re-emergence of malaria infection in the elimination era. Assessment to identify the factors influencing residual malaria in high-risk groups is needed ...

    Authors: Myat Htut Nyunt, Khin Myo Aye, Shine Thura Naing, Aye Su Mon, Mi Mi Htwe, Su Mon Win, Wai Myat Thwe, Ni Ni Zaw, Myat Phone Kyaw and Aung Thi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1146

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The global spread of the novel coronavirus pneumonia is still continuing, and a new round of more serious outbreaks has even begun in some countries. In this context, this paper studies the dynamics of a type ...

    Authors: Cheng-Cheng Zhu and Jiang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1145

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:32

  14. Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the concept of medicine. This work aims to analyze the use of antibiotics in patients admitted to the hospital due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    Authors: Alejandro David Bendala Estrada, Jorge Calderón Parra, Eduardo Fernández Carracedo, Antonio Muiño Míguez, Antonio Ramos Martínez, Elena Muñez Rubio, Manuel Rubio-Rivas, Paloma Agudo, Francisco Arnalich Fernández, Vicente Estrada Perez, María Luisa Taboada Martínez, Anxela Crestelo Vieitez, Paula Maria Pesqueira Fontan, Marta Bustamante, Santiago J. Freire, Isabel Oriol-Bermúdez…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1144

    Content type: Research

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  15. Ganciclovir pharmacokinetics is characterized by a high variability in drug exposure. Usually, monitoring of ganciclovir exposure is performed by measuring trough concentration. However, due to the specificity...

    Authors: Xavier Duval, Florian Lemaitre, Sophie Pertuisel, Jamie Probert, Virginie Gandemer, Marie-Clémence Verdier and Camille Tron

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1143

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) is found among the normal vaginal flora in a considerable proportion of asymptomatic women; however, adult central nervous system (CNS) infection of UU is extremely rare. Good's syndro...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Haiyan Li, Shuping Hou, Huanxin Yu and Wei Yue

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1142

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1176

  17. In areas where Lyme disease is endemic, bites from ticks are common, but no vaccine is currently available against Lyme disease for humans. Therefore, the feasibility of using antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent...

    Authors: Guozhong Zhou, Xin Xu, Yu Zhang, Peng Yue, Shiqi Luo, Yuxin Fan, Jingjing Chen, Meixiao Liu, Yan Dong, Bingxue Li, Jing Kong, Shiyuan Wen, Aihua Liu and Fukai Bao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1141

    Content type: Research

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  18. The alarming rise in multi-drug resistant (MDR) zoonotic pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., has been threatening the health sector globally. In Bangladesh, despite rapid growth in poultry sector little is k...

    Authors: Md. Nasir Uddin, Sucharit Basu Neogi, Sk Shaheenur Islam, Jannatul Ferdous, Md. Shahidur Rahman Khan, Shinji Yamasaki and S. M. Lutful Kabir

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1139

    Content type: Research

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  19. Rotavirus (RV) vaccines are available in Spain since 2006 but are not included in the National Immunization Program. RV vaccination has reached an intermediate vaccination coverage rate (VCR) but with substant...

    Authors: J. Ruiz-Contreras, S. Alfayate-Miguelez, B. Carazo-Gallego, E. Onís, L. Díaz-Munilla, M. Mendizabal, M. Méndez Hernández, B. Ferrer-Lorente, M. Unsaín-Mancisidor, J. T. Ramos-Amador, B. Croche-Santander, F. Centeno Malfaz, J. Rodríguez-Suárez, M. Cotarelo, M. San-Martín and J. Arístegui

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1138

    Content type: Research

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  20. Liposuction is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures. Toxic shock syndrome(TSS) is a rare, life-threatening complication. The incidence rate of TSS is very low in the plastic surgery field, e...

    Authors: Zhiwan Liu, Wenjun Zhang, Boyu Zhang, Linhao Ma, Feng Zhou, Zheyuan Hu, Xiang Jie, Hong Gao and Xiaohai Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1137

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  21. The impact of biometric covariates on risk for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 disease was assessed by numerous observational studies on unstratified cohorts, which show great heterogeneity. However, multilevel e...

    Authors: Konstantin Sharafutdinov, Sebastian Johannes Fritsch, Gernot Marx, Johannes Bickenbach and Andreas Schuppert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1136

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 patients mostly present with respiratory symptoms; however, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations can also be seen either alone or along with respiratory symptoms. We aimed to...

    Authors: Ghazal Zoghi, Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Sadegh Yavarian, Mehdi HasaniAzad, Farid Khorrami, Masoud Sharegi Brojeni and Masoumeh Kheirandish

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1135

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Amoebiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, which affects people living in low- and middle-income countries and has intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. To date, knowledge on coro...

    Authors: Andrea L. Maricuto, Viledy L. Velásquez, Jacinto Pineda, David M. Flora-Noda, Isaac Rodríguez, Crismar A. Rodríguez-Inés, Óscar O. Noya-González, Rosa Contreras, Óscar D. Omaña-Ávila, Iván A. Escalante-Pérez, Natasha A. Camejo-Ávila, Nicolle A. Kuffaty-Akkou, Fhabián S. Carrión-Nessi, Martín Carballo, María E. Landaeta and David A. Forero-Peña

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1134

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  24. Genetic changes may induce dysregulated cytokine production and affect the progression of the chronic disease caused by the hepacivirus C (HCV) because the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines deter...

    Authors: Angélica Menezes Santiago, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Simone Regina Souza da Silva Conde, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1133

    Content type: Research

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  25. Despite being an uncommon cause of meningoencephalitis, West Nile virus (WNV) recently provoked significant outbreaks throughout Europe. West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) is associated with significant mo...

    Authors: Camilla Falcinella, Marina Allegrini, Lidia Gazzola, Giovanni Mulè, Daniele Tomasoni, Ottavia Viganò, Antonella d’Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti and Camilla Tincati

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1132

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China and spread throughout the world due to its rapid transmission. The exposure rate in the healthy population is unknown, mainly in resource-limited countries. Herein, we estimated the...

    Authors: Cruz S. Sebastião, Manuela Galangue, Celestina Gaston, Rui Van-Dunen, Joltim Quivinja, Emiliana Lunbungululo, Domingos Alfredo, Alberto Sozinho, Alice Teixeira, Eunice Manico, Deodete Machado, António Mateus, Zinga David, Joana Paixão, Zoraima Neto, Jocelyne Neto de Vasconcelos…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1131

    Content type: Research

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  27. To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the healthcare professionals (HCPs) including physicians and nurses regarding dengue transmission, diagnosis and clinical classification using the warn...

    Authors: Hoang Thi Nam Giang, Ahmed M. Sayed, Thao Dang, Somia Iqtadar, Nguyen Minh Tuan, Nguyen Tuan Khiem, Do Chau Viet, Tran Thi Kim Van, Nguyen Thanh Phuoc, Tran Thi Kim Dung, Esraa Ahmed Elhalwagy, Le Huu Linh Vien, Nguyen Minh Triet, Nguyen Thanh Tong, Do Hong Son, Lieu Chi Hung…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1130

    Content type: Research

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  28. We describe the serotype distribution of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) carriage isolates from women in labor and among GBS isolates causing invasive infections during the same period to see if the distribution o...

    Authors: Hans-Christian Slotved, Jens Kjølseth Møller, Mohammad Rohi Khalil and Stine Yde Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1129

    Content type: Research

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  29. Refugees in Malaysia, who are afflicted by poverty, conflict and poor health, are vulnerable to a range of zoonotic infections in the deprived environmental and social conditions under which they live. Exposur...

    Authors: Izzah Ruzana Mohd Hanapi, Norhidayu Sahimin, Michael John Banuru Maackara, Aufa Shofia Annisa, Raisya Nur Syazmeen Abdul Mutalib, John W. Lewis, Jerzy M. Behnke, Yee Ling Lau and Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1128

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Tocilizumab is an IgG1 class recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that directly inhibits the IL-6 receptor. Several randomized clinical trials have evaluated its safety and efficacy in patients with coron...

    Authors: Ohoud Aljuhani, Khalid Al Sulaiman, Adel Alshabasy, Khalid Eljaaly, Abdulrahman I. Al Shaya, Haytham Noureldeen, Mohammed Aboudeif, Bodoor Al Dosari, Amina Alkhalaf, Ghazwa B. Korayem, Muneera M. Aleissa, Hisham A. Badreldin, Shmeylan Al Harbi, Abdullah Alhammad and Ramesh Vishwakarma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1127

    Content type: Research

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  31. Detailed characteristics of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Burkina Faso are scarce. The main aim of this study was to assess HCV seroprevalence in various settings and populations at risk in Burkina Faso...

    Authors: Serge Ouoba, Jean Claude Romaric Pingdwinde Ouedraogo, Moussa Lingani, Bunthen E, Md Razeen Ashraf Hussain, Ko Ko, Shintaro Nagashima, Aya Sugiyama, Tomoyuki Akita, Halidou Tinto and Junko Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1126

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Blastocystis spp. are considered pathogenic or commensal organisms, although the majority of researchers suggest that these are neglected pathogens. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and ...

    Authors: Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Małgorzata Lepczyńska, Karolina Kot, Małgorzata Szkup, Natalia Łanocha-Arendarczyk, Ewa Dzika and Elżbieta Grochans

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1125

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of emerging infectious diseases is crucial for implementation of control measures. In the first 7 months from the occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic, Vietnam has docu...

    Authors: Toshie Manabe, Dung Phan, Yasuhiro Nohara, Dan Kambayashi, Thang Huu Nguyen, Thanh Van Do and Koichiro Kudo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1124

    Content type: Research

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  34. Each year, 5.6 million new syphilis cases are diagnosed globally. Guidelines for people living with HIV (PLWH) in low-income countries (LIC) recommend STI testing for symptomatic persons and those newly diagno...

    Authors: Laura Gilbert, Nicole Dear, Allahna Esber, Michael Iroezindu, Emmanuel Bahemana, Hannah Kibuuka, John Owuoth, Jonah Maswai, Trevor A. Crowell, Christina S. Polyak and Julie A. Ake

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1123

    Content type: Research

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  35. Norovirus (NoV) is the main cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. From September 2015 through August 2018, 203 NoV outbreaks involving 2500 cases were reported to the Shenzhen...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Miao Jin, Hailong Zhang, Yanan Zhu, Hong Yang, Xiangjie Yao, Long Chen, Jun Meng, Guifang Hu, Yaqing He and Zhaojun Duan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1122

    Content type: Research article

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  36. More than 3 million infections were attributed to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the 2014–2016 outbreak in Mexico, Central and South America, with over 500 deaths directly or indirectly related to this viral dis...

    Authors: M. Pedraza-Escalona, O. Guzmán-Bringas, H. I. Arrieta-Oliva, K. Gómez-Castellano, J. Salinas-Trujano, J. Torres-Flores, J. C. Muñoz-Herrera, R. Camacho-Sandoval, P. Contreras-Pineda, R. Chacón-Salinas, S. M. Pérez-Tapia and J. C. Almagro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1121

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an infectious disease of global significance, causing a significant health burden in Africa due to complications associated with infection, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Nig...

    Authors: Busayo I. Ajuwon, Isabelle Yujuico, Katrina Roper, Alice Richardson, Meru Sheel and Brett A. Lidbury

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1120

    Content type: Research

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  38. Diagnostic testing using PCR is a fundamental component of COVID-19 pandemic control. Criteria for determining who should be tested by PCR vary between countries, and ultimately depend on resource constraints ...

    Authors: Nigel French, Geoff Jones, Cord Heuer, Virginia Hope, Sarah Jefferies, Petra Muellner, Andrea McNeill, Stephen Haslett and Patricia Priest

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1119

    Content type: Research

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  39. Ureaplasma parvum is usually part of the normal genital flora. Rarely can it cause invasive infections such as genitourinary infections, septic arthritis, or meningitis.

    Authors: Lea Lemoine, Cecile Le Brun, Francois Maillot, Camille Thorey, Annaelle Boucaud, Adrien Lemaignen and Adrien Bigot

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1117

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Infections due to resistant bacteria are associated with severe illness, increased risk for complications, hospital admissions, and higher mortality. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, which contributes to incr...

    Authors: Sandra C. Domche Ngongang, Wisdom Basera and Marc Mendelson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Studies indicate that ethnicity and socioeconomic disparity are significant facilitators for COVID-19 mortality. The United Arab Emirates, distinctly has a population of almost 12% citizens and the rest, immig...

    Authors: Satish Chandrasekhar Nair, Huda Imam Gasmelseed, Asad Afroz Khan, Ibrahim Nageh Khafagy, Jayadevan Sreedharan, Aqeel Aziz Saleem, Hashim Ibrahim Abdrhman, Ahmed Husain Alhosani, Amatur Rahman Siddiqua, Amna Riaz Ahmed, Aya Imad Shubbar, Abdul Rahman Aleissaee, Abdulrahman Wael Alanqar, Alan Mohammad Hamadeh, Fatmah Ali Safdani, Fuad Wardan Habbal…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1115

    Content type: Research

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  42. COVID-19 disease has had a profound impact worldwide since it was discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Laboratory testing is crucial to prompt identification of positive cases, initiation of treatment...

    Authors: Titilayo Tosin Lekan-Agunbiade and Olalekan Isaiah Agunbiade

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1114

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. The clinical presentation of dengue fever had been observed to change with time since its first outbreak in 2000 in Bangladesh. This report showed the clinical presentation of the 2019 outbreak in Bangladesh a...

    Authors: Mohammad Jahid Hasan, Tamanna Tabassum, Mohiuddin Sharif, Md. Abdullah Saeed Khan, Akhi Roy Bipasha, Ariful Basher, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam and Mohammad Robed Amin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1113

    Content type: Research article

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  44. There are uncertainties about mitigating strategies for swimming-related activities in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an opportunity to learn from the experience of previous re-openings to bett...

    Authors: Sally Yaacoub, Joanne Khabsa, Rayane El-Khoury, Amena El-Harakeh, Tamara Lotfi, Zahra Saad, Zeina Itani, Assem M. Khamis, Ibrahim El Mikati, Carlos A. Cuello-Garcia, Francisca Verdugo-Paiva, Gabriel Rada, Holger J. Schünemann, Nesrine Rizk and Elie A. Akl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1112

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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