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  1. The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in the development of transmitted drug resistance (TDR), which reduces ART efficacy. We explored TDR prevalence and its associated risk factors i...

    Authors: Xianwu Pang, Kailing Tang, Qin He, Jinghua Huang, Ningye Fang, Xinjuan Zhou, Qiuying Zhu, Xiuling Wu, Zhiyong Shen and Shujia Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) is common among hospitalized patients. Though carbapenems are an effective treatment in the face of rising resistance, overuse drives carbapenem resistance (CR). We h...

    Authors: Marya D. Zilberberg, Brian H. Nathanson, Kate Sulham and Andrew F. Shorr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Laboratory data and computed tomography (CT) have been used during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly to determine patient prognosis and guide clinical management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associat...

    Authors: Simone Canovi, Giulia Besutti, Efrem Bonelli, Valentina Iotti, Marta Ottone, Laura Albertazzi, Alessandro Zerbini, Pierpaolo Pattacini, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Rossana Colla and Tommaso Fasano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Due to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, it is necessary to ascertain essential immune inflammatory parameters that describe the severity of the disease and provide guidance fo...

    Authors: Wu Yan, Danrong Chen, Francis Manyori Bigambo, Hongcheng Wei, Xu Wang and Yankai Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:156

    Content type: Research article

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  5. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the relationship between vancomycin (VCM) monitoring strategies and VCM effectiveness and safety.

    Authors: Moeko Tsutsuura, Hiromu Moriyama, Nana Kojima, Yuki Mizukami, Sho Tashiro, Sumika Osa, Yuki Enoki, Kazuaki Taguchi, Kazutaka Oda, Satoshi Fujii, Yoshiko Takahashi, Yukihiro Hamada, Toshimi Kimura, Yoshio Takesue and Kazuaki Matsumoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Knowledge on the etiology of LRTIs is essential for improvement of the clinical diagnosis and accurate treatment. Molecular detection methods were applied to identify a broad range of bacterial and viral patho...

    Authors: Heping Wang, Jiali Gu, Xiaonan Li, Christa E. van der Gaast-de Jongh, Wenjian Wang, Xuehui He, Zhi Xu, Yonghong Yang, Ronald de Groot, Marien I. de Jonge and Yuejie Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Joint replacement is an effective intervention and prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most serious complications of such surgery. Diagnosis of PJI is often complex and requires multiple modalities ...

    Authors: Michael Riste, Pretin Davda, E. Grace Smith, David H. Wyllie, Martin Dedicoat, Simantini Jog, Steven Laird, Gerald Langman, Neil Jenkins, Jonathan Stevenson and Matthew K. O’Shea

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:151

    Content type: Case report

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  8. In people living with HIV (PLWH), statins may be disproportionately effective but remain underutilized. A large prospective trial in patients with low to moderate cardiovascular (ASCVD) risk will reveal whethe...

    Authors: Henning Drechsler, Colby Ayers, James Cutrell, Reuben Arasaratnam and Roger Bedimo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic infectious disease of public concern in Nigeria. The infection dynamics of the disease is not well elucidated in Nigeria. This study was carried out to describe the pattern of in...

    Authors: Clement Ameh Yaro, Ezekiel Kogi, Kenneth Nnamdi Opara, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Roua S. Baty, Ashraf Albrakati, Farag M. A. Altalbawy, Innocent Utenwojo Etuh and James Paul Oni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  10. One-fifth of COVID-19 patients are seriously and critically ill cases and have a worse prognosis than non-severe cases. Although there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19, early recognition and sup...

    Authors: Hazal Cansu Acar, Günay Can, Rıdvan Karaali, Şermin Börekçi, İlker İnanç Balkan, Bilun Gemicioğlu, Dildar Konukoğlu, Ethem Erginöz, Mehmet Sarper Erdoğan and Fehmi Tabak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:148

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has spread worldwide. The present study aimed to characterize the clinical features and outcomes of imported COVID-19 patients with high body mass index (BMI) and the indepen...

    Authors: Huan Cai, Lisha Yang, Yingfeng Lu, Shanyan Zhang, Chanyuan Ye, Xiaoli Zhang, Guodong Yu, Jueqing Gu, Jiangshan Lian, Shaorui Hao, Jianhua Hu, Yimin Zhang, Ciliang Jin, Jifang Sheng, Yida Yang and Hongyu Jia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In December 2019, a pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China and has rapidly spread around the world since then. This study is to explore the patient characteristics and transmission chains of CO...

    Authors: Xuanchen Yan, Jianjian Wang, Jingwen Yao, Janne Estill, Shouyuan Wu, Jie Lu, Baoping Liang, Hongmin Li, Shengxin Tao, Huanli Bai, Hongliang Liu and Yaolong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  13. More than hundreds and thousands of migrants and seasonal farm workers move from the highlands (relatively low malaria endemicity areas) to the lowlands (higher malaria endemicity areas) for the development of...

    Authors: Getu Debalkie Demissie, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Sintayehu Daba Wami, Malede Mequanent Sisay, Destaw Fetene, Haileab Fekadu Wolde, Temesgen Yihunie Akalu and Kassahun Alemu Gelaye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been established as a leading cause of acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) in infants and children. In 2015, the global disease burden (GBD) study estimated that th...

    Authors: Henshaw Mandi, Bekolo Cavin Epie, Agnes Eyoh, Sindhiya Jan, Sue Ann Costa Clemens, Ralf Clemens and Solomon Yimer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Large outbreaks of Lassa fever (LF) occur annually in Nigeria. The case fatality rate among hospitalised cases is ~ 20%. The antiviral drug ribavirin along with supportive care and rehydration are the recommen...

    Authors: Nastassya L. Chandra, Hikaru Bolt, Chioma Dan-Nwafor, Oladipupo Ipadeola, Elsie Ilori, Geoffrey Namara, Adebola T. Olayinka, Winifred Ukponu, Akanimo Iniobong, Michael Amedu, Adejoke Akano, Kachikwulu O. Akabike, Uwaifiokun Okhuarobo, Stephen Fagbemi, Emeka Sampson, Sophie Newitt…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have continually grown as a global public health threat, with significant mortality rates observed across the world. We examined the clinical ...

    Authors: Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Elita Jauneikaite, Lauren M. Brinkac, Chris Greco, Kanokorn Lerdlamyong, Teerawit Tangkoskul, Kevin Nguyen, Visanu Thamlikitkul and Derrick E. Fouts

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:142

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The impact of COVID-19 has been devastating on a global scale. The negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is closely related to clinical manifestation and disease progression in COVID-19 patients. Ou...

    Authors: Ya Yang, Xiaogang Hu, Lirong Xiong, Peishu Fu, Wei Feng, Wei Li, Liwen Zhang and Fengjun Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to constitute an international public health concern. Few data are available on the duration and prognostic factors of the disease. We aimed to study th...

    Authors: Chahida Harizi, Ines Cherif, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Rym Mallekh, Oumaima Ben Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Aicha Hchaichi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Ilhem Bouaziz, Sondes Derouiche, Donia Gharbi, Leila Bouabid, Souha Bougatef…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Severity of TB increases in refugee populations. Monitoring TB case notification and treatment outcomes are essential to improve the effectiveness of TB programs. This study aimed to investigate trends in TB c...

    Authors: Tsegay Legesse, Goitom Admenur, Selemawit Gebregzabher, Eyob Woldegebriel, Bexabeh Fantahun, Yemane Tsegay, Abeyot Bayssa, Berihu Darge, Yidnekachew Denbu, Hayelom Michalel, Kibebew Abera, Abraham Alemayeh, Dejene Kebede and Desta Kasa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Health workers are crucial to the successful implementation of infection prevention and control strategies to limit the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at healthcare facilities. The aim of our study was to determin...

    Authors: Saiendhra Vasudevan Moodley, Muzimkhulu Zungu, Molebogeng Malotle, Kuku Voyi, Nico Claassen, Jonathan Ramodike, Nkululeko Thunzi and Nosimilo Mlangeni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The use of complement inhibition is well established for complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathy, but its role in secondary forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is debated. We here present a case of thro...

    Authors: Magnus Holter Bjørkto, Andreas Barratt-Due, Ingvild Nordøy, Christina Dörje, Eivind Galteland, Andreas Lind, Abdulkarim Hilli, Pål Aukrust and Geir Mjøen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:137

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  22. Chronic pain in HIV-infected patients on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) limits patients’ normal functioning both somatically and psychologically. The current state of knowledge on the topic is insuffic...

    Authors: Marcin Kowalski, Andrzej Horban, Bartosz Slomka, Karen Shahnazaryan and Witold Rongies

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Bronchiolitis is a clinical syndrome commonly encountered in practice, particularly among infants and young children. To investigate the prevalence of pathogens in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis and ...

    Authors: Jiahong Tan, Jinfeng Wu, Wujun Jiang, Li Huang, Wei Ji, Yongdong Yan, Meijuan Wang and Xuejun Shao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. The outbreak of COVID-19 has rapidly spread to Italy, including Pesaro-Urbino province. Data on young to middle age adults with COVID-19 are lacking. We report the characteristics, management and health-relate...

    Authors: Chiara Temperoni, Stefania Grieco, Zeno Pasquini, Benedetta Canovari, Antonio Polenta, Umberto Gnudi, Roberto Montalti and Francesco Barchiesi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research article

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  25. While our knowledge about COVID-19 in adults has rapidly increased, data on the course of disease and outcome in children with different comorbidities is still limited.

    Authors: Jonathan Remppis, Tina Ganzenmueller, Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Oliver Heinzel, Rupert Handgretinger and Hanna Renk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Correct knowledge about transmission of tuberculosis (TB) can influence better health-seeking behaviors, and in turn, it can aid TB prevention in society. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence ...

    Authors: Peter A. M. Ntenda, Razak Mussa, Steve Gowelo, Alick Sixpence, Andy Bauleni, Atusayi Simbeye, Alfred Matengeni, Ernest Matola, Godfrey Banda, Christopher C. Stanley, Susan Banda and Owen Nkoka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infecti...

    Authors: Eyasu Alem Lake, Robera Olana Fite, Lielt Gebreselassie Gebrekirstos, Meron Hadis Gebremedhin, Mohammed Suleiman Obsa and Kelemu Abebe Gelaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Knowledge among the rural parents about the vaccinations and vaccination coverage of children in the first year of life in Papua New Guinea – analysis of data provided by Christian Health Services.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin, Jerzy Kuzma and Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  29. HIV infection has become a chronic disease and well-being of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is now of particular concern. The objectives of this paper were to describe self-rated health among PLHIV, on ART and...

    Authors: Marta Ruiz-Algueró, Victoria Hernando, Henar Marcos, Gonzalo Gutiérrez, Maria Jesus Pérez-Elías, Juan Carlos López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Federico Pulido, Miguel Górgolas, Jesus Sanz, Ines Suarez-García, Maria Teresa Fernandez, Juan Emilio Losa, Jose Luis Pérez, Maria Oliva Ladrero, Miguel Ángel Prieto, Gustavo González…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Transgender women (trans women) in Nepal are underserved in the HIV response. Data are needed to determine the HIV prevalence disaggregated from other key populations and to identify the particular risks faced...

    Authors: Erin C. Wilson, Manisha Dhakal, Sanjay Sharma, Anuj Rai, Rajesh Lama, Sirish Chettri, Caitlin M. Turner, Hui Xie, Sean Arayasirikul, Jess Lin and Swagata Banik

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. To investigate the CT imaging and clinical features of three atypical presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), namely (1) asymptomatic, (2) CT imaging-negative, and (3) re-detectable positive (RP)...

    Authors: Zhiqi Yang, Xiaofeng Chen, Ruibin Huang, Shengkai Li, Daiying Lin, Zhijian Yang, Hongfu Sun, Guorui Liu, Jinming Qiu, Yanyan Tang, Jianning Xiao, Yuting Liao, Xianheng Wu, Renhua Wu, Xiangguang Chen and Zhuozhi Dai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  32. To observe the effect of corticosteroids in the treatment of children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) under different doses, to summarize the clinical features of children treated with g...

    Authors: Zhenli Zhu, Tongqiang Zhang, Wei Guo, Yaoyao Ling, Jiao Tian and Yongsheng Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Streptococcus agalacticae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the most important causative agents of serious infections among neonates. This study was carried out to identify antibiotic resistance and virulenc...

    Authors: Raymond Mudzana, Rooyen T. Mavenyengwa and Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Kidney involvement of visceral Leishmaniasis is previously reported, but knowledge is limited. Hypergammaglobulinemia is common in visceral leishmaniasis patients. Whether hypergammaglobulinemia after leishman...

    Authors: Linfeng Zou, Gang Chen, Yangzhong Zhou, Wei Ye, Yubin Wen, Limeng Chen and Xuemei Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:124

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) has been recommended by WHO as the initial diagnostic test for TB and rifampicin-resistance detection. Existing evidence regarding its uptake is limited to public health systems and corre...

    Authors: Sarang Deo, Pankaj Jindal and Sirisha Papineni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:123

    Content type: Research article

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  36. SARS-CoV-2 virus which targets the pulmonary vasculature is supposed to induce an intrapulmonary right to left shunt with an increased pulmonary blood flow. Such vascular injury is difficult to observe because...

    Authors: Vincent Jounieaux, Damien Basille, Osama Abou-Arab, Marie-Pierre Guillaumont, Claire Andrejak, Yazine Mahjoub and Daniel Oscar Rodenstein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:122

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. Prolonged myelosuppression following CD19-directed CAR T-cell transfusion represents an important, yet underreported, adverse event. The resulting neutropenia and multifactorial immunosuppression can facilitat...

    Authors: Kai Rejeski, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Martina Rudelius, Veit Bücklein, Viktoria Blumenberg, Christian Schmidt, Philipp Karschnia, Florian Schöberl, Konstantin Dimitriadis, Louisa von Baumgarten, Joachim Stemmler, Oliver Weigert, Martin Dreyling, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon and Marion Subklewe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:121

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. As immunisation program launches have previously demonstrated, it is essential that careful planning occurs now to ensure the readiness of the public for a COVID-19 vaccine. As part of that process, this study...

    Authors: Holly Seale, Anita E. Heywood, Julie Leask, Meru Sheel, David N. Durrheim, Katarzyna Bolsewicz and Rajneesh Kaur

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jijia Hu, Yingang Zhang, Wei Wang, Zhihe Tao, Juan Tian, Ning Shao, Nian Liu, Hui Wei and Hao Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:119

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:88

  40. Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Use of a point-of-care test would overcome many challeng...

    Authors: Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Jane Mutanga, Nkumbula Moyo, Abhishek K. Agarwal, Jessica L. Schue, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Kara M. Palamountain, Mark J. Fisher, Robert Elghanian, Philip E. Thuma and William J. Moss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Herpes zoster (HZ) infection of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients is of clinical concern. Vaccination could help restore immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV); however, temporal changes in ...

    Authors: June Young Chun, Kichun Kim, Min Kyeong Lee, Chang Kyung Kang, Youngil Koh, Dong-Yeop Shin, Junshik Hong, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Nam Joong Kim, Sung-Soo Yoon, Wan Beom Park, Inho Kim and Myoung-don Oh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:117

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. The burden of cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still uncertain. Available studies used different designs and different criteria to define CV ...

    Authors: Filippo Pieralli, Vieri Vannucchi, Carlo Nozzoli, Giuseppe Augello, Francesco Dentali, Giulia De Marzi, Generoso Uomo, Filippo Risaliti, Laura Morbidoni, Antonino Mazzone, Claudio Santini, Daniela Tirotta, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gerloni, Paola Gnerre, Gualberto Gussoni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:195

  43. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Aline Wolfensberger, Lauren Clack, Stefanie von Felten, Katharina Kusejko, Mirjam Faes Hesse, Werner Jakob, Dirk Saleschus, Marie-Theres Meier, Roger Kouyos, Leonhard Held and Hugo Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:115

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:603

  44. To investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) administration to hypertension patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induce...

    Authors: Wenjun Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Wei Wei, Weiwang Fan, Kai Gao, Shengxiu He and Xijing Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. The plasma concentration of patients treated with efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg was found to exceed the upper limit of the proposed therapeutic window in most Chinese HIV-infected individuals; thus, dosage reduction ...

    Authors: Ling Xu, Wenxiu Peng, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Qiang Fu, Xiaoli Du, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:185

  46. T cells play an important role in the prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and are involved in the seroconversion of a patient from HBsAb negative to positive. To compare the T-cell receptor β-chain...

    Authors: Dangsheng Xiao, Ju Wang, Zhitao Chen, Xiuyuan Jin, Yirui Xie, Dong Yan and Jiezuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:111

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genoty...

    Authors: Mahnaz Sarhangi, Bita Bakhshi and Shahin Najar Peeraeyeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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