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  1. Legionellosis is a common cause of severe community acquired pneumonia and respiratory disease outbreaks. The Ontario Public Health Laboratory (OPHL) has conducted most testing for Legionella species in the Canad...

    Authors: Victoria Ng, Patrick Tang, Frances Jamieson, Cyril Guyard, Donald E Low and David N Fisman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:68
  2. When a test for diagnosis of infectious diseases is introduced in a resource-limited setting, monitoring quality is a major concern. An optimized design of experiment and statistical models are required for th...

    Authors: Nguyen TL Hang, Naoki Ishizuka, Naoto Keicho, Le T Hong, Do B Tam, Vu TX Thu, Ikumi Matsushita, Nobuyuki Harada, Kazue Higuchi, Shinsaku Sakurada and Luu T Lien
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:66
  3. Nowadays there is a debate about the indication of the oral whole-cell/recombinant B-subunit cholera vaccine (WC/rBS) in traveller's diarrhoea. However, a cost-benefit analysis based on real data has not been ...

    Authors: Rosa López-Gigosos, Pedro Garcia-Fortea, Maria J Calvo, Emilia Reina, Rosa Diez-Diaz and Elena Plaza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:65
  4. Good hand hygiene has for many years been considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Continuous emphasis on this interventio...

    Authors: Clive B Beggs, Simon J Shepherd and Kevin G Kerr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:64
  5. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID). However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in th...

    Authors: Gemma Phillips, Ben Lopman, Clarence C Tam, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, David Brown and Jim Gray
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:63
  6. Currently, broad empiric antimicrobial treatment including atypical coverage is recommended for patients with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Therefore, the relative impact of each atypica...

    Authors: Heike von Baum, Tobias Welte, Reinhard Marre, Norbert Suttorp, Christian Lück and Santiago Ewig
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:62
  7. The primary aims of this study were (i) to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii) to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consum...

    Authors: Sigrid Metz-Gercek, Andreas Maieron, Reinhild Strauß, Peter Wieninger, Petra Apfalter and Helmut Mittermayer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:61
  8. We intended to assess the risk for health care workers (HCWs) of acquiring M. tuberculosis infection after exposure to patients with sputum-smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis at three University Hospitals (Ull...

    Authors: Dag Gundersen Storla, Ingun Kristiansen, Fredrik Oftung, Gro Ellen Korsvold, Monica Gaupset, Gerd Gran, Anne Kristin Øverby, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise and Gunnar Aksel Bjune
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:60
  9. Pertussis is a highly communicable, vaccine-preventable respiratory infection. Immune response against this disease can be induced by infection or vaccination. Protection after childhood vaccination is minimal...

    Authors: Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Mitra Ranjbar, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei, Mahnaz Bolandi and Javad Moghimi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:58
  10. Hyperglycemia has been associated with unfavorable outcome in several disorders, but few data are available in bacterial meningitis. We assessed the incidence and significance of hyperglycemia in adults with b...

    Authors: Ewout S Schut, Willeke F Westendorp, Jan de Gans, Nyika D Kruyt, Lodewijk Spanjaard, Johannes B Reitsma and Diederik van de Beek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:57
  11. A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective...

    Authors: Angel Gil, Ruth Gil, Alejendro Alvaro, María San Martín and Antonio González
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:55
  12. Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the co...

    Authors: Xindong Xu, Dongmei Zhang, Wei Sun, Qingfeng Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Xiangyang Xue, Luhui Shen and Weiqing Pan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:54
  13. Sputum concentration increases the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but few studies have investigated this method in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.

    Authors: Adithya Cattamanchi, David W Dowdy, J Lucian Davis, William Worodria, Samuel Yoo, Moses Joloba, John Matovu, Philip C Hopewell and Laurence Huang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:53
  14. Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The obj...

    Authors: Sotiria G Panagakou, Maria N Theodoridou, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Panagiotis Papastergiou, George A Syrogiannopoulos, Georgia P Goutziana and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:52
  15. The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory disease syndrome (SARS) is not fully understood. One case-control study has reported an association between susceptibility to SARS and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in C...

    Authors: Yan Wang, Jiangwei Yan, Yuling Shi, Ping Li, Chuanxuan Liu, Qingjun Ma, Ruifu Yang, Xiaoyi Wang, Lina zhu, Xiao Yang and Cheng Cao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:51
  16. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, could be an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. We determined the activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin, with dexamethasone as an adjuva...

    Authors: Barry B Mook-Kanamori, Mark S Rouse, Cheol-In Kang, Diederik van de Beek, James M Steckelberg and Robin Patel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:50
  17. The usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) measurement in critically ill medical patients with suspected nosocomial infection is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess PCT value for the early diagnosis of bact...

    Authors: Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Emmanuel Kus, Serge AHO, Sébastien Prin, Jean-Marc Doise, Nils-Olivier Olsson, Bernard Blettery and Jean-Pierre Quenot
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:49
  18. Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, usi...

    Authors: Dinesh LB Dassanayake, Harith Wimalaratna, Suneth B Agampodi, Veranja C Liyanapathirana, Thibbotumunuwe ACL Piyarathna and Bimba L Goonapienuwala
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:48
  19. In patients with chronic respiratory disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) colonization is observed, and may influence disease progression and systemic inflammation. Pneumocystis pneumonia causes interst...

    Authors: Yasuo Shimizu, Noriaki Sunaga, Kunio Dobashi, Makoto Fueki, Naoto Fueki, Sohei Makino and Masatomo Mori
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:47
  20. To assess the risk and the prognostic significance of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database, a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients receivin...

    Authors: Jialun Zhou, Julian Elliott, Patrick CK Li, Poh Lian Lim, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Tuti Parwati Merati, Sanjay Pujari, Yi-Ming A Chen, Praphan Phanuphak, Saphonn Vonthanak, Thira Sirisanthana, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, Christopher KC Lee, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Shinichi Oka…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:46
  21. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination led to a significant decrease in invasive bacterial infections in children. The aim of this study was to assess a potential shift to more non-type b invasive inf...

    Authors: Helen Kalies, Anette Siedler, Britta Gröndahl, Veit Grote, Astrid Milde-Busch and Rüdiger von Kries
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:45
  22. The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on...

    Authors: Edford Sinkala, Sylvia Gray, Isaac Zulu, Victor Mudenda, Lameck Zimba, Sten H Vermund, Francis Drobniewski and Paul Kelly
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:44
  23. In Southeast Asia, HIV-infected patients frequently die during TB treatment. Many physicians are reluctant to treat HIV-infected TB patients with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and have questions about the adde...

    Authors: Jay K Varma, Sriprapa Nateniyom, Somsak Akksilp, Wiroj Mankatittham, Chawin Sirinak, Wanchai Sattayawuthipong, Channawong Burapat, Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Patama Monkongdee, Kevin P Cain, Charles D Wells and Jordan W Tappero
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:42
  24. Clinical outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) have not been adequately investigated.

    Authors: Kyoung-Ho Song, Jae Hyun Jeon, Wan Beom Park, Sang-Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-don Oh, Hyo-Suk Lee, Nam Joong Kim and Kang Won Choe
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:41
  25. Ukraine was the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe, which has the most rapidly accelerating HIV epidemic world-wide today; national HIV prevalence is currently estimated at 1.6%. Our objective was...

    Authors: Claire Thorne, Igor Semenenko, Tatyana Pilipenko and Ruslan Malyuta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:40
  26. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease in developing countries, including Brazil, and is especially prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM). HSV-2 infection r...

    Authors: Junia Rodrigues, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Francisco I Bastos, Luciane Velasque, Paula M Luz, Claudia TV de Souza, Ingebourg Georg, Jose H Pilotto and Valdilea G Veloso
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:39
  27. HIVAIDS is spreading globally, hitting the younger generations. In Pakistan, the prevalence of HIV in high-risk subpopulations is five per cent or higher. This poses a serious threat of a generalised epidemic ...

    Authors: Syed Farid-ul-Hasnain, Eva Johansson and Gunilla Krantz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:38
  28. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and for younger adults with high-risk conditions. While data from national surveys provide information on the p...

    Authors: Lisa A Jackson, Roger Baxter, Allison L Naleway, Edward A Belongia and James Baggs
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:37
  29. Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Updated data on drug-resistance from different populations may be important to recognize changes in disease patterns. This study...

    Authors: Angel Vila-Corcoles, Ferran Bejarano-Romero, Elisabeth Salsench, Olga Ochoa-Gondar, Cinta de Diego, Frederic Gomez-Bertomeu, Xavier Raga-Luria, Xavier Cliville-Guasch and Victoria Arija
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:36
  30. In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documente...

    Authors: Makhmudkhan B Sharapov, Michael O Favorov, Tatiana L Yashina, Matthew S Brown, Gennady G Onischenko, Harold S Margolis and Terence L Chorba
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:35
  31. Migration is one of the major causes of tuberculosis in developed countries. Undocumented patients are usually not screened at the border and are not covered by a health insurance increasing their risk of deve...

    Authors: Patrick Bodenmann, Paul Vaucher, Hans Wolff, Bernard Favrat, Fanny de Tribolet, Eric Masserey and Jean-Pierre Zellweger
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:34
  32. Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infectio...

    Authors: Robert Tweyongyere, Patrice A Mawa, Nicholas O Emojong, Harriet Mpairwe, Frances M Jones, Trinh Duong, David W Dunne, Birgitte J Vennervald, Eli Katunguka-Rwakishaya and Alison M Elliott
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:32
  33. Knowledge of predominant microbial patterns in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) constitutes the basis for initial decisions about empirical antimicrobial treatment, so a prospective study was performed durin...

    Authors: Youning Liu, Minjun Chen, Tiemei Zhao, Hui Wang, Rui Wang, Baiqiang Cai, Bin Cao, Tieying Sun, Yunjian Hu, Qingyu Xiu, Xin Zhou, Xing Ding, Lan Yang, Jiansheng Zhuo, Yingchun Tang, Kouxing Zhang…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:31
  34. Increasing reports of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections are of serious concern. Reliable susceptibility testing results remains a critical issue for the clinical outcome. Automated systems a...

    Authors: Canan Kulah, Elif Aktas, Fusun Comert, Nagihan Ozlu, Isin Akyar and Handan Ankarali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:30
  35. Targeted chlamydia screening has been advocated to reduce chlamydia associated reproductive sequelae. General practitioners are well positioned to play a major role in chlamydia control. The primary aim of thi...

    Authors: Jade E Bilardi, Lena A Sanci, Christopher K Fairley, Jane S Hocking, Danielle Mazza, Dot J Henning, Susan M Sawyer, Michelle J Wills, Debra A Wilson and Marcus Y Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:29
  36. John Cunningham virus (JCV) constitutes a family of polyoma viruses, which plays important roles in the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and tumorigenesis. However, no bibliometric investigatio...

    Authors: Hua-chuan Zheng, Lei Yan, Lei Cui, Yi-fu Guan and Yasuo Takano
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:28
  37. Nosocomial infections due to multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are often treated with colistin, but there are few data comparing its safety and efficacy with other antimicrobials.

    Authors: Ronald Gounden, Colleen Bamford, Richard van Zyl-Smit, Karen Cohen and Gary Maartens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:26
  38. A high proportion of children with persistent diarrhoea in middle and low income countries die. The best treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial ...

    Authors: Katharine Abba, Rebecca Sinfield, C Anthony Hart and Paul Garner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:24
  39. Immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens could serve as surrogate markers of treatment response.

    Authors: Samantha Ribeiro, Kelly Dooley, Judith Hackman, Carla Loredo, Anne Efron, Richard E Chaisson, Marcus B Conde, Neio Boechat and Susan E Dorman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:23
  40. Current and past pertussis epidemiology in the two parts of Germany is compared in the context of different histories of vaccination recommendations and coverage to better understand patterns of disease transm...

    Authors: Wiebke Hellenbrand, Dietmar Beier, Evelin Jensen, Martina Littmann, Christiane Meyer, Hanna Oppermann, Carl-Heinz Wirsing von König and Sabine Reiter
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:22
  41. Identifying novel TB diagnostics is a major public health priority. We explored the diagnostic characteristics of antimycobacterial lymphocyte proliferation assays (LPA) in HIV-infected subjects with latent or...

    Authors: Timothy Lahey, Mecky Matee, Lillian Mtei, Muhammad Bakari, Kisali Pallangyo and C Fordham von Reyn
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:21
  42. Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and v...

    Authors: Patrick Kirwan, Samuel O Asaolu, Síle F Molloy, Titilayo C Abiona, Andrew L Jackson and Celia V Holland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:20
  43. Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or double ELISA wi...

    Authors: Eligius F Lyamuya, Said Aboud, Willy K Urassa, Jaffer Sufi, Judica Mbwana, Faustin Ndugulile and Charles Massambu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:19

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