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  1. Within outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), at least 10–15% of cases are thought to have been acquired by secondary transmission. However, there has been little systematic quantification or characte...

    Authors: Kate G Snedeker, Darren J Shaw, Mary E Locking and Robin J Prescott
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:144
  2. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST) capacity are limited in resource-poor...

    Authors: Paolo Miotto, Nuccia Saleri, Mathurin Dembelé, Martial Ouedraogo, Gisèle Badoum, Gabriele Pinsi, Giovanni B Migliori, Alberto Matteelli and Daniela M Cirillo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:142
  3. The development and evaluation of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is essential to improve tuberculosis (TB) control in developing countries. In a previous study, the first release of a urine LAM-ELISA ...

    Authors: Klaus Reither, Elmar Saathoff, Jutta Jung, Lilian T Minja, Inge Kroidl, Eiman Saad, Jim F Huggett, Elias N Ntinginya, Lucas Maganga, Leonard Maboko and Michael Hoelscher
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:141
  4. Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), started within the first months of age, has been proven to be the optimal strategy to prevent immunological and clinical deterioration in perinatally HIV-inf...

    Authors: Elena Chiappini, Luisa Galli, Pier-Angelo Tovo, Clara Gabiano, Catiuscia Lisi, Stefania Bernardi, Alessandra Viganò, Alfredo Guarino, Carlo Giaquinto, Susanna Esposito, Raffaele Badolato, Cesare Di Bari, Raffaella Rosso, Orazio Genovese, Massimo Masi, Antonio Mazza…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:140
  5. Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing concern worldwide. Rapid detection of resistance expedites appropriate intervention to control the disease. Several technologies have recently been reported to det...

    Authors: Sam Ogwang, Benon B Asiimwe, Hamidou Traore, Francis Mumbowa, Alphonse Okwera, Kathleen D Eisenach, Susan Kayes, Edward C Jones-López, Ruth McNerney, William Worodria, Irene Ayakaka, Roy D Mugerwa, Peter G Smith, Jerrold Ellner and Moses L Joloba
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:139
  6. From 2003 through to 2004, an outbreak of tuberculosis was identified at a university campus in Yokohama City, located in the southern part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA). All Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M....

    Authors: Akihiro Ohkado, Yoshiro Murase, Masaaki Mori, Naoki Hasegawa, Goro Otsuka, Michiko Nagamine, Hideo Maeda, Kazuhiro Uchimura, Masako Ohmori, Norio Yamada, Shinji Maeda, Seiya Kato, Toru Mori and Nobukatsu Ishikawa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:138

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:79

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Due to the diffusion of MRSA strains in both hospital and community settings, prevention and control strategies are rec...

    Authors: Claudia Dalla Valle, Maria Rosalia Pasca, Debora De Vitis, Federico Capra Marzani, Vincenzo Emmi and Piero Marone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:137
  8. Immunodeficient persons with persistent vaccine-related poliovirus infection may serve as a potential reservoir for reintroduction of polioviruses after wild poliovirus eradication, posing a risk of their furt...

    Authors: Nino Khetsuriani, Rita Helfand, Mark Pallansch, Olen Kew, Ashley Fowlkes, M Steven Oberste, Peter Tukei, Joseph Muli, Ernest Makokha and Howard Gary
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:136
  9. To assess changes in the pattern of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) in Italy after the introduction of conjugate menC vaccine in the National Vaccine Plan 2005–2007 and to provide information for developi...

    Authors: Paola Stefanelli, Cecilia Fazio, Tonino Sofia, Arianna Neri and Paola Mastrantonio
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:135
  10. Many epidemiological studies have shown that the genetic factors of the host play a role in the variability of clinical response to infection caused by M. leprae. With the purpose of identifying genes of suscepti...

    Authors: Samira A da Silva, Priscila S Mazini, Pâmela G Reis, Ana M Sell, Luiza T Tsuneto, Paulo R Peixoto and Jeane EL Visentainer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:134
  11. Influenza has been associated with a heavy burden of mortality. In tropical or subtropical regions where influenza viruses circulate in the community most of the year, it is possible that there are seasonal va...

    Authors: Lin Yang, Chit Ming Wong, King Pan Chan, Patsy Yuen Kwan Chau, Chun Quan Ou, Kwok Hung Chan and JS Malik Peiris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:133
  12. Polymorphisms of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) contribute to the genetic determinants of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Numerous polymorphisms in the promoter regions as well as the open reading frame of

    Authors: Bo-Yeong Choi, Su Yeon Kim, So-Young Seo, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim, Sang-Eun Park, Seung-Han Lee, Yun-Ju Choi, Sang-Jin Kim, Chi-Kyeong Kim, Jun-Sun Park and Young-Ran Ju
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:132
  13. Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed...

    Authors: Cees van Nieuwkoop, Jan W van't Wout, Willem JJ Assendelft, Henk W Elzevier, Eliane MS Leyten, Ted Koster, G Hanke Wattel-Louis, Nathalie M Delfos, Hans C Ablij, Ed J Kuijper, Jan Pander, Jeanet W Blom, Ida C Spelt and Jaap T van Dissel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:131
  14. Chlamydia trachomatis is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease. Testing rates among young Norwegian women are high. Young women diagnosed with C. trachomatis are often worried about future complication...

    Authors: Inger J Bakken and Sara Ghaderi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:130
  15. Geographical and temporal diffusion patterns of a human pandemic due to Swine Origin Influenza Virus (S-OIV) remain uncertain. The extent to which national and international pandemic preparedness plans and con...

    Authors: Antoine Flahault, Elisabeta Vergu and Pierre-Yves Boëlle
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:129
  16. There is little information describing survival in HIV-infected patients after primary diagnosis in Korea, and changes in survival over time. This study investigated survival times, survival characteristics, a...

    Authors: Mee-Kyung Kee, Jin-Hee Lee, Eun-Jin Kim, Jiae Lee, Jeong-Gu Nam, Byung-Hee Yoo and Sung Soon Kim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:128
  17. In general, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) population has begun to experience the benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); unfortunately, these ...

    Authors: Christine U Oramasionwu, Jonathan M Hunter, Jeff Skinner, Laurajo Ryan, Kenneth A Lawson, Carolyn M Brown, Brittany R Makos and Christopher R Frei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:127
  18. Timely identification of pathogens is crucial to minimize mortality in patients with severe infections. Detection of bacterial and fungal pathogens in blood by nucleic acid amplification promises to yield resu...

    Authors: Christine Dierkes, Boris Ehrenstein, Sylvia Siebig, Hans-Jörg Linde, Udo Reischl and Bernd Salzberger
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:126
  19. Impaired proliferation of hepatocytes has been reported in chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. Considering the fundamental role played by cell cycle proteins in controlling cell proliferation, altered regulat...

    Authors: Saira Sarfraz, Saeed Hamid, Syed Ali, Wasim Jafri and Anwar A Siddiqui
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:125
  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical cytologic specimens from Murcia Region, (southeast Spain), to obtain information regarding the possible effe...

    Authors: Pablo Conesa-Zamora, Sebastián Ortiz-Reina, Joaquín Moya-Biosca, Asunción Doménech-Peris, Francisco Javier Orantes-Casado, Miguel Pérez-Guillermo and Marcos Egea-Cortines
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:124
  21. There are limited choice of antimicrobial agents to treat infection with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We evaluate the antimicrobial effects of aztreonam alone, colistin alone and the 3-dr...

    Authors: Shigeharu Oie, Yumi Fukui, Masaya Yamamoto, Yuki Masuda and Akira Kamiya
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:123
  22. Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacter...

    Authors: Edgar Abadía, Monica Sequera, Dagmarys Ortega, María Victoria Méndez, Arnelly Escalona, Omaira Da Mata, Elix Izarra, Yeimy Rojas, Rossana Jaspe, Alifiya S Motiwala, David Alland, Jacobus de Waard and Howard E Takiff
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:122
  23. In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV) given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococ...

    Authors: Amanda J Leach, Peter S Morris, Gabrielle B McCallum, Cate A Wilson, Liz Stubbs, Jemima Beissbarth, Susan Jacups, Kim Hare and Heidi C Smith-Vaughan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:121
  24. A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage o...

    Authors: Ioannis Katsarolis, Garyphallia Poulakou, Antonios Analitis, Irini Matthaiopoulou, Emmanuel Roilides, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Dimitrios A Kafetzis, Georgios L Daikos, Regina Vorou, Christina Koubaniou, Ioannis Pneumatikos, Georgios Samonis, Vasiliki Syriopoulou, Helen Giamarellou and Kyriaki Kanellakopoulou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:120
  25. Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogeni...

    Authors: Ralph P Insinga, Erik J Dasbach and Elamin H Elbasha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:119
  26. The WHO suggested that governments stockpile, as part of preparations for the next influenza pandemic, sufficient influenza antiviral drugs to treat approximately 25% of their populations. Our aim is two-fold:...

    Authors: Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli and Caterina Rizzo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:117
  27. Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recom...

    Authors: Zelma B Costa, Gustavo C Machado, Mariza M Avelino, Clidenor Gomes Filho, Jose V Macedo Filho, Ana L Minuzzi, Marilia D Turchi, Mariane MA Stefani, Wayner Vieira de Souza and Celina MT Martelli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:116
  28. Nosocomial infections are a major threat to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Limited data exist on the epidemiology of ICU-acquired infections in China. This retrospective study was carried out to de...

    Authors: Ji-Guang Ding, Qing-Feng Sun, Ke-Cheng Li, Ming-Hua Zheng, Xiao-Hui Miao, Wu Ni, Liang Hong, Jin-Xian Yang, Zhan-Wei Ruan, Rui-Wei Zhou, Hai-Jiao Zhou and Wen-Fei He
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:115
  29. Comparative genomic analysis of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis BCG have shown that 16 RDs (Regions of Differences) are deleted in BCG and have shown six deletion regions in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. RD1, is pres...

    Authors: Balaraman Sekar, Kamalanathan Arunagiri, Nagamiah Selvakumar, Kaluvuri Serena Preethi and Kandhaswami Menaka
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:114
  30. Epidemiology of HCV infection among drug users (DUs) has been widely studied. Prevalence and sociobehavioural data among DUs are therefore available in most countries but no study has taken into account in the...

    Authors: Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Yann Le Strat, Elisabeth Couturier, Damien Thierry, Marc Rondy, Martine Quaglia, Nicolas Razafandratsima, Julien Emmanuelli, Gaelle Guibert, Francis Barin and Jean-Claude Desenclos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:113
  31. The nation-wide concern over methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has prompted many clinicians to use vancomycin when approaching patients with suspected staphylococcal infections. We sought to char...

    Authors: Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Jean C Aldag, Peggy Mankin and Barry M Gray
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:112
  32. The transmission of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains in drug naive patients may seriously compromise the efficacy of a first-line antiretroviral treatment. To better define this problem, a study in a cohort of new...

    Authors: Claudia Alteri, Valentina Svicher, Caterina Gori, Roberta D'Arrigo, Massimo Ciccozzi, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Marina Selleri, Stefano Aviani Bardacci, Massimo Giuliani, Paola Elia, Paola Scognamiglio, Roberta Balzano, Nicoletta Orchi, Enrico Girardi and Carlo Federico Perno
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:111
  33. The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has risen dramatically in the U.S., particularly among children. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization has been in...

    Authors: Grace M Lee, Susan S Huang, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Virginia L Hinrichsen, Stephen I Pelton, Ken Kleinman, William P Hanage, Marc Lipsitch, Alexander J McAdam and Jonathan A Finkelstein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:110
  34. HFRS is a serious public health problem in China and the study on HFRS is important in China for its large population. The present study aimed to explore the impact of climatic variables and reservoir on the i...

    Authors: Peng Guan, Desheng Huang, Miao He, Tiefeng Shen, Junqiao Guo and Baosen Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:109
  35. Virological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly described. We examined virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults receiving first-line ART for up to 4 year...

    Authors: Asgeir Johannessen, Ezra Naman, Sokoine L Kivuyo, Mabula J Kasubi, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Mecky I Matee, Svein G Gundersen and Johan N Bruun
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:108
  36. Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, m...

    Authors: Thomas Magulski, Dajana Paulmann, Birte Bischoff, Britta Becker, Eike Steinmann, Jörg Steinmann, Peter Goroncy-Bermes and Jochen Steinmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:107
  37. The primary objective of this meta-analytic study was to determine the impact of RSV-IGIV and palivizumab on risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalization. Secondary objectives were to dete...

    Authors: Shaun K Morris, Biljana Dzolganovski, Joseph Beyene and Lillian Sung
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:106
  38. In settings with low background prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) could be useful for diagnosing active TB. This study aims to evaluate the performance of QuantiFERON®-...

    Authors: Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman, Ann Norén and Håkan Miörner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:105
  39. Post-operative pulmonary infection often appears to result from aspiration of pathogens colonizing the oral cavity. It was hypothesized that impaired periodontal status and pathogenic oral bacteria significant...

    Authors: Kinga Bágyi, Angela Haczku, Ildikó Márton, Judit Szabó, Attila Gáspár, Melinda Andrási, Imre Varga, Judit Tóth and Almos Klekner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:104
  40. The increased severity of disease associated with the NAP1 strain of Clostridium difficile has been attributed to mutations to the tcdC gene which codes for a negative regulator of toxin production. To assess the...

    Authors: Ruth Murray, Dave Boyd, Paul N Levett, Michael R Mulvey and Michelle J Alfa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:103
  41. Day care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. Exposure within families and within DCCs are the main risk factors ...

    Authors: Fabian Hoti, Panu Erästö, Tuija Leino and Kari Auranen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:102
  42. Both BALB/c mice and common voles (Microtus arvalis) are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. However, the common vole is reported to harbour Francisella tularensis in European habitats as well as to survi...

    Authors: Hana Bandouchova, Jana Sedlackova, Miroslav Pohanka, Ladislav Novotny, Martin Hubalek, Frantisek Treml, Frantisek Vitula and Jiri Pikula
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:101
  43. It is still a matter of debate whether there is an association between infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and allergy. Previously, we have shown higher levels of specific IgE to different...

    Authors: Linda K Ellertsen, Dag G Storla, Lien M Diep, Karl A Brokstad, Harald G Wiker and Geir Hetland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:100
  44. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens, in order to provide new insight into host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis (TB), and to...

    Authors: Valeria Sargentini, Sabrina Mariotti, Stefania Carrara, Maria Cristina Gagliardi, Raffaela Teloni, Delia Goletti and Roberto Nisini
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:99
  45. In order to attain a better understanding of the interactions between opportunist fungi and their hosts, we investigated the cytokine profile associated with the inflammatory response to Candida albicans infectio...

    Authors: Marcela R Camargo, James Venturini, Fátima R Vilani-Moreno and Maria Sueli P Arruda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:98
  46. Multi-drug-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, constitute an emerging public-health concern. Little data on the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing Escherichia coli ...

    Authors: Stephen E Mshana, Can Imirzalioglu, Hamid Hossain, Torsten Hain, Eugen Domann and Trinad Chakraborty
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:97
  47. Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in Laos (289 per 100,000). We evaluated the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among children (0–15 years) living with tuberculosis patients in rural northern Laos.

    Authors: Tuan H Nguyen, Peter Odermatt, Gunther Slesak and Hubert Barennes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:96
  48. Information about the risk factors associated with death caused by tuberculosis (TB) or death with TB would allow improvements in the clinical care of TB patients and save lives. The present study sought to id...

    Authors: Xin Shen, Kathryn DeRiemer, Zheng'an Yuan, Mei Shen, Zhen Xia, Xiaohong Gui, Lili Wang and Jian Mei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:95
  49. There is limited information about the effect of diabetes on the prognosis of patients with bacterial infections. We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate possible correlations between diabetes...

    Authors: Galo Peralta, M Blanca Sánchez, M Pía Roiz, J Carlos Garrido, Ramón Teira and Fátima Mateos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:94

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