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  1. HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are commonly associated. Identifying latent and asymptomatic tuberculosis infection in HIV-positive patients is important in preventing death and morbidity associated with active TB.

    Authors: Meaghan M Kall, Katherine M Coyne, Nigel J Garrett, Aileen E Boyd, Anthony T Ashcroft, Iain Reeves, Jane Anderson and Graham H Bothamley
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:107
  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive infection in young children causing morbidity and mortality. Active surveillance systems of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are recommended worldwide. ...

    Authors: Enrica Riva, Filippo Salvini, Maria Laura Garlaschi, Giovanni Radaelli and Marcello Giovannini
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:106
  3. Recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not bee...

    Authors: Daryl R Cheng, Nigel W Crawford, Michael Hayman, Christopher Buckley and Jim P Buttery
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:105
  4. No studies have evaluated the effect of guideline-recommended weight-based dosing on in-hospital mortality of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Authors: Ronald G Hall II, Christopher A Giuliano, Krystal K Haase, Kathleen A Hazlewood, Chistopher R Frei, Nicolas A Forcade, Sara D Brouse, Todd Bell, Roger J Bedimo and Carlos A Alvarez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:104
  5. Co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV) is very common in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. Although HIV co-infection clearly accelerates progression of HCV-related fibrosis and liver disea...

    Authors: Wenzhen Kang, Yuan Li, Yan Zhuang, Ke Zhao, Dedong Huang and Yongtao Sun
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:102
  6. Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) are two recently approved vaccines for the active immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae causing ...

    Authors: Stephanie R Earnshaw, Cheryl L McDade, Giovanni Zanotti, Raymond A Farkouh and David Strutton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:101
  7. Current real-time PCR-based HIV-1 viral load (VL) assays allow the detection of residual viraemia in antiretroviral-treated patients. The clinical outcome of HIV1 patients experiencing low-level replication (<...

    Authors: Jean Ruelle, Laurent Debaisieux, Ellen Vancutsem, Annelies De Bel, Marie-Luce Delforge, Denis Piérard and Patrick Goubau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:100
  8. To ascertain the population rates and proportion of late entry into HIV care, as well as to determine whether such late entry correlates with individual and contextual factors.

    Authors: Alexandre Grangeiro, Maria Mercedes Loureiro Escuder and Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:99
  9. While floods can potentially increase the transmission of dengue, only few studies have reported the association of dengue epidemics with flooding. We estimated the effects of river levels and rainfall on the ...

    Authors: Masahiro Hashizume, Ashraf M Dewan, Toshihiko Sunahara, M Ziaur Rahman and Taro Yamamoto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:98
  10. Increasing our understanding of the factors affecting the severity of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in different regions of the world could lead to improved clinical practice and mitigation strategies for...

    Authors: Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Mark A Miller, Santiago Echevarría-Zuno, Margot González-León and Víctor H Borja Aburto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:97
  11. Presently, tuberculosis (TB) poses a global threat to human health. The development of reliable laboratory tools is vital to the diagnosis and treatment of TB. MPT64, a protein secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculo...

    Authors: Changtai Zhu, Jinming Liu, Yang Ling, Hua Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Ruijuan Zheng, Lianhua Qin and Zhongyi Hu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:96

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:430

  12. The objective of this literature review was to determine whether crowding in the home is associated with an increased risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in children younger than 5 years.

    Authors: Ann D Colosia, Anthony Masaquel, Caroline Breese Hall, Amy M Barrett, Parthiv J Mahadevia and Ram Yogev
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:95
  13. With ageing of the HIV-infected population, long-term exposure to treatment, varying adherence, emerging resistance and complications to therapies, effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)...

    Authors: Mathias Altmann, Matthias an der Heiden, Ramona Scheufele, Katrin Hartmann, Claudia Houareau, Barbara Bartmeyer and Osamah Hamouda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:94
  14. Since 2003 to 06 Jan 2012, the number of laboratory confirmed human cases of infection with avian influenza in China was 41 and 27 were fatal. However, the official estimate of the H5N1 case-fatality rate has ...

    Authors: Xiang Huo, Rongqiang Zu, Xian Qi, Yuanfang Qin, Liang Li, Fenyang Tang, Zhibin Hu and Fengcai Zhu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:93
  15. Commensal bacteria represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Few community-based studies of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria have been conducted in Southeast Asia. We investig...

    Authors: Oliver James Dyar, Nguyen Quynh Hoa, Nguyen V Trung, Ho D Phuc, Mattias Larsson, Nguyen TK Chuc and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:92
  16. The present study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in exon 4 of the NOD2 gene in tuberculosis patients and healthy controls, in order to clarify whether polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene is associated ...

    Authors: Mengyuan Zhao, Feng Jiang, Wanjiang Zhang, Fujian Li, Liliang Wei, Jiyan Liu, Yun Xue, Xiling Deng, Fang Wu, Le Zhang, Xing Zhang, Yuxiang Zhang, Dapeng Fan, Xiaojun Sun, Tingting Jiang and Ji-Cheng Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:91
  17. Several biomarkers and prognostic scores have been evaluated to predict prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Optimal risk stratification remains to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evalua...

    Authors: Martin Kolditz, Gert Höffken, Peter Martus, Gernot Rohde, Hartwig Schütte, Robert Bals, Norbert Suttorp and Mathias W Pletz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:90
  18. Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have previously demonstrated that a patient's antibody reaction pattern in a confirmat...

    Authors: Jörg Schüpbach, Leslie R Bisset, Martin D Gebhardt, Stephan Regenass, Philippe Bürgisser, Meri Gorgievski, Thomas Klimkait, Corinne Andreutti, Gladys Martinetti, Christoph Niederhauser, Sabine Yerly, Stefan Pfister, Detlev Schultze, Marcel Brandenberger, Franziska Schöni-Affolter, Alexandra U Scherrer…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:88
  19. The re-emergence of dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) has become a public health concern in South America, Southeast Asia and South Asia. However, it has not been known to have caused a local outbreak in China for the p...

    Authors: Qin-Long Jing, Zhi-Cong Yang, Lei Luo, Xin-Cai Xiao, Biao Di, Peng He, Chuan-Xi Fu, Ming Wang and Jia-Hai Lu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:87
  20. Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) disease can be complicated with comorbid conditions that may impact treatment eligibility and outcomes. The aim of the study was to systematically review comorbidities and symptoms in...

    Authors: Karly S Louie, Samantha St Laurent, Ulla M Forssen, Linda M Mundy and Jeanne M Pimenta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:86
  21. Bloodstream infections (BSI) have been traditionally classified as either community acquired (CA) or hospital acquired (HA) in origin. However, a third category of healthcare-associated (HCA) community onset d...

    Authors: Ryan Lenz, Jenine R Leal, Deirdre L Church, Daniel B Gregson, Terry Ross and Kevin B Laupland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:85
  22. Syphilis has made a dramatic resurgence in China during the past two decades and become the third most prevalent notifiable infectious disease in China. Female sex workers (FSWs) have become one of key populat...

    Authors: Xiang-Sheng Chen, Qian-Qiu Wang, Yue-Ping Yin, Guo-Jun Liang, Ning Jiang, Li-Gang Yang, Qiao Liu, Yu-Jiao Zhou, Xi-Ping Huan, Wan-Hui Wei and Baoxi Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:84
  23. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole compared with standard azole therapy (SAT; fluconazole or itraconazole) for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI) and the reduction of overall m...

    Authors: Santiago Grau, Rafael de la Cámara, Francisco J Sabater, Isidro Jarque, Enric Carreras, Miguel A Casado and Miguel A Sanz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:83
  24. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported pathogen that causes urogenital infection such as urethritis or cervicitis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are commensals in the g...

    Authors: Tomohiro Yamazaki, Megumi Matsumoto, Junji Matsuo, Kiyotaka Abe, Kunihiro Minami and Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:82
  25. Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the fi...

    Authors: Ni M Susilawathi, Agus E Darwinata, Ida BNP Dwija, Nyoman S Budayanti, Gusti AK Wirasandhi, Ketut Subrata, Ni K Susilarini, Raka AA Sudewi, Frank S Wignall and Gusti NK Mahardika
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:81
  26. Genetic typing data are a potentially powerful resource for determining how infection is acquired. In this paper MLST typing was used to distinguish the routes and risks of infection of humans with Campylobacter ...

    Authors: Paul R Bessell, Ovidiu Rotariu, Giles T Innocent, Alison Smith-Palmer, Norval JC Strachan, Ken J Forbes, John M Cowden, Stuart WJ Reid and Louise Matthews
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:80
  27. Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a severe and life-threatening disease that is associated with cognitive impairment including learning difficulties, cognitive slowness, short-term memory deficits and poor acade...

    Authors: Michael Kihara, Michelle de Haan, Eugene O Were, Harrun H Garrashi, Brian GR Neville and Charles RJC Newton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:79
  28. Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone u...

    Authors: Vitali Sintchenko, Qinning Wang, Peter Howard, Connie WY Ha, Katina Kardamanidis, Jennie Musto and Gwendolyn L Gilbert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:78
  29. Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri) is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubatio...

    Authors: Sushil B Tamrakar, Yin Huang, Sondra S Teske and Charles N Haas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:77
  30. Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to ...

    Authors: Dinesh Neupane, Vishnu Khanal, Kamal Ghimire, Arja R Aro and Anja Leppin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:76
  31. Leishmania preferentially infects macrophages, which allow the parasite to multiply but can also kill the parasite. Although the T cell response in human leishmaniasis is well-characterized, little is known abou...

    Authors: Angela Giudice, Célia Vendrame, Caroline Bezerra, Lucas P Carvalho, Thaís Delavechia, Edgar M Carvalho and Olívia Bacellar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:75
  32. The risk of acquisition of antibiotic resistant-bacteria during or shortly after antibiotic therapy is still unclear and it is often confounded by scarce data on antibiotic usage.

    Authors: Giulia De Angelis, Giovanni Restuccia, Silvia Venturiello, Roberto Cauda, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Jacques Schrenzel and Evelina Tacconelli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:74
  33. The low uptake of facility-based HIV counseling and testing (HCT) in South Africa, particularly amongst men and youth has hindered attempts to increase access to effective treatment and prevention strategies. ...

    Authors: Hanani Tabana, Tanya Doherty, Sonja Swanevelder, Carl Lombard, Debra Jackson, Wanga Zembe and Reshma Naik
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:73
  34. Late diagnosis is an important cause of HIV-related morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs in the UK and undiagnosed infection limits efforts to reduce transmission. National guidelines provide recommendati...

    Authors: Jared Wohlgemut, Timothy Lawes and Robert BS Laing
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:72
  35. S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resem...

    Authors: Barry Mook-Kanamori, Madelijn Geldhoff, Dirk Troost, Tom van der Poll and Diederik van de Beek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:71
  36. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most affected by HIV in th...

    Authors: Carrie Llewellyn, Charles Abraham, Alec Miners, Helen Smith, Alex Pollard, Paul Benn and Martin Fisher
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:70
  37. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage precedes invasive infection and is the source for dissemination of the disease. Differences in sampling methodology, isolation or identification techniques, as well as the ...

    Authors: María Ercibengoa, Nerea Arostegi, José M Marimón, Marta Alonso and Emilio Pérez-Trallero
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:69
  38. Little is known about the dynamics of colonizing Enterococcus faecium clones during hospitalization, invasive infection and after discharge.

    Authors: Maja Weisser, Evelien A Oostdijk, Rob JL Willems, Marc JM Bonten, Reno Frei, Luigia Elzi, Jörg Halter, Andreas F Widmer and Janetta Top
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:68
  39. Life-threatening infections present major challenges for health systems in Malawi and the developing world because routine microbiologic culture and sensitivity testing are not performed due to lack of capacit...

    Authors: Mwai H Makoka, William C Miller, Irving F Hoffman, Rushina Cholera, Peter H Gilligan, Debbie Kamwendo, Gabriel Malunga, George Joaki, Francis Martinson and Mina C Hosseinipour
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:67
  40. The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time is complex and has been divergently reported.

    Authors: Aase B Andersen, Nyagosya S Range, John Changalucha, George PrayGod, Jeremiah Kidola, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Henrik Krarup, Harleen MS Grewal and Henrik Friis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:66
  41. In Africa, the wide genetic diversity of HIV has resulted in emergence of new strains, rapid spread of this virus in sub-Saharan populations and therefore spread of the HIV epidemic throughout the continent.

    Authors: Mélanie Caron, Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki, Maria Makuwa, Guy-Patrick Obiang-Ndong, Olivia Biba, Dieudonné Nkoghé and Mirdad Kazanji
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:64

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