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  1. Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are the only group of cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory pathogens that may cause death by an invasive infection known as cepacia syndrome. Their large genome (>...

    Authors: Pavel Drevinek, Matthew TG Holden, Zhaoping Ge, Andrew M Jones, Ian Ketchell, Ryan T Gill and Eshwar Mahenthiralingam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:121
  2. Injection site infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) have been associated with serious morbidity and health service costs in North America. This study explores the frequency, factors and costs associate...

    Authors: Vivian Hope, Jo Kimber, Peter Vickerman, Matthew Hickman and Fortune Ncube
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:120
  3. Little current information is available for prevalence of vertically-transmitted infections among the Afghan population. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and correlates of human immunodefic...

    Authors: Catherine S Todd, Malalay Ahmadzai, Faridullah Atiqzai, Suellen Miller, Jeffrey M Smith, Syed Alef Shah Ghazanfar and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:119
  4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Epidemiology of PCP in the recent era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not well known an...

    Authors: Saba Radhi, Travis Alexander, Michelle Ukwu, Samer Saleh and Alison Morris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:118
  5. Baseline data is necessary for monitoring how a population perceives the threat of pandemic influenza, and perceives how it would behave in the event of pandemic influenza. Our aim was to develop a module of q...

    Authors: Margo Barr, Beverley Raphael, Melanie Taylor, Garry Stevens, Louisa Jorm, Michael Giffin and Sanja Lujic
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:117
  6. It is unclear whether appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy improves outcomes in patients with bacteremia due to Escherichia coli or Klebsiella. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of appropri...

    Authors: Kerri A Thom, Marin L Schweizer, Regina B Osih, Jessina C McGregor, Jon P Furuno, Eli N Perencevich and Anthony D Harris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:116
  7. Infestation with the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) occurs worldwide. Existing treatment options are limited, and reports of resistance to commonly used pediculicides have been increasing. In this t...

    Authors: Jorg Heukelbach, Daniel Pilger, Fabíola A Oliveira, Adak Khakban, Liana Ariza and Hermann Feldmeier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:115
  8. Hand hygiene is generally considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Continuous emphasis on this intervention has lead to th...

    Authors: Clive B Beggs, Simon J Shepherd and Kevin G Kerr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:114
  9. Rabies is a major public-health problem in developing countries such as China. Although the recent re-emergence of human rabies in China was noted in several epidemiological studies, little attention was paid ...

    Authors: Han Si, Zhong-Min Guo, Yuan-Tao Hao, Yu-Ge Liu, Ding-Mei Zhang, Shao-Qi Rao and Jia-Hai Lu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:113
  10. Neonatal tetanus (NT) is still considered as one of the major causes of neonatal death in many developing countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the characteristics of sixty-seven infants with t...

    Authors: Bunyamin Dikici, Hakan Uzun, Ebru Yilmaz-Keskin, Taskin Tas, Ali Gunes, Halil Kocamaz, Capan Konca and Mehmet A Tas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:112
  11. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent in Africa, but less common elsewhere and the modes of transmission are still subject to debate. Generally, they rar...

    Authors: Andrew A Adjei, Henry B Armah, Foster Gbagbo, Isaac Boamah, Clement Adu-Gyamfi and Isaac Asare
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:111
  12. Relapse of tuberculosis (TB) may develop as the result of reactivation of the endogenous primary infection, or as a result of a exogenous reinfection. This survey evaluated the rate of reactivation versus rece...

    Authors: Parissa-Farnia, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Mohammad Varahram, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Mehdi Khazampour, Payam Tabarsi, Parvaneh Baghei, Mojtaba Marjane, Muslam Bahadori, Abolhasan Zia Zarifi and Ali Akbar Velayati
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:109
  13. Drug use and in particular injecting drug use has been at the forefront of the explosive spread of HIV in general populations in many countries in Asia. There is concern that also in China increased HIV incide...

    Authors: Mirjam Kretzschmar, Weidong Zhang, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Lan Wang, Xinhua Sun, Alexander Kraemer and Fan Lv
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:108
  14. Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children.

    Authors: Isca R Wilms, Al M Best and Stuart P Adler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:107
  15. In Malawi and other high HIV prevalence countries, studies suggest that more than 30% of all severely malnourished children admitted to inpatient nutrition rehabilitation units are HIV-infected. However, clini...

    Authors: Paluku Bahwere, Ellen Piwoz, Marthias C Joshua, Kate Sadler, Caroline H Grobler-Tanner, Saul Guerrero and Steve Collins
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:106
  16. Since the late 1980s a series of malaria epidemics has occurred in western Kenya highlands. Among the possible factors that may contribute to the highland malaria epidemics, parasite resistance to antimalarial...

    Authors: Daibin Zhong, Yaw Afrane, Andrew Githeko, Liwang Cui, David M Menge and Guiyun Yan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:105
  17. Effective prophylaxis and treatment for infections caused by biological threat agents (BTA) rely upon early diagnosis and rapid initiation of therapy. Most methods for identifying pathogens in body fluids and ...

    Authors: Rina Das, Rasha Hammamieh, Roger Neill, George V Ludwig, Steven Eker, Patrick Lincoln, Preveen Ramamoorthy, Apsara Dhokalia, Sachin Mani, Chanaka Mendis, Christiano Cummings, Brian Kearney, Atabak Royaee, Xiao-Zhe Huang, Chrysanthi Paranavitana, Leonard Smith…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:104
  18. In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-i...

    Authors: Atanacio Valencia-Mendoza, Stefano M Bertozzi, Juan-Pablo Gutierrez and Robbin Itzler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:103
  19. Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicill...

    Authors: Arne Simon, Roland A Ammann, Gertrud Wiszniewsky, Udo Bode, Gudrun Fleischhack and Mette M Besuden
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:102
  20. The poor peri-urban areas of developing countries with inadequate living conditions and a high prevalence of HIV infection have been implicated in the increase of tuberculosis (TB). Presence of different linea...

    Authors: Benon B Asiimwe, Solomon Ghebremichael, Gunilla Kallenius, Tuija Koivula and Moses L Joloba
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:101
  21. In 2001, two hexavalent vaccines were licensed in Italy (Hexavac®, Infanrix Hexa®), and since 2002 were extensively used for primary immunization in the first year of life (at 3, 5, 11/12 months of age). In 2005,...

    Authors: Cristina Giambi, Antonino Bella, Antonella Barale, Domenico Montù, Maria Marchisio, Maurizio Oddone, Salvatore Zito, Maria Rapicetta, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna and Marta L Ciofi degli Atti
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:100
  22. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused a major two-wave seventeen-month-long outbreak in La Réunion Island in 2005–2006. The aim of this study was to refine clinical estimates provided by a regional surveillance-sys...

    Authors: Patrick Gérardin, Vanina Guernier, Joëlle Perrau, Adrian Fianu, Karin Le Roux, Philippe Grivard, Alain Michault, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Flahault and François Favier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:99
  23. Serologic diagnosis of Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn) infection routinely involves assays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to Cpn. Although IgA antibodies to Cpn have been found to be of interest in the...

    Authors: Olfa Frikha-Gargouri, Radhouane Gdoura, Abir Znazen, Nozha Ben Arab, Jalel Gargouri, Mounir Ben Jemaa and Adnene Hammami
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:98
  24. In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the default...

    Authors: Epco Hasker, Maksad Khodjikhanov, Shakhnoz Usarova, Umid Asamidinov, Umida Yuldashova, Marieke J van der Werf, Gulnoz Uzakova and Jaap Veen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:97
  25. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is recommended for persons aged < 65 years with chronic medical conditions. We evaluated the risk and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD...

    Authors: Peter Klemets, Outi Lyytikäinen, Petri Ruutu, Jukka Ollgren and J Pekka Nuorti
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:96
  26. The World Health Organization's (WHO) case definition for childhood pneumonia, composed of simple clinical signs of cough, difficult breathing and fast breathing, is widely used in resource poor settings to gu...

    Authors: Taneli Puumalainen, Beatriz Quiambao, Erma Abucejo-Ladesma, Socorro Lupisan, Tarja Heiskanen-Kosma, Petri Ruutu, Marilla G Lucero, Hanna Nohynek, Eric AF Simoes and Ian Riley
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:95
  27. Of the 9.2 million new TB cases occurring each year, about 10% are in children. Because childhood TB is usually non-infectious and non-fatal, national programs do not prioritize childhood TB diagnosis and trea...

    Authors: Rangsima Lolekha, Amornrat Anuwatnonthakate, Sriprapa Nateniyom, Surin Sumnapun, Norio Yamada, Wanpen Wattanaamornkiat, Wanchai Sattayawuthipong, Pricha Charusuntonsri, Natpatou Sanguanwongse, Charles D Wells and Jay K Varma
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:94
  28. Reasons for the variation in reported treatment outcomes from antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in developing countries are not clearly defined.

    Authors: Katherine L Fielding, Salome Charalambous, Amy L Stenson, Lindiwe F Pemba, Des J Martin, Robin Wood, Gavin J Churchyard and Alison D Grant
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:93
  29. In Singapore, an outbreak of fungal keratitis caused by members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) was identified in March 2005 to May 2006 involving 66 patients. Epidemiological investigations have in...

    Authors: Roland Jureen, Tse H Koh, Grace Wang, Louis YA Chai, Ai L Tan, Tracy Chai, Yong W Wong, Yue Wang, Paul A Tambyah, Roger Beuerman and Donald Tan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:92
  30. Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically...

    Authors: Jens-Ulrik Jensen, Bettina Lundgren, Lars Hein, Thomas Mohr, Pernille L Petersen, Lasse H Andersen, Anne Ø Lauritsen, Sine Hougaard, Teit Mantoni, Bonnie Bømler, Klaus J Thornberg, Katrin Thormar, Jesper Løken, Morten Steensen, Peder Carl, J Asger Petersen…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:91
  31. Parapneumonic empyema continues to be a disease of significant morbidity and mortality among children despite recent advances in medical management. To date, only a limited number of studies have assessed the ...

    Authors: Batmunkh Nyambat, Paul E Kilgore, Dong Eun Yong, Dang Duc Anh, Chen-Hsun Chiu, Xuzhuang Shen, Luis Jodar, Timothy L Ng, Hans L Bock and William P Hausdorff
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:90
  32. Viral load monitoring is not available for the vast majority of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. However, the practical utility of CD4 cell count measurements as an alter...

    Authors: Motasim Badri, Stephen D Lawn and Robin Wood
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:89
  33. Sleeping sickness (HAT) caused by T.b. rhodesiense is a major veterinary and human public health problem in Uganda. Previous studies have investigated spatial risk factors for T.b. rhodesiense at large geographic...

    Authors: Thomas Zoller, Eric M Fèvre, Susan C Welburn, Martin Odiit and Paul G Coleman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:88
  34. All mucosal epithelia, including those of the tubotympanium, are secreting a variety of antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMs). In our previous study, we showed the bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions...

    Authors: Haa-Yung Lee, Tamotsu Takeshita, Jun Shimada, Arsen Akopyan, Jeong-Im Woo, Huiqi Pan, Sung K Moon, Ali Andalibi, Rae-Kil Park, Sung-Ho Kang, Shin-Seok Kang, Robert Gellibolian and David J Lim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:87
  35. Dengue virus pathogenesis is not yet fully understood and the identification of patients at high risk for developing severe disease forms is still a great challenge in dengue patient care. During the present s...

    Authors: Fernando A Bozza, Oswaldo G Cruz, Sonia MO Zagne, Elzinandes L Azeredo, Rita MR Nogueira, Edson F Assis, Patricia T Bozza and Claire F Kubelka
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:86
  36. Because the outcomes and sequelae after different types of brain injury (BI) are variable and difficult to predict, investigations on whether enhanced expressions of BI-associated biomarkers (BIABs), including...

    Authors: Chien-Wei Liao, Chia-Kwung Fan, Ting-Chang Kao, Dar-Der Ji, Kua-Eyre Su, Yun-Ho Lin and Wen-Long Cho
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:84
  37. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but also a common colonizer of the upper respiratory tract. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant pneumococcal strains h...

    Authors: Diana Karlsson, Andreas Jansson, Birgitta Henriques Normark and Patric Nilsson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:83
  38. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is ...

    Authors: Guy-Roger Ndong-Atome, Maria Makuwa, Richard Njouom, Michel Branger, Francoise Brun-Vézinet, Antoine Mahé, Dominique Rousset and Mirdad Kazanji
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:82
  39. The study describes the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Gambian children

    Authors: Martin Antonio, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Ekow Biney, Tim Awine, John O'Callaghan, Valentin Pfluger, Godwin Enwere, Brown Okoko, Claire Oluwalana, Adeola Vaughan, Syed MA Zaman, Gerd Pluschke, Brian M Greenwood, Felicity Cutts and Richard A Adegbola
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:81
  40. This study was conducted to evaluate drug resistance amongst bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients with particular emphasis on emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria and vancomy...

    Authors: Seema Irfan, Faiza Idrees, Vikram Mehraj, Faizah Habib, Salman Adil and Rumina Hasan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:80
  41. The nosocomial infections surveillance system must be strongly effective especially in highly critic areas, such as Intensive Care Units (ICU). These areas are frequently an epidemiological epicentre for trans...

    Authors: Carla Fontana, Marco Favaro, Silvia Minelli, Maria Cristina Bossa, Gian Piero Testore, Francesca Leonardis, Silvia Natoli and Cartesio Favalli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:79
  42. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enteric, viral, infectious disease endemic in many developing countries such as Madagascar. Infection is often subclinical or asymptomatic in children; however, symptomatic acute ...

    Authors: Vaomalala Raharimanga, Jean-François Carod, Charles-Emile Ramarokoto, Jean-Baptiste Chrétien, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Antoine Talarmin and Vincent Richard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:78
  43. How HIV-1 enter into the eyes remains obscure. We postulated that HIV-1 Tat protein can alter the expression of specific tight-junction proteins and disturb the blood retinal barrier, and contributes to HIV tr...

    Authors: Ling Bai, Zhenping Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xiumei Li, Qiurong Yu, Haotian Lin and Wenhui Yang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:77
  44. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and...

    Authors: Peter Hillemanns, J Gabrielle Breugelmans, Friederike Gieseking, Stève Bénard, Emilie Lamure, Kavi J Littlewood and Karl U Petry
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:76
  45. Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of new HIV infections in African countries are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Thus, the magnitude of HSV-2 infection in an area may suggest...

    Authors: Khadija I Yahya-Malima, Bjørg Evjen-Olsen, Mecky I Matee, Knut Fylkesnes and Lars Haarr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:75
  46. The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a cont...

    Authors: Uwem F Ekpo, Chiedu F Mafiana, Clement O Adeofun, Adewale RT Solarin and Adewumi B Idowu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:74
  47. The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains challenging. Culture and histopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are useful but have suboptimal sensitivity and in th...

    Authors: Prasanna D Khot, Daisy L Ko, Robert C Hackman and David N Fredricks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:73
  48. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) results in excess morbidity and mortality, particularly among HIV-infected individuals. This study was conducted at a secondary level hospital serving communities wi...

    Authors: Graeme Meintjes, Hennie Schoeman, Chelsea Morroni, Douglas Wilson and Gary Maartens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:72

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