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  1. Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been causally linked to a subset of oropharyngeal cancers in Western populations, and both oropharyngeal cancer and oral HPV infection are increased among HIV-posi...

    Authors: Alexandra L. Hernandez, Rajiv Karthik, Murugesan Sivasubramanian, Anantharam Raghavendran, Shelly Lensing, Jeannette Y. Lee, Priya Abraham, Dilip Mathai and Joel M. Palefsky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:675

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Authors: Changzhong Jin, Bin Yu, Jie Zhang, Hao Wu, Xipeng Zhou, Hangping Yao, Fumin Liu, Xiangyun Lu, Linfang Cheng, Miao Jiang and Nanping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:672

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:357

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) is associated with high mortality. The benefits of infectious diseases consultation (IDC) has been demonstrated in Staphylococcal aureus bacteraemia and other complex infe...

    Authors: Fabian Chiong, Mohammed S. Wasef, Kwee Chin Liew, Raquel Cowan, Danny Tsai, Yin Peng Lee, Larry Croft, Owen Harris, Stella May Gwini and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:671

    Content type: Research article

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  4. An estimated 1% of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices become infected, carrying a high mortality rate. Surgical explantation is recommended and prognosis is guarded. This retrospective cohort analysis...

    Authors: Niamh Allen, Mohamed Adam, Grace O’Regan, Aoife Seery, Cora McNally, Samuel McConkey, Aisling Brown and Eoghan de Barra

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:670

    Content type: Research

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  5. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks have a significant impact on the health and wellbeing, and livelihoods of communities. EVD response interventions particularly affect the food value chain, and income securi...

    Authors: Doreen Birungi, Gabriel Tumwine, Charles Drago Kato, Tonny Ssekamatte, Michael Ocaido and Samuel Majalija

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:669

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To assess transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), using as pre-exposure prophylaxis, among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected residents in Shenyan...

    Authors: Zhen Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Wei Song, Xue Dong, Xin Li, Lu Wang, Lin Wang, Wen Tian, Haibo Ding and Xiaoxu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:668

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a global health issue with severe implications on morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of HCV infection on all-cause, liver-related, and...

    Authors: Pierluca Piselli, Diego Serraino, Mario Fusco, Enrico Girardi, Angelo Pirozzi, Federica Toffolutti, Claudia Cimaglia and Martina Taborelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:667

    Content type: Research article

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  8. This study was performed to investigate clinical features of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and identify risk factors for converting to severe cases in those who had mild to moderate diseases at the...

    Authors: Chao Cao, Li He, Jingping Ma, Meiping Chen, Yiting Li, Qingwen Jiang, Shiyu Wu, Lili Yu, Weina Huang, Guoqing Qian, Chuanbing Zhu, Jinguo Chu and Xiaomin Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:666

    Content type: Research article

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  9. As SARS-CoV-2 testing expands, particularly to widespread asymptomatic testing, high sensitivity point-of-care PCR platforms may optimise potential benefits from pooling multiple patients’ samples.

    Authors: Alison Burdett, Christofer Toumazou, Rashmita Sahoo, Adam Mujan, Tsz-Kin Hon, Judith Bedzo-Nutakor, Nicola Casali, Maria Karvela, Mohammadreza Sohbati, Graham S. Cooke, Gary W. Davies and Luke S. P. Moore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:665

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially life-threatening infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is considered as the first regimen for PCP prophylaxis according to several guidelines. The rec...

    Authors: Kanae Yamashita, Yoshimitsu Shimomura, Hiroaki Ikesue, Nobuyuki Muroi, Akihiro Yoshimoto and Tohru Hashida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:664

    Content type: Research

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  11. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with severe illness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential predictors o...

    Authors: Changcheng Shi, Limin Wang, Jian Ye, Zhichun Gu, Shuying Wang, Junbo Xia, Yaping Xie, Qingyu Li, Renjie Xu and Nengming Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:663

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Granulicatella adiacens is facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, which mainly involve bacterial endocarditis and bacteremia, but there are few reports of local suppurative infection. A case of lung abs...

    Authors: Shuo Yang, Liangliang Wu, Lili Xu, Xiang Huang, Xiaofeng Sun, Lan Yang and Ling Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:662

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Pneumococcal vaccine immunizations may be responsible for alterations in serotype epidemiology within a region. This study investigated the pneumococcal carriage prevalence and the impact of the 13-valent pneu...

    Authors: Deborah K. Narwortey, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Hans-Christian Slotved, Eric S. Donkor, Patrick O. Ansah, Paul Welaga, Godfred Agongo and Abraham R. Oduro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:661

    Content type: Research

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  14. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) severely menaces modern chemotherapy and immunosuppression. Detailed description of the epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii today is needed to identify candidates for PCP-prophylax...

    Authors: Stine Grønseth, Tormod Rogne, Raisa Hannula, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Jan Egil Afset and Jan Kristian Damås

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:659

    Content type: Research

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  15. The reproduction number is one of the most crucial parameters in determining disease dynamics, providing a summary measure of the transmission potential. However, estimating this value is particularly challeng...

    Authors: Yunjeong Lee, Dong Han Lee, Hee-Dae Kwon, Changsoo Kim and Jeehyun Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:658

    Content type: Research article

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  16. HIV-positive patients are increasingly being affected by non-communicable diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD). Data from high-income countries (HICs) indicate that HIV-positive patients have differe...

    Authors: Camilla Pennefather, Tonya Esterhuizen, Anton Doubell and Eric H. Decloedt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:657

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) is expanding worldwide. The characteristics of this infection in patients varies from country to country. To move forward, clinical data on infected patients are needed. Her...

    Authors: Ladan Goshayeshi, Mina Akbari Rad, Robert Bergquist, Abolghasem Allahyari, Kamila Hashemzadeh and Benyamin Hoseini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:656

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Macrophages, besides resting latently infected CD4+ T cells, constitute the predominant stable, major non-T cell HIV reservoirs. Therefore, it is essential to eliminate both latently infected CD4+ T cells and ...

    Authors: Simon X. M. Dong, Frederick S. Vizeacoumar, Kalpana K. Bhanumathy, Nezeka Alli, Cristina Gonzalez-Lopez, Niranjala Gajanayaka, Ramon Caballero, Hamza Ali, Andrew Freywald, Edana Cassol, Jonathan B. Angel, Franco J. Vizeacoumar and Ashok Kumar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:655

    Content type: Research

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  19. Despite the development of a safe and efficacious hepatitis B vaccine in 1982, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to shared risk factors for virus acquisition...

    Authors: Olusegun A. Adeyemi, Andrew Mitchell, Ashley Shutt, Trevor A. Crowell, Nicaise Ndembi, Afoke Kokogho, Habib O. Ramadhani, Merlin L. Robb, Stefan D. Baral, Julie A. Ake, Manhattan E. Charurat, Sheila Peel and Rebecca G. Nowak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:654

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is a cutaneous manifestation that had not been clearly associated with infection by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus, which is a retrovirus that in most cases does not develop cl...

    Authors: Elías Quintero-Muñoz, Daniel Martin Arsanios, María Fernanda Estupiñán Beltrán, Juan David Vera, Catalina Palacio Giraldo, Omar Velandia and Carlos Mauricio Calderon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:652

    Content type: Case report

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  21. The differential diagnosis of active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains challenging in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the IFN-γ/TNF-α Fluoro...

    Authors: Lifan Zhang, Shijun Wan, Ziyue Zhou, Yueqiu Zhang and Xiaoqing Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:651

    Content type: Research

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  22. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in young children. A monovalent vaccine has been developed in China protecting against enterovirus-71, bivalent vaccines preventing HFMD caused by two v...

    Authors: Zhixi Liu, Jie Tian, Yue Wang, Yixuan Li, Jing Liu-Helmersson, Sharmistha Mishra, Abram L. Wagner, Yihan Lu and Weibing Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:650

    Content type: Research

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  23. Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urogenital tract infections and is associated with reproductive morbidity. Although MG has been reported across many regions and population groups, it is not yet routinely tested...

    Authors: Xiao-Hui Zhang, Pei-Zhen Zhao, Wu-Jian Ke, Liu-Yuan Wang, Lai Sze Tso, Zheng-Yu Chen, Yu-Ying Liao, Chun-Mei Liang, Hui-Ru Chen, Xu-Qi Ren, Jin-Mei Huang, Jason J. Ong, Fan Yang and Li-Gang Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:649

    Content type: Research article

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  24. A considerable amount of evidence demonstrates the potential of saliva in the diagnosis of COVID-19. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity of saliva versus swabs collected by healthcare workers (HCWs) and p...

    Authors: Mitnala Sasikala, Yelamanchili Sadhana, Ketavarapu Vijayasarathy, Anand Gupta, Sarala Kumari Daram, Naveen Chander Reddy Podduturi and Duvvur Nageshwar Reddy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:648

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign pathogens. However, most of the current COVID-19 clinical practices and trials do not take the sex factor into consideration.

    Authors: Bin Huang, Yun Cai, Ning Li, Kening Li, Zhihua Wang, Lu Li, Lingxiang Wu, Mengyan Zhu, Jie Li, Ziyu Wang, Min Wu, Wanlin Li, Wei Wu, Lishen Zhang, Xinyi Xia, Shukui Wang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:647

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Although there are a growing number of studies on evaluating lymphocyte subset counts as prognostic factors for COVID-19 disease severity, the lymphocyte subsets’ analyses of both IgM and IgG responders and no...

    Authors: Mitra Rezaei, Shima Mahmoudi, Esmaeil Mortaz and Majid Marjani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:646

    Content type: Research article

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  27. There is an urgent need to elucidate the epidemiology of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and characterize its potential impact. Investing in characterising the SARS-CoV2 will he...

    Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Syed, Ahmed Sameer Al Nuaimi, Hamda Abdulla A/Qotba, Gheyath K. Nasrallah, Asmaa A. Althani, Hadi M. Yassine, Abduljaleel Abdullatif Zainel, Hanan Khudadad, Tamara Marji, Shajitha Thekke Veettil, Hadeel T. Al-Jighefee, Salma Younes, Farah Shurrab, Duaa W. Al-Sadeq, Al Anoud Saleh AlFehaidi, Ameena Ibrahim Yfakhroo…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:645

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Available data on influenza burden across Southeast Asia are largely limited to pediatric populations, with inconsistent findings.

    Authors: Yong Kek Pang, Ahmad Izuanuddin Ismail, Yoke Fun Chan, Adelina Cheong, Yoong Min Chong, Paras Doshi, Joanne Zhi Han Lau, Jean Khor, Lilian Phei Lian Wang, Chee Loon Leong, Aisya Natasya Musa, Kee Sing Ng, Mau Ern Poh, I-Ching Sam, Jiunn Liang Tan, Mohd Arif Mohd Zim…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:644

    Content type: Research

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  29. Enterococcus species are the third most common organisms causing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The management of enterococcal CLABSI, including the need for and timing of catheter remo...

    Authors: Hesham Awadh, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Melissa Khalil, Johny Fares, Ying Jiang, Rita Deeba, Shahnoor Ali, Ray Hachem and Issam I. Raad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:643

    Content type: Research

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  30. Antibiotic-resistance reduces the efficacy of conventional triple therapy for Helicobacter Pylori infections worldwide, which necessitates using various treatment protocols. We used two protocols, doxycycline-...

    Authors: Marouf Alhalabi, Mohammed Waleed Alassi, Kamal Alaa Eddin and Khaled Cheha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:642

    Content type: Research

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  31. Recent approaches to TB control have focused on identifying and treating active cases to halt further transmission. Patients with TB symptoms often delay to seek care, get appropriate diagnosis, and initiate e...

    Authors: Rachel Mercaldo, Christopher Whalen, Robert Kakaire, Damalie Nakkonde, Andreas Handel and Juliet N. Sekandi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:641

    Content type: Research

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  32. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a candidate disease for micro-elimination. Accurate baseline HCV prevalence estimation is essential to monitor progress to micro-elimination but can be methodologically...

    Authors: Patricia A. M. Kracht, Joop E. Arends, Andy I. M. Hoepelman and Mirjam E. E. Kretzschmar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:640

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Infection by chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) can cause a wide spectrum of clinical features, many of which are undifferentiated. Cytokines, which broadly also include chemokines and growth factors,...

    Authors: Rama Dhenni, Benediktus Yohan, Bachti Alisjahbana, Anton Lucanus, Silvita Fitri Riswari, Dewi Megawati, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Dekrit Gampamole, Rahma F. Hayati, Kartika Sari, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Khin Saw Aye Myint and R. Tedjo Sasmono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:639

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Searching the risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is important in clinical practice. In the present study, we aim to investigate bacterial characteristics of colonizing strain...

    Authors: Qun Lin, Yue Wang, Jing Yu, Shusheng Li, Yicheng Zhang, Hui Wang, Xiaoquan Lai, Dong Liu, Liyan Mao, Ying Luo, Guoxing Tang, Zhongju Chen and Ziyong Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:638

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cedecea neteri is a gram-negative, oxidase-negative bacillus, a rare pathogen. Few reports are emerging globally about its antimicrobial resistance pattern especially in immunocompromised individuals with comorbi...

    Authors: Hafiz Ahmad, Talat Masroor, Satyam A. Parmar and Debadatta Panigrahi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:637

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors associated with mortality and multi-drug resistance bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) among adult cancer patients in Shira...

    Authors: Ali Amanati, Sarvin Sajedianfard, Somayeh Khajeh, Shabnam Ghasempour, Salma Mehrangiz, Samane Nematolahi and Zahra Shahhosein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:636

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has changed our lives. The scientific community has been investigating re-purposed treatments to prevent disease progression in coronavirus disease (...

    Authors: Julio Vallejos, Rodrigo Zoni, María Bangher, Silvina Villamandos, Angelina Bobadilla, Fabian Plano, Claudia Campias, Evangelina Chaparro Campias, Maria Fernanda Medina, Fernando Achinelli, Hector Andres Guglielmone, Jorge Ojeda, Diego Farizano Salazar, Gerardo Andino, Pablo Kawerin, Silvana Dellamea…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:635

    Content type: Research

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  38. The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has resulted in a remarkable decline of genital warts in women and men, but in Germany historical rates of vaccination are relatively low. We report l...

    Authors: Agnieszka Denecke, Thomas Iftner, Angelika Iftner, Sebastian Riedle, Marion Ocak, Alexander Luyten, Isak Üye, Kübra Tunc and Karl Ulrich Petry

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:634

    Content type: Research article

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  39. COVID-19 continuously threated public health heavily. Present study aimed to investigate the lymphocyte subset alterations with disease severity, imaging manifestation, and delayed hospitalization in COVID-19 ...

    Authors: Daxian Wu, Xiaoping Wu, Jiansheng Huang, Qunfang Rao, Qi Zhang and Wenfeng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:631

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Convalescent plasma (CP) and hyperimmune plasma (HP) are passive immunotherapies consisting in the infusion of plasma from recovered people into infected patients. Following pre-existing evidence in many other...

    Authors: Maria Grazia Cusi, Edoardo Conticini, Claudia Gandolfo, Gabriele Anichini, Gianni Gori Savellini, Serafina Valente, Federico Franchi, Sabino Scolletta, Elena Percivalle and Bruno Frediani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:630

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Along with the medical development, organ transplant patients increase dramatically. Since these transplant patients take immunosuppressants for a long term, their immune functions are in a suppressed state, p...

    Authors: Gang Fang, Ning-Chang Cheng, Li-Li Huang, Wei-Ping Xie, Chun-Mei Hu and Wei Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:629

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  42. Authors: Bianca A. Trombetta, Savannah E. Kandigian, Robert R. Kitchen, Korneel Grauwet, Pia Kivisäkk Webb, Glenn A. Miller, Charles G. Jennings, Sejal Jain, Samara Miller, Yikai Kuo, Thadryan Sweeney, Tal Gilboa, Maia Norman, Daimon P. Simmons, Christopher E. Ramirez, Melissa Bedard…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:628

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:580

  43. Carriage of virulence factors confers some evolutionary benefit to bacteria, which favors the resistant strains. We aimed to analyze whether antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains is affected ...

    Authors: Safoura Derakhshan, Masoumeh Navidinia and Fakhri Haghi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:627

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. To quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of Fangcang shelter hospitals, designated hospitals, and the time interval from illness onset to diagnosis toward the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic.

    Authors: Hui Jiang, Pengfei Song, Siyi Wang, Shuangshuang Yin, Jinfeng Yin, Chendi Zhu, Chao Cai, Wangli Xu and Weimin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:626

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.