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  1. Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Here, we examined EM patients in Norwegian general practice to find the proportion exposed to tick-transmitted microorganisms other t...

    Authors: Knut Eirik Eliassen, Lukas Frans Ocias, Karen A. Krogfelt, Peter Wilhelmsson, Susanne Gjeruldsen Dudman, Åshild Andreassen, Morten Lindbak and Per-Eric Lindgren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1044

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Current guidelines support different management of cryptococcosis between severely immunodeficient and immunocompetent populations. However, few studies have focused on cryptococcosis patients with mild-to-mod...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Yu Gu, Kunlu Shen, Xuefan Cui, Rui Min, Siqing Sun, Chunlai Feng, Yanbin Chen, Li Wang, Min Cao, Jian Yang, Jian Yao, Jing Xu, Dang Lin, Yujian Tao, Guoer Ma…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1043

    Content type: Research

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  3. The rise of HIV-1 drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) threatens antiretroviral therapy's long-term success (ART). NNRTIs will remain an essential drug for the management ...

    Authors: Julien Riou, Carole Dupont, Silvia Bertagnolio, Ravindra K. Gupta, Roger D. Kouyos, Matthias Egger and Christian L. Althaus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1042

    Content type: Research

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  4. Understanding the risk factors associated with hospital burden of COVID-19 is crucial for healthcare planning for any future waves of infection.

    Authors: Anne M. Presanis, Kevin Kunzmann, Francesca M. Grosso, Christopher H. Jackson, Alice Corbella, Giacomo Grasselli, Marco Salmoiraghi, Maria Gramegna, Daniela De Angelis and Danilo Cereda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1041

    Content type: Research

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  5. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared global pandemic, causing a lot of death. How to quickly screen risk population for severe patients is essential for decreasing the mortality. Many of the predi...

    Authors: Le Fang, Huashan Xie, Lingyun Liu, Shijun Lu, Fangfang Lv, Jiancang Zhou, Yue Xu, Huiqing Ge, Min Yu and Limin Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1040

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The COVID-19 pandemic poses serious threats to global health, and the emerging mutation in SARS-CoV-2 genomes, e.g., the D614G substitution, is one of the major challenges of disease control. Characterizing th...

    Authors: Shi Zhao, Jingzhi Lou, Lirong Cao, Hong Zheng, Marc K. C. Chong, Zigui Chen, Renee W. Y. Chan, Benny C. Y. Zee, Paul K. S. Chan and Maggie H. Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1039

    Content type: Research

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  7. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is important to reduce transmission, morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH).

    Authors: Christian Kraef, Adrian Bentzon, Alexander Panteleev, Alena Skrahina, Natalie Bolokadze, Simona Tetradov, Regina Podlasin, Igor Karpov, Elena Borodulina, Elena Denisova, Inga Azina, Jens Lundgren, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Amanda Mocroft, Daria Podlekareva and Ole Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1038

    Content type: Research

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  8. Timely and accurate identification of uropathogens and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility is paramount to the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The main objective of this study wa...

    Authors: Lalainasoa Odile Rivoarilala, Jeannoda Victor, Tania Crucitti and Jean Marc Collard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1037

    Content type: Research

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  9. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad antibacterial activity against pathogens causing acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted t...

    Authors: Ioanna Vlachaki, Matteo Vacchelli, Daniela Zinzi, Edel Falla, Yilin Jiang, Theo Mantopoulos and Dilip Nathwani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1036

    Content type: Research

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  10. From October 2019–March 2020, several clusters of mumps cases were identified in the Netherlands. Our objective was to describe cluster-associated mumps virus transmission using epidemiological and molecular i...

    Authors: Anita A. Shah, Rogier Bodewes, Linda Reijnen, Timo Boelsums, Claudia M. Weller, Ewout B. Fanoy and Irene K. Veldhuijzen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1035

    Content type: Research

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  11. Bacillary dysentery (BD) is a common infectious disease in China and causes enormous economic burdens. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of BD and to identify its po...

    Authors: Yao Zhang, Mengyuan Zhang, Dianju Kang, Wei Sun, Changhong Yang and Rongjie Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1033

    Content type: Research

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  12. Lockdown measures are the backbone of containment measures for the COVID-19 pandemic both in high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, in view of the inevitably-occurr...

    Authors: Su Yeon Jang, Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Tatiana Rivera Ramirez, Ahmed Asa’ad Al-Aghbari, Dhia Joseph Chackalackal, Rocio Cardenas-Sanchez, Maria Angelica Carrillo, In-Hwan Oh, Eduardo Andrés Alfonso-Sierra, Pia Oechsner, Brian Kibiwott Kirui, Martin Anto, Sonia Diaz-Monsalve and Axel Kroeger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1032

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) remains one of the world’s significant public health challenges. Viral suppression is the key indicator for treatment success in People living with HIV (PLHIV). We determine...

    Authors: Suleiman Bello Abdullahi, Olayinka Rasheed Ibrahim, Abdulkadir Baba Okeji, Rabilu Iliyasu Yandoma, Ibrahim Bashir, Suleiman Haladu, Suleiman Ahmad Idris, T. I. A. Oseni, Bello Muhammad Suleiman, Mohammed Yahaya, Mabel Kamweli Aworh and Mu’awiyyah Babale Sufiyan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1031

    Content type: Research

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  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and is also found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy people. Hence, the study aimed to compare the serotyp...

    Authors: Shihui Peng, Hongyu Ren, Jianping Deng, Na Zhao, Yinan Li, Ming Li, Qiwu Yuan, Zhengdong Zhang, Longze Luo, Linzi Zeng, Bin Wang, Nianli Zou, Changguo Gu, Xin Huang, Zheng Liao, Shenen Chen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1030

    Content type: Research

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  15. To date, whether the immune response for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV(PLWH) is different from HIV-naïve individuals is still not clear.

    Authors: Yanbin Liu, Yanling Xiao, Songjie Wu, Gifty Marley, Fangzhao Ming, Xiaoya Wang, Mengmeng Wu, Ling Feng, Weiming Tang and Ke Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1029

    Content type: Research

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  16. Tanzania ranks as the fourth country in the world with respect to the number of sickle cell disease (SCD) births; it is also endemic to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV). T...

    Authors: Grace Shayo, Irene Makundi and Lucio Luzzatto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1028

    Content type: Research

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  17. Bacterial meningitis occurs worldwide but Africa remains the most affected continent, especially in the "Meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia. Three main bacteria are responsible for causing ...

    Authors: Serge Mazamay, Jean-François Guégan, Neby Diallo, Didier Bompangue, Eric Bokabo, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Nadège Taty, Tonton Paul Vita and Hélène Broutin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1027

    Content type: Research

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  18. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is associated with adverse prognoses of critically ill patients. However, the epidemiology and predictors of CMV reactivation in immunocompetent patients receiving mechanical...

    Authors: Zhihui Zhang, Xuesong Liu, Ling Sang, Sibei Chen, Zhan Wu, Jierong Zhang, Yining Sun, Yongbo Huang, Yonghao Xu, Weiqun He, Yimin Li and Xiaoqing Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1026

    Content type: Research

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  19. The immunoregulatory functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the development and progression of some chronic infectious diseases are mediated by immune checkpoint molecules and immunosuppressive cytokines. ...

    Authors: Hua-Li Sun, Xiu-Fang Du, Yun-Xia Tang, Guo-Qiang Li, Si-Yuan Yang, Ling-Hang Wang, Xing-Wang Li, Cheng-Jie Ma and Rong-Meng Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1025

    Content type: Research

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  20. Global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem is set as target in the new World Health Organization’s Neglected Tropical Diseases Roadmap for 2030. Due to a long history of interventions, th...

    Authors: Lydia Trippler, Jan Hattendorf, Said Mohammed Ali, Shaali Makame Ame, Saleh Juma, Fatma Kabole and Stefanie Knopp

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1024

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  21. Globally, tuberculosis disease (TB) is more common among males than females. Recent research proposes that differences in social mixing by sex could alter infection patterns in TB. We examine evidence for two ...

    Authors: Paige B. Miller, Sarah Zalwango, Ronald Galiwango, Robert Kakaire, Juliet Sekandi, Lauren Steinbaum, John M. Drake, Christopher C. Whalen and Noah Kiwanuka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1023

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in HIV+ patients on different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens has been described. We aimed to characterize parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) and correlate with diff...

    Authors: Anderson José Gonçalves, Marcus Vinícius Almeida Braga, Pedro Henrique Santana, Luiz Antônio Pertilli Rodrigues Resende, Valdo José Dias da Silva and Dalmo Correia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1022

    Content type: Research

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  23. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is thought to be more severe in cancer patients, but this has not been studied since the development of new cancer therapies, increasing antibiotic resistance and the intr...

    Authors: Nobuyoshi Mori, Ariel D. Szvalb, Javier A. Adachi, Jeffrey J. Tarrand and Victor E. Mulanovich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1021

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Cryptococcosis is a major opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. In the early stages of cryptococcosis, limitations of the d...

    Authors: Yanping Wang, Mi Yang, Yun Xia, Jia Yan, Jiaqi Zou and Dawei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1020

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The role of antibiotics in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and their effectiveness in combination have not been clearly established. To determine whether using a com...

    Authors: Phuong Nguyen Thi Thu, Minh Ngo Thị Huong, Ngan Tran Thi, Hoi Nguyen Thanh and Khue Pham Minh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1019

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Preoperative aspiration culture and intraoperative cultures play pivotal roles in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis and pathogen identification. But the discordance between preoperative aspiration...

    Authors: Hao Li, Chi Xu, LiBo Hao, Wei Chai, Fu Jun and Jiying Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1018

    Content type: Research

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  27. Only three other cases of rat bite fever caused by Streptobacillus notomytis in humans have been reported since this species was identified in 2015. Data specific to the differences in clinical features and geogr...

    Authors: Suchada Pongsuttiyakorn, Witchuda Kamolvit, Sunee Limsrivanichakorn, Arissa Phothisirisakulwong and Walaiporn Wangchinda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1017

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  28. Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormalities in AIDS patients usually associated with disease progression and poor clinical outcomes. Zidovudine (AZT), which is one of the nucleoside reverse transcripta...

    Authors: Zegeye Getaneh, Worku Wale, Belete Chanie, Etetetu Temesgen, Metadele Abebe, Melesse Walie and Mulualem Lemma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1016

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The morbidity of rifampicin/multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis (RR/MDR-TBM) has shown an increasing trend globally. Its mortality rate is significantly higher than that of non-rifampicin/multidrug-resi...

    Authors: Mu-Tong Fang, You-Feng Su, Hui-Ru An, Pei-Ze Zhang, Guo-Fang Deng, Hou-Ming Liu, Zhi Mao, Jian-Feng Zeng, Guobao Li, Qian-Ting Yang and Zhong-Yuan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1015

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Convalescent plasma(CP) was utilized as potential therapy during COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The study aimed at appraisal of CP transfusion safety and usefulness in COVID pneumonia.

    Authors: Tehmina Nafees Sonia Khan, Samina Naz Mukry, Shahtaj Masood, Lubna Meraj, Bikha Ram Devrajani, Javed Akram, Naveena Fatima, Sidra Maqsood, Ayesha Mahesar, Roomana Siddiqui, Sadia Ishaque, Muhammad Bilal Afzal, Sanam Mukhtar, Sara Ahmed, Arshi Naz and Tahir Sultan Shamsi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1014

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Rabies is a disease that still exists in developing countries and leads to more fatalities than other zoonotic diseases. Our study aimed to describe the profile of human exposures to animals over fifteen years...

    Authors: Cyrine Bennasrallah, Manel Ben Fredj, Moncef Mhamdi, Meriem Kacem, Wafa Dhouib, Imen Zemni, Hela Abroug and Asma Belguith Sriha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1013

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The receptor of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, is more abundant in kidney than in lung tissue, suggesting that kidney might be another important target...

    Authors: Tingting Xia, Wenjing Zhang, Yu Xu, Bin Wang, Zhiquan Yuan, Na Wu, Ying Xiang, Chengying Li, Yifan Shan, Weijia Xie, Youhao Wang, Yao Zhang, Li Bai and Yafei Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1012

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Contact investigation, the systematic evaluation of individuals in close contact with an infectious tuberculosis (TB) patient, is a key active case-finding strategy for global TB control. Better estimates of t...

    Authors: Mariana Velleca, Mohsen Malekinejad, Cecily Miller, Lucia Abascal Miguel, Hailey Reeves, Philip Hopewell and Elizabeth Fair

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1011

    Content type: Research

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  34. Intravenous drug abuse (IDA) is a known risk factor for infective endocarditis (IE) and is associated with frequent relapses, but its prognostic impact is still debated. The potential futility of surgery in th...

    Authors: Valentina Scheggi, Stefano Del Pace, Nicole Ceschia, Francesco Vanni, Irene Merilli, Edoardo Sottili, Leonardo Salcuni, Nicola Zoppetti, Bruno Alterini, Alfredo Cerillo, Niccolò Marchionni and Pier Luigi Stefàno

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1010

    Content type: Research

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  35. Diseases such as COVID-19 are spread through social contact. Reducing social contacts is required to stop disease spread in pandemics for which vaccines have not yet been developed. However, existing data on s...

    Authors: Audrey M. Dorélien, Aparna Ramen, Isabella Swanson and Rachelle Hill

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1009

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health concern that requires transdisciplinary and bio-social approaches. Despite the continuous calls for a transdisciplinary understanding of this problem, t...

    Authors: Alena Kamenshchikova, Petra F. G. Wolffs, Christian J. P. A. Hoebe, John Penders, Hyun Y. Park, Mateus S. Kambale and Klasien Horstman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1008

    Content type: Technical advance

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  37. Retention of patients who did not initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been persistently low compared to those who initiated ART. Understanding the temporal trends in clinical outcomes prior to ART initia...

    Authors: P. Wekesa, A. McLigeyo, K. Owuor, J. Mwangi, L. Isavwa and A. Katana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1007

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Hematology analyzers display abnormal parameters during malaria infection providing insightful information for suspecting and assessing malaria infection. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the potential...

    Authors: Jun Nishimura, Parag Dharap and Sebastien Raimbault

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1006

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Visceral leshimaniasis is a parasitic disease characterized by systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense inflammatory response. The progression of the disease or treatment may have an effect on hem...

    Authors: Elias Shiferaw, Fadil Murad, Mitikie Tigabie, Mareye Abebaw, Tadele Alemu, Sefanit Abate, Rezika Mohammed, Arega Yeshanew and Fitsumbrhan Tajebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1005

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Early identification of severe COVID-19 patients who will need intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up and providing rapid, aggressive supportive care may reduce mortality and provide optimal use of medical resour...

    Authors: Rahmet Guner, Bircan Kayaaslan, Imran Hasanoglu, Adalet Aypak, Hurrem Bodur, Ihsan Ates, Esragul Akinci, Deniz Erdem, Fatma Eser, Seval Izdes, Ayse Kaya Kalem, Aliye Bastug, Aysegul Karalezli, Aziz Ahmet Surel, Muge Ayhan, Selma Karaahmetoglu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1004

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes community-acquired pneumonia in school-age children. Macrolides are considered a first-line treatment for M. pneumoniae infection in children, but macrolide-...

    Authors: Jong Gyun Ahn, Hye-Kyung Cho, Donghe Li, Miyoung Choi, Jina Lee, Byung-Wook Eun, Dae Sun Jo, Su Eun Park, Eun Hwa Choi, Hyeon-Jong Yang and Ki Hwan Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1003

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Through the comparison of the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of hospital human influenza (influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, H3N2, and B)-related and hospitalized avian-origin influenza A (H...

    Authors: Bin Fu, Zhengjie Wu, Lingtong Huang, Zhaohui Chai, Peidong Zheng, Qinmiao Sun, Silan Gu, Qiaomai Xu, Haiting Feng and Lingling Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1002

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. As the transmission routes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are similar, previous studies based on separate research on HIV-1 and HCV assumed a similar transmission pa...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Xin Chen, Mei Ye, Wei Pang, Chiyu Zhang, Si-Dong Xiong and Yong-Tang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1001

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Infections caused by Enterococcus hirae are common in animals, with instances of transmission to humans being rare. Further, few cases have been reported in humans because of the difficulty in identifying the bac...

    Authors: Tomoaki Nakamura, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Matsuo, Fujimi Kawai, Yuki Uehara and Nobuyoshi Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:999

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. Meningitis retention syndrome (MRS) is a rare condition that presents with acute urinary retention as a complication of aseptic meningitis. Cases of MRS due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection without a ...

    Authors: Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ken Goda and Ayako Kumabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:996

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  46. Mycetoma is the most common neglected disease in humans. It is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease primarily caused by fungi or bacteria characterized by formation of dark pale grains commonly invo...

    Authors: Ammar Awad, Adnan Alnaser, Hozifa Abd-elmaged, Reyad Abdallah and Hussam S. Khougali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:995

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  47. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. There have been reports that long-term SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and r...

    Authors: Xiaobin Zao, Yang Zhou, Yijun Liang, Xu Cao, Hening Chen, Xiaoke Li and Yong’an Ye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:991

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.