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  1. Thalidomide is an inhibitor of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) that has been proven effective for the treatment of experimental sepsis by Escherichia coli. It was tested whether it might behave as an effectiv...

    Authors: Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Nikolaos Bolanos, George Laoutaris, Vassilios Papadakis, Vassilios Koussoulas, Despina Perrea, Panayotis E Karayannacos and Helen Giamarellou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:51

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Rapid detection of the malaria parasite and early treatment of infection still remain the most important goals of disease management. Therefo...

    Authors: Neeru Singh, AK Mishra, MM Shukla, SK Chand and Praveen Kumar Bharti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:50

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of...

    Authors: Njinkeng J Nkemngu, Etienne DN Asonganyi and Anna L Njunda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:49

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Effective neutralization in testing hand hygiene preparations is considered to be a crucial element to ensure validity of the test results, especially with the difficulty to neutralize chlorhexidine gluconate....

    Authors: Günter Kampf, Marc Shaffer and Corrine Hunte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:48

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is very prevalent in Brazil. HIV therapy has been recently associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for CHD that is frequen...

    Authors: Edilma MV Albuquerque, Eliana C de Faria, Helena CF Oliveira, Daniela O Magro and Lucia N Castilho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Mycoplasmas are present worldwide in a large number of animal hosts. Due to their small genome and parasitic lifestyle, Mycoplasma spp. require complex isolation media. Nevertheless, already over 100 different sp...

    Authors: Tim Stakenborg, Jo Vicca, Patrick Butaye, Dominiek Maes, Thierry De Baere, Rita Verhelst, Johan Peeters, Aart de Kruif, Freddy Haesebrouck and Mario Vaneechoutte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:46

    Content type: Technical advance

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  7. The neuropeptide somatostatin is one of the major regulatory peptides in the central nervous system and the digestive tract. Our recent work has delineated an association between fibrosis and low levels of end...

    Authors: Shyama Chatterjee, Gunther Vrolix, Inge Depoortere, Theo Peeters and Eric Van Marck

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:45

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not c...

    Authors: Jila Sadighi, Hasan Eftekhar and Kazem Mohammad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:44

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide) has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP...

    Authors: Charles M Fogarty, Tushar C Patel, Lala M Dunbar and Bruno P Leroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:43

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic instrumentation of the lower gastrointestinal tract has been reported to result in bacteremia and endocarditis. No such case has been reported in persons with a history of rectal for...

    Authors: Braj B Pandey, Tuan C Dang and John F Healy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:42

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Mucosal antibodies have been suggested to have a role in defence against pneumococcal infections. We investigated here the ability of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PncOMPC, to induce mucosal i...

    Authors: Anu Nurkka, Mika Lahdenkari, Arto AI Palmu and Helena Käyhty

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:41

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In Lithuania, the vaccination coverage against pertussis is high. Nevertheless, there is a significant increase in pertussis cases in fully immunized children. The aim of our study was to determine the frequen...

    Authors: Irena Narkeviciute, Ema Kavaliunaite, Genovaite Bernatoniene and Rimantas Eidukevicius

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:40

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The Leishmania promastigote-macrophage interaction occurs through the association of multiple receptors on the biological membrane surfaces. The success of the parasite infection is dramatically dependent on this...

    Authors: Ricardo Gonçalves, Etel R Vieira, Maria N Melo, Kenneth J Gollob, David M Mosser and Wagner L Tafuri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:39

    Content type: Technical advance

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  14. In December 2001, a fatal case of pneumococcal meningitis in a Marine Corps recruit was identified. As pneumococcal vaccine usage in recruit populations is being considered, an investigation was initiated into...

    Authors: Carolyn I Baker, Christopher P Barrozo, Margaret AK Ryan, Lisa A Pearse and Kevin L Russell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:38

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in emergence of Salmonella typhi strains with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. These strains are identifiable by their nalidixic acid-resistance. We st...

    Authors: Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Naveet Wig, Arti Kapil, SK Kabra, K Renuka and Anoop Misra

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has a global distribution and is known to have caused large waterborne epidemics of icteric hepatitis. Transmission is generally via the fecal-oral route. Some reports have suggeste...

    Authors: Mahnaz Taremi, Manouchehr Khoshbaten, Latif Gachkar, MohammadJavad EhsaniArdakani and MohammadReza Zali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Blood cultures are a gold standard specific test for diagnosing many infections. However, the low yield may limit their usefulness, particularly in low-risk populations. This study was conducted to assess the ...

    Authors: Kevin B Laupland, Deirdre L Church and Daniel B Gregson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Most cases of echinococcal disease (ED) acquired in Canada are thought to be due to the sylvatic form of Echinococcus granulosus, which may be more benign than ED due to either Echinococcus multilocularis or the ...

    Authors: Ali Somily, Joan L Robinson, Lilly J Miedzinski, Ravi Bhargava and Thomas J Marrie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:34

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Recent epidemiological data show an increased trend of official estimates for syphilis infection in the general population. Many of the infected cases remain undetected leaving an underestimation of the true p...

    Authors: Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard T Baune, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Thomas Kuhlmann, Gerhard Reymann and Martin Reker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga isolates in young children hospitalized in the Pediatric Oncology Department of Hôpital Sud (Rennes, France) over a ...

    Authors: Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori, Laurent Desbordes, Virginie Gandemer, Jean-Louis Sixou, Nolwenn Morvan-Graveline, Michel Cormier and Martine Bonnaure-Mallet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The hetero-glycopeptide intermediate staphylococci is considered to be the precursor of glycopeptide intermediate staphylococci especially vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). For this purpose, w...

    Authors: Yasar Nakipoglu, Sengul Derbentli, Atahan A Cagatay and Handan Katranci

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:65

  22. Tuberculosis (TB) is a common public health problem in many parts of the world. TB is generally believed to spare these four organs-heart, skeletal muscle, thyroid and pancreas. We describe a rare case of myoc...

    Authors: Ritesh Agarwal, Puneet Malhotra, Anshu Awasthi, Nandita Kakkar and Dheeraj Gupta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:29

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Active Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication in advanced symptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. CMV-induced intestinal perforations are hard to diagnose and may be observe...

    Authors: Bruno Mégarbane, Dabor Résière, Jacqueline Ferrand, Laurent Raskine, Kouroche Vahedi and Frédéric J Baud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:28

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Interferon-alpha monotherapy is effective in less than one-third patients with chronic hepatitis C. The dose-effect, tolerability and durability of interferon-alpha treatment and its long-term effect on the pr...

    Authors: Ming-Lung Yu, Chia-Yen Dai, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Li-Po Lee, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Ming-Yuh Hsieh, Liang-Yen Wang, Jung-Fa Tsai, Wen-Yu Chang and Wan-Long Chuang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  25. It has been postulated that genetic predisposition may influence the susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and disease outcomes. A recent study has suggested that the deletion allele (D allele) of the angi...

    Authors: KC Allen Chan, Nelson LS Tang, David SC Hui, Grace TY Chung, Alan KL Wu, Stephen SC Chim, Rossa WK Chiu, Nelson Lee, KW Choi, YM Sung, Paul KS Chan, YK Tong, ST Lai, WC Yu, Owen Tsang and YM Dennis Lo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Inhalation anthrax is characterized by a systemic spread of the challenge agent, Bacillus anthracis. It causes severe damage, including multiple hemorrhagic lesions, to host tissues and organs. It is widely belie...

    Authors: Serguei G Popov, Taissia G Popova, Svetlana Hopkins, Raymond S Weinstein, Rebecca MacAfee, Karl J Fryxell, Vikas Chandhoke, Charles Bailey and Ken Alibek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The increasing problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has led to re-use of polymyxins in several countries. However, there are already clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacter...

    Authors: Matthew E Falagas, Ioannis A Bliziotis, Sofia K Kasiakou, George Samonis, Panayiota Athanassopoulou and Argyris Michalopoulos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:24

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hydroxyurea (HU) is an immunomodulatory agent that has been documented to enhance the antiretroviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as abacavir (ABC) and didanosine (ddI), and wo...

    Authors: Susan Swindells, Calvin J Cohen, Daniel S Berger, Karen T Tashima, Qiming Liao, Bonnie F Pobiner, Jerry W Snidow, Gary E Pakes and Jaime E Hernandez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:23

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay an...

    Authors: Ming-Fang Cheng, Yun-Liang Yang, Tzy-Jyun Yao, Chin-Yu Lin, Jih-Shin Liu, Ran-Bin Tang, Kwok-Woon Yu, Yu-Hua Fan, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Monto Ho and Hsiu-Jung Lo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  30. An association between Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and seropositivity for Bartonella henselae (BH) has been described. The objective of this study was to see if such an association exists in northern Alberta.

    Authors: Joan L Robinson, Donald W Spady, Errol Prasad, Dorothy McColl and Harvey Artsob

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Seasonal RSV infections occur every year and affect particularly children under six months of age. Passive immunoprophylaxis with monoclonal antibody Palivizumab is recommended in the period with high risk of ...

    Authors: Elena Terletskaia-Ladwig, Gisela Enders, Gunnar Schalasta and Martin Enders

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Tuberculosis poses a great challenge, especially in children. The response of BCG Test may be different in previously vaccinated children and needs to be considered before interpreting positivity for TB. This ...

    Authors: Mohit Singla, Vaibhav Sahai, Sukhbir Sodhi and Rakesh Pal Gupta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Leishmaniases are among the most proteiform parasitic infections in humans ranging from unapparent to cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral diseases. The various clinical issues depend on complex and still poor...

    Authors: Yves JF Garin, Pascale Meneceur, Francine Pratlong, Jean-Pierre Dedet, Francis Derouin and Frédéric Lorenzo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Trying to confront with the widespread burden of infectious diseases, the society worldwide invests considerably on research. We evaluated the contribution of different world regions in research production in ...

    Authors: Ioannis A Bliziotis, Konstantinos Paraschakis, Paschalis I Vergidis, Antonia I Karavasiou and Matthew E Falagas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA persists in infected cells, even after prolonged successful HAART. In the present study, a relative quantification assay of HIV-1 proviral DNA by Li...

    Authors: Benoît Kabamba-Mukadi, Philippe Henrivaux, Jean Ruelle, Nicole Delferrière, Monique Bodéus and Patrick Goubau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:15

    Content type: Technical advance

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  36. Scrapie and BSE belong to a group of fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative diseases called TSE. In order to minimize the risk of natural scrapie and presumed natural BSE in sheep, breeding programmes towards...

    Authors: Mario Van Poucke, Jo Vandesompele, Marc Mattheeuws, Alex Van Zeveren and Luc J Peelman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:13

    Content type: Technical advance

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  37. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV...

    Authors: Edward Demba, Linda Morison, Maarten Schim van der Loeff, Akum A Awasana, Euphemia Gooding, Robin Bailey, Philippe Mayaud and Beryl West

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Rabies is the most important viral zoonosis from a global perspective. Worldwide efforts to combat the disease by oral vaccination of reservoirs have managed to eradicate wildlife rabies in large areas of cent...

    Authors: Dirk Eisinger, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Thomas Selhorst and Thomas Müller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:10

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein) against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present ...

    Authors: Fatih M Uckun, Larisa Rustamova, Alexei O Vassilev, Heather E Tibbles and Alexander S Petkevich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In Malaysia, Shigella spp. was reported to be the third commonest bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. Currently, isolation of the bacterium and confirmation of the disease by microbiological and ...

    Authors: Kwai Lin Thong, Susan Ling Ling Hoe, SD Puthucheary and Rohani Md Yasin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:8

    Content type: Research article

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  41. This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany.

    Authors: Dirk Werber, Johannes Dreesman, Fabian Feil, Ulrich van Treeck, Gerhard Fell, Steen Ethelberg, Anja M Hauri, Peter Roggentin, Rita Prager, Ian ST Fisher, Susanne C Behnke, Edda Bartelt, Ekkehard Weise, Andrea Ellis, Anja Siitonen, Yvonne Andersson…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Four human coronaviruses are currently known to infect the respiratory tract: human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and 229E (HCoV-229E), SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified human...

    Authors: Elien Moës, Leen Vijgen, Els Keyaerts, Kalina Zlateva, Sandra Li, Piet Maes, Krzysztof Pyrc, Ben Berkhout, Lia van der Hoek and Marc Van Ranst

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Many studies associated nosocomial infections with increased hospital costs due to extra days in hospital, staff time, extra investigations and drug treatment. The cost of antibiotic treatment for these infect...

    Authors: Dilara Inan, Rabin Saba, Filiz Gunseren, Gozde Ongut, Ozge Turhan, Ata Nevzat Yalcin and Latife Mamikoglu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid ...

    Authors: Kym S Blackwood, Tamara V Burdz, Christine Y Turenne, Meenu K Sharma, Amin M Kabani and Joyce N Wolfe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Enterococcal meningitis is an uncommon disease usually caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and is associated with a high mortality rate. Enterococcus casseliflavus has been implicated in a wi...

    Authors: Chiara Iaria, Giovanna Stassi, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Rita Di Leo, Antonio Toscano and Antonio Cascio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:3

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Hyperlipidemia secondary to protease inhibitors (PI) may abate by switching to anti-HIV medications without lipid effects.

    Authors: Philip H Keiser, Michael G Sension, Edwin DeJesus, Allan Rodriguez, Jeffrey F Olliffe, Vanessa C Williams, John H Wakeford, Jerry W Snidow, Anne D Shachoy-Clark, Julie W Fleming, Gary E Pakes and Jaime E Hernandez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:2

    Content type: Research article

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