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  1. Content type: Research article

    Infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the necessary causal agent in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Infection with HIV-1, male g...

    Authors: Janet M Wojcicki, Rob Newton, Margaret I Urban, Lara Stein, Martin Hale, Moosa Patel, Paul Ruff, Ranjan Sur, Dimitra Bourboulia and Freddy Sitas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:21

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Castleman's disease (CD), a rare condition of uncertain etiology, involves a massive proliferation of lymphoid tissues and typically presents as mediastinal masses. We describe a patient with CD who presented ...

    Authors: Ifeoma S Izuchukwu, Kamal Tourbaf and Martin C Mahoney

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:20

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  3. Content type: Research article

    An epidemic of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus has spread from the Guangdong province to the rest of China and to the world, with a puzzling contagion behavior. It is imp...

    Authors: Tuen Wai Ng, Gabriel Turinici and Antoine Danchin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:19

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  4. Content type: Research article

    To describe the demographic and geographic distribution of tuberculosis (TB) in Manitoba, thus determining risk factors associated with clustering and higher incidence rates in distinct subpopulations.

    Authors: Kym S Blackwood, Assaad Al-Azem, Lawrence J Elliott, Earl S Hershfield and Amin M Kabani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:18

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  5. Content type: Research article

    An 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide significantly larger reduction in pneumococcal disease burden than the currently available 7-valent vaccine formulation in many countries.

    Authors: Maria Z Rosario Capeding, Taneli Puumalainen, Connie P Gepanayao, Helena Käyhty, Marilla G Lucero and Hanna Nohynek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:17

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Although European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates have been divided into five genospecies, specific tools for the serotype characterization of only three genospecies are available. Monoclonals antibodies...

    Authors: Karine Ryffel, Olivier Péter, Eric Dayer, Anne-Gabrielle Bretz and Edmond Godfroid

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:14

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  7. Content type: Research article

    We used human papillomaviruses (HPV) as a model system to evaluate the utility of a nucleic acid, hybridization-based bioelectronic DNA detection platform (eSensor™) in identifying multiple pathogens.

    Authors: Suzanne D Vernon, Daniel H Farkas, Elizabeth R Unger, Vivian Chan, Donna L Miller, Yin-Peng Chen, Gary F Blackburn and William C Reeves

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:12

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Low-dose ritonavir (RTV) boosts plasma amprenavir (APV) exposure. Little has been published on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of APV 600 mg/RTV 100 mg (APV600/RTV) twice daily (BID) compared to APV 120...

    Authors: Jeffrey P Nadler, Joseph C Gathe, Richard B Pollard, Gary J Richmond, Qiming Liao, Sandy Griffith, C Tracey Lancaster, Jaime E Hernandez and Keith A Pappa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:10

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Prevention of poxvirus infection is a topic of great current interest. We report inhibition of vaccinia virus in cell culture by porphyrins and phthalocyanines. Most previous work on the inhibition of viruses ...

    Authors: Avril RM Chen-Collins, Dabney W Dixon, Andrei N Vzorov, Luigi G Marzilli and Richard W Compans

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:9

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is embryotoxic in humans. It is mainly transmitted through raw/undercooked meat and ingestion of oocysts in cat feces. There remains controversy about the actual risk of cats transmit...

    Authors: Samar Shuhaiber, Gideon Koren, Rada Boskovic, Thomas R Einarson, Offie Porat Soldin and Adrienne Einarson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:8

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is endemic worldwide and, depending on the geographic location, 15 to 85% of the human population are asymptomaticall...

    Authors: Udo Reischl, Stéphane Bretagne, Dominique Krüger, Pauline Ernault and Jean-Marc Costa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:7

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV)-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positi...

    Authors: Reinhard Höpfl, Anton Petter, Petra Thaler, Mario Sarcletti, Andreas Widschwendter and Robert Zangerle

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:6

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Past projections of the future course of the vCJD epidemic in the UK have shown considerable uncertainty, with wide confidence bounds. However, recent vCJD case data have indicated a decrease in the annual inc...

    Authors: Azra C Ghani, Christl A Donnelly, Neil M Ferguson and Roy M Anderson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:4

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance programs in Canada have established that TB in Canada is becoming a disease of geographically and demographically distinct groups. In 1995, treaty status aboriginals from the pro...

    Authors: M Kaushal Sharma, A Al-Azem, J Wolfe, E Hershfield and A Kabani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:3

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Mathematical models can be used to predict the emergence and transmission of antiviral resistance. Previously it has been predicted that high usage of antivirals (in immunocompetent populations) to treat Herpe...

    Authors: Hayley B Gershengorn, Graham Darby and Sally M Blower

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:1

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires binding of the viral envelope gp120 to CD4 and to the CXCR4 coreceptor. Both, gp120 and CXCR4 are subject to N-glycosylation. Here we investi...

    Authors: Ingo Thordsen, Svenja Polzer and Michael Schreiber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:31

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Periodontitis is associated with elevated levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen and it may be a coronary heart disease risk factor. We wanted to study if treatment of periodontitis can decrease the level...

    Authors: Kimmo Mattila, Marja Vesanen, Ville Valtonen, Markku Nieminen, Timo Palosuo, Vesa Rasi and Sirkka Asikainen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:30

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  18. Content type: Hypothesis

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in the Nile Delta of Egypt. To control schistosomiasis, mass treatment campaigns using tartar emetic injections were condu...

    Authors: Malla R Rao, Abdollah B Naficy, Medhat A Darwish, Nebal M Darwish, Enrique Schisterman, John D Clemens and Robert Edelman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:29

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by p...

    Authors: Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Birthe Dohn, Thomas L Benfield and Bettina Lundgren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:28

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Despite major developments in the management of septic shock, the mortality rate had progressively increased. Ibuprofen has been shown to have beneficial physiological effects when used as a treatment. However...

    Authors: Ilhami Celik, Ayhan Akbulut, S Sirri Kilic, Ali Rahman, Pervin Vural, Mukaddes Canbaz and Suleyman Felek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:26

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  21. Content type: Research article

    We report the characterisation of the variable large protein (vlp) gene expressed by clinical isolate A1 of Borrelia recurrentis; the agent of the life-threatening disease louse-borne relapsing fever.

    Authors: Vincent Vidal, Sally Cutler, Ian G Scragg, David JM Wright and Dominic Kwiatkowski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:25

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  22. Content type: Research article

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the WINGS project, an intervention to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among urban women at high risk for sexual acquisition of HIV.

    Authors: Harrell W Chesson, Judith B Greenberg and Michael Hennessy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:24

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases affecting both humans and animals. They are associated with post-translational conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC

    Authors: Magdalini Polymenidou, Susan Verghese-Nikolakaki, Martin Groschup, Melanie J Chaplin, Mick J Stack, Andreas Plaitakis and Theodoros Sklaviadis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:23

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions of samples which contain hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA may result in a decline of HCV RNA concentration or false-negative results in the detection of HCV RNA...

    Authors: Anne-Isabelle de Moreau de Gerbehaye, Monique Bodéus, Annie Robert, Yves Horsmans and Patrick Goubau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:22

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia pneumoniae antigens, nucleic acids, or intact organisms have been detected in human atheroma. However, the presence of antibody does not predict subsequent cardiovascular (CV) events. We performed a sy...

    Authors: Marek Smieja, James Mahony, Astrid Petrich, Jens Boman and Max Chernesky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:21

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Constitutive expression and localization of antimicrobial human β-defensin-1 (HBD-1) in human kidneys as a potential mechanism of antimicrobial defense has been previously reported. Inducible expression of hum...

    Authors: Jan Lehmann, Margitta Retz, Jürgen Harder, Matthias Krams, Udo Kellner, Julia Hartmann, Kerstin Hohgräwe, Uta Raffenberg, Martin Gerber, Tillmann Loch, Klaus Weichert-Jacobsen and Michael Stöckle

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:20

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  27. Content type: Case report

    It has not been clearly demonstrated whether HIV vaccination can complicate routine HIV testing. In this report, we describe the laboratory data of two prisoners who received rgp120 vaccine in a phase III tria...

    Authors: Vongsheree Suthon, Rojanawiwat Archawin, Chardbanchachai Chanchai, Lerwitworapong John, Kongpromsook Wichuda, Paungtubtim Wiroj, Thaisri Hansa, Sawanpanyalert Pathom, Sri-ngam Pongnuwat, Pithak Silaporn and Inunchot Wimala

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:19

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and the HHV-8 DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is associated with the clinical stage of KS. To examine t...

    Authors: Abeltje M Polstra, J Goudsmit and M Cornelissen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:18

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The standard of care for HCV Hepatitis is the combination of interferon (IFN) plus Ribavirin. In HIV patients the use of this combination therapy may induce drug interactions, and reduces the adherence to HAART.

    Authors: Raffaele Bruno, Paolo Sacchi, Massimo Puoti, Valentina Ciappina, Cristina Zocchetti, Enrico Brunetti, Elena Maffezzini, Anna Capelli, Savino FA Patruno, Antonello Malfitano and Gaetano Filice

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:17

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) occurs primarily in children and is believed to evolve from bacteremia followed by localization of infection to the metaphysis of bones. Currently, there is no consensus ...

    Authors: Nicole Le Saux, Andrew Howard, Nicholas J Barrowman, Isabelle Gaboury, Margaret Sampson and David Moher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:16

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an established occupational disease affecting health care workers (HCWs). Determining the risk of TB among HCWs is important to enable authorites to take preventative measures in health ca...

    Authors: Caglar Cuhadaroglu, Mustafa Erelel, Levent Tabak and Zeki Kilicaslan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:14

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease. The differential diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult due to the varied and often "flu like" symptoms which may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis. Ther...

    Authors: Lee D Smythe, Ina L Smith, Greg A Smith, Michael F Dohnt, Meegan L Symonds, Leonie J Barnett and David B McKay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:13

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in...

    Authors: Jaroslav Flegr, Jan Havlícek, Petr Kodym, Marek Malý and Zbyněk Smahel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:11

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  34. Content type: Research article

    In previous experiments, it was demonstrated that maternal antibodies (maAb) against rabies in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were transferred from the vixen to her offspring. However, data was lacking from cubs during th...

    Authors: Thomas Müller, Thomas Selhorst, Peter Schuster, Ad Vos, Ulf Wenzel and Andreas Neubert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:10

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is frequently used at a concentration of up to 95% in the formulation of antiherpetic agents because of its properties as a skin penetration enhancer. Here, we have analyzed the effec...

    Authors: JS Aguilar, D Roy, P Ghazal and EK Wagner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:9

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Prognosis of chronic osteomyelitis depends heavily on proper identification and treatment of the bone-infecting organism. Current knowledge on selecting the best specimen for culture is confusing, and many con...

    Authors: Andrés F Zuluaga, Wilson Galvis, Fabián Jaimes and Omar Vesga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:8

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The thymidine kinase (tk) mutagenesis assay is often utilized to determine the frequency of herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication-mediated mutations. Using this assay, clinical and laboratory HSV-2 isolates were...

    Authors: Karen E Duffy, Matthew R Quail, Tammy T Nguyen, Robert J Wittrock, Joan O Bartus, Wendy M Halsey, Jeffry J Leary, Teresa H Bacon and Robert T Sarisky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:7

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a promising candidate microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathog...

    Authors: A Robert Neurath, Nathan Strick, Shibo Jiang, Yun-Yao Li and Asim K Debnath

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:6

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of airway epithelial cells stimulates the expression and secretion of a variety of cytokines including the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemo...

    Authors: Laura R Carpenter, James N Moy and Kenneth A Roebuck

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:5

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Anaemia is a common manifestation of paediatric HIV infection. Although there are many causes, anaemia of chronic diseases is the most frequent type. In poor countries iron deficiency is widespread. It is prob...

    Authors: Brian S Eley, Alan A Sive, Margaret Shuttleworth and Gregory D Hussey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:3

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