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  1. Content type: Research article

    In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neur...

    Authors: Paulo P Christo, Dirceu B Greco, Agdemir W Aleixo and Jose A Livramento

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:147

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can enter into a dormant state which has resulted in one third of the world's population being infected with latent tuberculosis making the study of latency and reactivation of utmost ...

    Authors: Sergey Biketov, Vasilii Potapov, Elena Ganina, Katrina Downing, Bavesh D Kana and Arseny Kaprelyants

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:146

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputi...

    Authors: Peter Bacchetti, Phyllis C Tien, Eric C Seaberg, Thomas R O'Brien, Michael H Augenbraun, Alex H Kral, Michael P Busch and Brian R Edlin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:145

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The...

    Authors: Massimo Giuliani, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Concetta Castilletti, Aldo Di Carlo, Guido Palamara, Stefano Boros and Giovanni Rezza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:143

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Among the surface antigens of Mycoplasma hominis, the P120' protein was previously shown to elicit a subtle antibody response and appears to be relatively conserved. To get better insight into the evolution of th...

    Authors: Boutheina Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, Hajer Ayari, Awatef Béjaoui-Khiari, Béhija Mlik, Imed Moalla and Faten Amouna

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:142

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) has collected clinical and virological data on influenza since 1996 in an increasing number of countries. The EISS dataset was used to characterise important e...

    Authors: John Paget, Richard Marquet, Adam Meijer and Koos van der Velden

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:141

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The rate of development of parasite-specific immune responses can be studied by following their age profiles in exposed and infected hosts. This study determined the cytokine-age profiles of Zimbabweans reside...

    Authors: Francisca Mutapi, Georgina Winborn, Nicholas Midzi, Matthew Taylor, Takafira Mduluza and Rick M Maizels

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:139

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays, which are more rapid and practical than pp65 antigenemia determination, are progressively becoming the preferred method for monitoring Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) reactivati...

    Authors: Elisabetta Cariani, Caterina P Pollara, Barbara Valloncini, Francesca Perandin, Carlo Bonfanti and Nino Manca

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:138

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is an inflammatory marker that has been used as indicator of severe bacterial infection. We evaluated the concentrations of PCT as a marker for systemic infection compared to C-reactive pro...

    Authors: Karin SR Massaro, Silvia F Costa, Claudio Leone and Dalton AF Chamone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:137

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) receptors play a key role in the early host response to viruses. In this work, we determined mRNA levels of two members of the Toll-like Receptors family, (TLR3 an...

    Authors: Rafael Atencia, Francisco J Bustamante, Andrés Valdivieso, Arantza Arrieta, Marta Riñón, Alvaro Prada and Natalia Maruri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:136

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  11. Content type: Research article

    This paper describes the third large outbreak of Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis reported in the Southern Italy region of Puglia.

    Authors: Caterina Rizzo, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Marilina Santantonio, Maria Francesca Coscia, Rosa Monno, Danila De Vito, Franco Maria Ruggeri and Giovanni Rizzo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:135

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  12. Content type: Research article

    High blood levels of soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) are associated with poor outcomes in human immunodeficiency-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals. Research on the clinical value of suPAR...

    Authors: Uffe V Schneider, Rikke L Nielsen, Court Pedersen and Jesper Eugen-Olsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:134

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  13. Content type: Hypothesis

    No country is fully prepared for a 1918-like pandemic influenza. Averting a pandemic of H5N1 influenza virus depends on the successful control of its endemicity, outbreaks in poultry and occasional spillage in...

    Authors: Y Guan, H Chen, KS Li, S Riley, GM Leung, R Webster, JSM Peiris and KY Yuen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:132

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Infections can aggravate the course of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in the anti-oxidant enzyme Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) are associat...

    Authors: Miriam Goos, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Saju Balakrishnan, Sandra Ebert, Timothy Mitchell, Maria Teresa Carrì, Bernhard U Keller and Roland Nau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:131

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low p...

    Authors: Héctor de Arazoza, Jose Joanes, Rachid Lounes, Camille Legeai, Stéphan Clémençon, Jorge Pérez and Bertran Auvert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:130

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infec...

    Authors: Radhouane Gdoura, Wiem Kchaou, Chiraz Chaari, Abir Znazen, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai and Adnane Hammami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:129

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the etiology of which is still uncertain, increases the risk of preterm birth. Recent PCR-based studies suggested that BV is associated with complex vaginal bacterial communities, inc...

    Authors: Renuka Tamrakar, Takashi Yamada, Itsuko Furuta, Kazutoshi Cho, Mamoru Morikawa, Hideto Yamada, Noriaki Sakuragi and Hisanori Minakami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:128

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection ...

    Authors: Arne B Brantsaeter, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Stig Jeansson, Anne K Goplen and Johan N Bruun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:127

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem among international travellers and much of the burden falls on general practitioners. We assessed whether sentinel surveillance based in primary care cou...

    Authors: Gemma Northey, Meirion R Evans, Tinnu S Sarvotham, Daniel R Thomas and Tony J Howard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:126

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis sin...

    Authors: James O Lloyd-Smith, Denise J Greig, Sharon Hietala, George S Ghneim, Lauren Palmer, Judy St Leger, Bryan T Grenfell and Frances MD Gulland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:125

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Human parvovirus B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum in children. It is also associated with other clinical manifestations in different target groups. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia are ...

    Authors: Faouzi Regaya, Lassad Oussaief, Mohamed Bejaoui, Mongi Karoui, Mohamed Zili and Ridha Khelifa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:123

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  22. Content type: Research article

    IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRAs) have been licensed for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Their performance may depend on assay format and may vary across populations and settings. ...

    Authors: Ifedayo MO Adetifa, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman Hammond, David Jeffries, Simon Donkor, Richard A Adegbola and Philip C Hill

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:122

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Cost-sharing schemes incorporating modest targeted subsidies have promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania, since 1996. Here we evaluate result...

    Authors: GF Killeen, A Tami, J Kihonda, FO Okumu, ME Kotas, H Grundmann, N Kasigudi, H Ngonyani, V Mayagaya, R Nathan, S Abdulla, JD Charlwood, TA Smith and C Lengeler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:121

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Seroconversion rates reported after Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination globally ranges from 85–90%. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring HBV and non responders' rates after HBV vaccination...

    Authors: Mohammad Zeeshan, Kauser Jabeen, Anita Nausheen Akbar Ali, Ailia Wilayat Ali, Saadia Z Farooqui, Vikram Mehraj and Afia Zafar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:120

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for use in HIV-infected adults in Brazil but there is uncertainty about its effectiveness in this patient population.

    Authors: Maria Amelia SM Veras, Wayne TA Enanoria, Euclides A Castilho and Arthur L Reingold

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:119

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Maternal antibody is the major form of protection against disease in early life; however, its presence interferes with active immunization of offspring. In order to overcome the immunosuppression caused by mat...

    Authors: Jianjun Chen, Fenghua Zhang, Fang Fang, Haiyan Chang and Ze Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:118

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repea...

    Authors: Axel Kramer, Harald Below, Nora Bieber, Guenter Kampf, Cyril D Toma, Nils-Olaf Huebner and Ojan Assadian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:117

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Calorimetry is a nonspecific technique which allows direct measurement of heat generated by biological processes in the living cell. We evaluated the potential of calorimetry for rapid detection of bacterial g...

    Authors: Andrej Trampuz, Andrea Steinhuber, Matthias Wittwer and Stephen L Leib

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:116

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Eight genotypes of Hepatitis B virus designated A-H, have been known but in Pakistan, no such data is available on the prevalent HBV genotypes. Therefore, the subject study was conducted to determine HBV genot...

    Authors: Muhammad Masroor Alam, Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Salman Akbar Malik, Shahzad Shaukat, Asif Naeem, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez and Javed Aslam Butt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:115

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Young women receiving family planning services are at risk for both unintended pregnancy and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection.

    Authors: Nicholas J Moss, Cynthia C Harper, Katherine Ahrens, Katherine Scott, Susan Kao, Nancy Padian, Tina Raine and Jeffrey D Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:113

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Sternal wound infection (SWI) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of cardiac surgery. Predisposing factors for SWI are multiple with varied frequencies in different studies. The purpos...

    Authors: Abbas Salehi Omran, Abbasali Karimi, S Hossein Ahmadi, Setareh Davoodi, Mehrab Marzban, Namvar Movahedi, Kyomars Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Saeed Davoodi and Naghmeh Moshtaghi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:112

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasingly common cause of nosocomial infections, causing severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accounting in some hospitals for more than 50% of...

    Authors: Lorenzo Drago, Elena De Vecchi, Lucia Nicola and Maria Rita Gismondo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:111

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The tick-borne intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis after infection of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The human Sp110 gene is a ...

    Authors: José de la Fuente, Raúl Manzano-Roman, Edmour F Blouin, Victoria Naranjo and Katherine M Kocan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:110

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Studies show that tuberculosis notification declines with increasing altitude. This can be due to declining incidence or declining case detection. In Vietnam notification rates of new smear-positive tuberculos...

    Authors: M Vree, NB Hoa, DN Sy, NV Co, FGJ Cobelens and MW Borgdorff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:109

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of mult...

    Authors: Kristine Marie Jessen, Sarah Bjerre Lindboe, Anncatrine Luisa Petersen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen and Thomas Benfield

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:108

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  36. Content type: Research article

    During and shortly after birth, newborn infants are colonized with enterococci. This study analyzes predictors for early enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit and describes ris...

    Authors: Markus Hufnagel, Cathrin Liese, Claudia Loescher, Mirjam Kunze, Heinrich Proempeler, Reinhard Berner and Marcus Krueger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:107

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Nosocomial bacteremia is associated with a poor prognosis. Early adequate therapy has been shown to improve outcome. Consequently, rapid detection of a beginning sepsis is therefore of the utmost importance. T...

    Authors: Dominique M Vandijck, Eric A Hoste, Stijn I Blot, Pieter O Depuydt, Renaat A Peleman and Johan M Decruyenaere

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:106

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized t...

    Authors: Anita Bhalla, David C Aron and Curtis J Donskey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:105

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale,...

    Authors: Klaus Reither, Ralf Ignatius, Thomas Weitzel, Andrew Seidu-Korkor, Louis Anyidoho, Eiman Saad, Andrea Djie-Maletz, Peter Ziniel, Felicia Amoo-Sakyi, Francis Danikuu, Stephen Danour, Rowland N Otchwemah, Eckart Schreier, Ulrich Bienzle, Klaus Stark and Frank P Mockenhaupt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:104

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Candidemia is a major infectious complication of seriously immunocompromised patients. In the absence of specific signs and symptoms, there is a need to evolve an appropriate diagnostic approach. A number of m...

    Authors: Fasahat F Alam, Abu S Mustafa and Zia U Khan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:103

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Onychomycosis has a high prevalance among immunocompromised patients such as diabetics and hemodialysis patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of onychomycosis among hemodialysi...

    Authors: Güven Kuvandik, Meryem Çetin, Gultekin Genctoy, Mehmet Horoz, Mehmet Duru, Cenk Akcali, Salim Satar, Ahmet A Kiykim and Hasan Kaya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:102

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the...

    Authors: Maria N Theodoridou, Vasiliki A Vasilopoulou, Erato E Atsali, Anastasia M Pangalis, Glyceria J Mostrou, Vassiliki P Syriopoulou and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:101

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The coinfections HIV/HCV/HBV are an important health issue in penitentiary communities. The aim of the study was to examine HIV, HBV and HCV coinfections determinants amongst prisoners in the jails of Southern...

    Authors: Giuseppe La Torre, Luca Miele, Giacomina Chiaradia, Alice Mannocci, Manuela Reali, Giovanni Gasbarrini, Elisabetta De Vito, Antonio Grieco and Walter Ricciardi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:100

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT assays incorporating Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens are useful in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) or latent infection. However, their utility in patients with adv...

    Authors: Stephen D Lawn, Nonzwakazi Bangani, Monica Vogt, Linda-Gail Bekker, Motasim Badri, Marjorie Ntobongwana, Hazel M Dockrell, Robert J Wilkinson and Robin Wood

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:99

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Emerging molecular, animal model and epidemiologic evidence suggests that Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) isolates vary in their capacity to cause human infection and disease. The translocate...

    Authors: James L Bono, James E Keen, Michael L Clawson, Lisa M Durso, Michael P Heaton and William W Laegreid

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:98

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