The Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia annual surveillance report 2016. Sydney: The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia; 2016.
Ryder N, Bourne C, Donovan B. Different trends for different sexually transmissible infections despite increased testing of men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22(6):335–7.
Savage EJ, Marsh K, Duffell S, Ison CA, Zaman A, Hughes G. Rapid increase in gonorrhoea and syphilis diagnoses in England in 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(29):1–4.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Annual epidemiological report 2014 - sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and blood-borne viruses. Stockholm: ECDC; 2015.
Newman L, Rowley J, Vander Hoorn S, Wijesooriya NS, Unemo M, Low N, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0143304.
Childs T, Simms I, Alexander S, Eastick K, Hughes G, Field N. Rapid increase in lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men, United Kingdom, 2003 to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(48):30076.
Hughes G, Alexander S, Simms I, Conti S, Ward H, Powers C, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum diagnoses among men who have sex with men in the U.K.: interpreting a cross-sectional study using an epidemic phase-specific framework. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(7):542–7.
Chow EP, Dutt K, Fehler G, Denham I, Chen MY, Batrouney C, et al. Duration of syphilis symptoms at presentations in men who have sex with men in Australia: are current public health campaigns effective? Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144(1):113–22.
Read P, Fairley CK, Chow EP. Increasing trends of syphilis among men who have sex with men in high income countries. Sex Health. 2015;12(2):155–63.
Chow EP, Callander D, Fairley CK, Zhang L, Donovan B, Guy R, Lewis DA, Hellard M, Read P, Ward A et al. Increased syphilis testing of men who have sex with men: greater detection of asymptomatic early syphilis and relative reduction in secondary syphilis. Clinical Infect Dis. [Epub ahead 13 April 2017]. DOI:10.1093/cid/cix326.
Cheung KT, Fairley CK, Read TR, Denham I, Fehler G, Bradshaw CS, et al. HIV incidence and predictors of incident HIV among men who have sex with men attending a sexual health Clinic in Melbourne, Australia. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0156160.
Katz DA, Dombrowski JC, Bell TR, Kerani RP, Golden MR. HIV incidence among men who have sex with men after diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections. Sex Transm Dis. 2016;43(4):249–54.
Bernstein KT, Marcus JL, Nieri G, Philip SS, Klausner JD. Rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia reinfection is associated with increased risk of HIV seroconversion. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53(4):537–43.
Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2587–99.
McCormack S, Dunn DT, Desai M, Dolling DI, Gafos M, Gilson R, et al. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10013):53–60.
Liu AY, Cohen SE, Vittinghoff E, Anderson PL, Doblecki-Lewis S, Bacon O, et al. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection integrated with municipal- and community-based sexual health services. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(1):75–84.
Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(6):493–505.
Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Bruun T, Vernazza P, Collins S, van Lunzen J, et al. Sexual activity without condoms and risk of HIV transmission in serodifferent couples when the HIV-positive partner is using suppressive antiretroviral therapy. JAMA. 2016;316(2):171–81.
Holt M, Murphy DA, Callander D, Ellard J, Rosengarten M, Kippax SC, et al. Willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the likelihood of decreased condom use are both associated with unprotected anal intercourse and the perceived likelihood of becoming HIV positive among Australian gay and bisexual men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(4):258–63.
Molina JM, Capitant C, Spire B, Pialoux G, Cotte L, Charreau I, et al. On-demand Preexposure prophylaxis in men at high risk for HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(23):2237–46.
Chen YH, Snowden JM, McFarland W, Raymond HF. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, seroadaptation, and sexual behavior among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2004-2014. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(12):2791–7.
Ross I, Mejia C, Melendez J, Chan PA, Nunn AC, Powderly W, et al. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: implications for country-wide implementation. PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173057.
Holt M, Lea T, Schmidt HM, Kolstee J, Ellard J, Murphy D, Truong HH, de Wit J. Willingness to use and have sex with men taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): results of online surveys of Australian gay and bisexual men, 2011–2015. Sexually Transmitted Infect. [Epub ahead 20 January 2017]. DOI:10.1136/sextrans-2016-052774.
Kojima N, Davey DJ, Klausner JD. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection and new sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2016;30(14):2251–2.
Tapsall JW, Ndowa F, Lewis DA, Unemo M. Meeting the public health challenge of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther. 2009;7(7):821–34.
Goire N, Lahra MM, Chen M, Donovan B, Fairley CK, Guy R, et al. Molecular approaches to enhance surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014;12(3):223–9.
Bignell C, Fitzgerald M. UK national guideline for the management of gonorrhoea in adults, 2011. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22(10):541–7.
Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1–137.
Lewis DA. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae-what do we really need to know to guide public health interventions? Sex Transm Dis. 2017;44(4):202–4.
Jabeen K, Bhawan Mal P, Khan E, Chandio S, Jacobsson S, Unemo M. Antimicrobial resistance and Neisseria gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) genotypes in N. gonorrhoeae during 2012-2014 in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:353.
Regnath T, Mertes T, Ignatius R. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. Euro Surveill. 2016, 21(36):1–7.
Tapsall JW, Limnios EA, Murphy D. Analysis of trends in antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Australia, 1997-2006. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61(1):150–5.
Kirkcaldy RD, Kidd S, Weinstock HS, Papp JR, Bolan GA. Trends in antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the USA: the Gonococcal isolate surveillance project (GISP), January 2006-June 2012. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(Suppl 4):iv5–10.
Unemo M, Jensen JS. Antimicrobial-resistant sexually transmitted infections: gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium. Nat Rev Urol. 2017;14(3):139–52.
Lahra MM, Ryder N, Whiley DM. A new multidrug-resistant strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Australia. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(19):1850–1.
Nakayama S, Shimuta K, Furubayashi K, Kawahata T, Unemo M, Ohnishi M. New Ceftriaxone- and multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a novel mosaic penA Gene isolated in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60(7):4339–41.
Lahra MM, Dillon JAR, George CRR, Lewis DA, Wi TE, Whiley DM. From zero to zero in 100 years: gonococcal antimicrobial resistance. Microbiology Australia. 2016;37(4):173–6.
Barry PM, Klausner JD. The use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: the impending problem of resistance. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10(4):555–77.
Stoltey JE, Barry PM. The use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: an update on the rising problem of resistance. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012;13(10):1411–20.
Blomquist PB, Miari VF, Biddulph JP, Charalambous BM. Is gonorrhea becoming untreatable? Future Microbiol. 2014;9(2):189–201.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013. Atlanta: CDC; 2013. https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf.
Department of Health, Department of Agriculture: Responding to the threat of antimicrobial resistance: Australia's First National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy 2015–2019. Canberra: Australian Government, Department of Health; 2015. http://health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/1803C433C71415CACA257C8400121B1F/%24File/amr-strategy-2015-2019.pdf.
World Health Organization. Antimicrobial resistance - Global report on surveillance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
World Health Organization. Global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to guide research, discovery, and development of new antibiotics. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
World Health Organization. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.
Lewis DA. Will targeting oropharyngeal gonorrhoea delay the further emergence of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains? Sex Transm Infect. 2015;91(4):234–7.
Whiley DM, Tapsall JW, Sloots TP. Nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae: an ongoing challenge. J Mol Diagnostics. 2006;8(1):3–15.
Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Zhang L, Chow EP. Frequent transmission of gonorrhea in men who have sex with men. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):102–4.
Nash JL, Hocking JS, Read TR, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS, Forcey DS, et al. Contribution of sexual practices (other than anal sex) to bacterial sexually transmitted infection transmission in men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional analysis using electronic health records. Sex Transm Infect. 2014;90(1):55–7.
Sanfilippo JS. The silent epidemic of Chlamydia: what are we missing here? J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2008;21(5):231–2.
Wyrick PB. Chlamydia trachomatis persistence in vitro: an overview. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(Suppl 2):S88–95.
Fairley CK, Chow EP, Hocking JS. Early presentation of symptomatic individuals is critical in controlling sexually transmissible infections. Sex Health. 2015;2015(12):181–2.
Ong JJ, Fethers K, Howden BP, Fairley CK, Chow EP, Williamson DA, Petalotis I, Aung E, Kanhutu K, De Petra V et al. Asymptomatic and symptomatic urethral gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men attending a sexual health service. Clin Microbiol Infect. [Epub ahead 28 February 2017]. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2017.02.020.
Judson FN. Gonorrhea. Med Clin North Am. 1990;74(6):1353–66.
Kent CK, Chaw JK, Wong W, Liska S, Gibson S, Hubbard G, et al. Prevalence of rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal chlamydia and gonorrhea detected in 2 clinical settings among men who have sex with men: San Francisco, California, 2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(1):67–74.
Cornelisse VJ, Chow EP, Huffam S, Fairley CK, Bissessor M, De Petra V, et al. Increased detection of pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men after transition from culture to nucleic acid amplification testing. Sex Transm Dis. 2017;44(2):114–7.
Baker J, Plankey M, Josayma Y, Elion R, Chiliade P, Shahkolahi A, et al. The prevalence of rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrheae and Chlamydia trachomatis among asymptomatic men who have sex with men in a prospective cohort in Washington, D.C. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2009;23(8):585–8.
Marcus JL, Bernstein KT, Kohn RP, Liska S, Philip SS. Infections missed by urethral-only screening for chlamydia or gonorrhea detection among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(10):922–4.
Loomba P, Knight V, McNulty A. What would be missed if we didn't screen men who have sex with men for oral chlamydia trachomatis? A cross-sectional study. Sex Health. 2016;13(2):196–8.
Goddard SL, Rajagopal P, Templeton DJ. Increasing yield of pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis among male gay and bisexual clinic attendees in Sydney: an observational study. Sex Health. [Epub ahead 16 March 2017].
Barbee LA, Khosropour CM, Dombrowski JC, Manhart LE, Golden MR. An estimate of the proportion of symptomatic gonococcal, chlamydial and non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis attributable to oral sex among men who have sex with men: a case-control study. Sex Transm Infect. 2016;92:155–60.
Templeton DJ, Jin F, McNally LP, Imrie JC, Prestage GP, Donovan B, et al. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for pharyngeal gonorrhoea in a community-based HIV-negative cohort of homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86(2):90–6.
Chow EP, Cornelisse VJ, Read TR, Lee D, Walker S, Hocking JS, et al. Saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex is a risk factor for rectal gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men, a new public health message: a cross-sectional survey. Sex Transm Infect. 2016;92(7):532–6.
Chow EP, Tabrizi SN, Phillips S, Lee D, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterial DNA load in the pharynges and saliva of men who have sex with men. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54(10):2485–90.
Hutt DM, Judson FN. Epidemiology and treatment of oropharyngeal gonorrhea. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104(5):655–8.
Chow EP, Lee D, Tabrizi SN, Phillips S, Snow A, Cook S, et al. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx and saliva: implications for gonorrhoea transmission. Sex Transm Infect. 2016;92(5):347–9.
Rosenberger JG, Reece M, Schick V, Herbenick D, Novak DS, Van Der Pol B, et al. Sexual behaviors and situational characteristics of most recent male-partnered sexual event among gay and bisexually identified men in the United States. J Sex Med. 2011;8(11):3040–50.
Willmott FE. Transfer of gonococcal pharyngitis by kissing? Br J Venereal Dis. 1974;50(4):317–8.
Barlow D. The diagnosis of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Genitourin Med. 1997;73(1):16–7.
Butler LM, Osmond DH, Jones AG, Martin JN. Use of saliva as a lubricant in anal sexual practices among homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(2):162–7.
Chow EP, Camilleri S, Ward C, Huffam S, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS, et al. Duration of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection at the pharynx and rectum among men who have sex with men: a systematic review. Sex Health. 2016;13(3):199–204.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2013. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services; 2014.
Wallin J, Siegel MS. Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae: coloniser or pathogen? Br Med J. 1979;1(6176):1462–3.
Kinghorn G. Pharyngeal gonorrhoea: a silent cause for concern. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86(6):413–4.
Mimiaga MJ, Mayer KH, Reisner SL, Gonzalez A, Dumas B, Vanderwarker R, et al. Asymptomatic gonorrhea and chlamydial infections detected by nucleic acid amplification tests among Boston area men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(5):495–8.
Janier M, Lassau F, Casin I, Morel P. Pharyngeal gonorrhoea: the forgotten reservoir. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79(4):345.
Zhang L, Regan DG, Chow EP, Gambhir M, Cornelisse V, Grulich A, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission among men who have sex with men: an anatomical site-specific mathematical model evaluating the potential preventive impact of mouthwash. Sex Transm Dis. In press.
Hui B, Fairley CK, Chen M, Grulich A, Hocking J, Prestage G, et al. Oral and anal sex are key to sustaining gonorrhoea at endemic levels in MSM populations: a mathematical model. Sex Transm Infect. 2015;91(5):365–9.
Lee E, Mao L, McKenzie T, Batrouney C, West M, Prestage G, et al. Gay community periodic survey: Melbourne 2016. Sydney: Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW Australia; 2016.
Chow EP, Tomnay J, Fehler G, Whiley D, Read TR, Denham I, et al. Substantial increases in chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity unexplained by changes in individual-level sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in an Australian sexual health service from 2007 to 2013. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42(2):81–7.
Paz-Bailey G, Mendoza MC, Finlayson T, Wejnert C, Le B, Rose C, et al. Trends in condom use among MSM in the United States: the role of antiretroviral therapy and seroadaptive strategies. AIDS. 2016;30(12):1985–90.
Walker S, Bellhouse C, Fairley CK, Bilardi JE, Chow EP. Pharyngeal gonorrhoea: the willingness of Australian men who have sex with men to change current sexual practices to reduce their risk of transmission-a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0164033.
Australian sexually transmitted infection & HIV testing guidelines 2014 for asymptomatic men who have sex with men http://stipu.nsw.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/STIGMA_Testing_Guidelines_Final_v5.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2016.
Guy R, Goller JL, Spelman T, El-Hayek C, Gold J, Lim M, et al. Does the frequency of HIV and STI testing among men who have sex with men in primary care adhere with Australian guidelines? Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86(5):371–6.
Jerse AE, Bash MC, Russell MW. Vaccines against gonorrhea: current status and future challenges. Vaccine. 2014;32(14):1579–87.
Chow EP, Howden BP, Walker S, Lee D, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY, et al. Antiseptic mouthwash against pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a randomised controlled trial and an in vitro study. Sex Transm Infect. 2017;93(2):88–93.
Rennie D. CONSORT revised-improving the reporting of randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285(15):2006–7.
Marinelli T, Chow EP, Tomnay J, Fehler G, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY, et al. Rate of repeat diagnoses in men who have sex with men for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a retrospective cohort study. Sex Health. 2015;12(5):418–24.
Bissessor M, Whiley DM, Lee DM, Snow AF, Fairley CK, Peel J, et al. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from tonsils and posterior oropharynx. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(11):3624–6.
Page-Shafer K, Graves A, Kent C, Balls JE, Zapitz VM, Klausner JD. Increased sensitivity of DNA amplification testing for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(2):173–6.
Schachter J, Moncada J, Liska S, Shayevich C, Klausner JD. Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections of the oropharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(7):637–42.
Campbell MJ, Julious SA, Altman DG. Estimating sample sizes for binary, ordered categorical, and continuous outcomes in two group comparisons. BMJ. 1995;311(7013):1145–8.
Whitley E, Ball J. Statistics review 4: sample size calculations. Crit Care. 2002;6(4):335–41.
Read TR, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS, Morrow A, Grulich AE, Fairley CK, et al. Provision of rapid HIV tests within a health service and frequency of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013;347:f5086.
Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, et al. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science. 1985;230(4732):1350–4.
Whiley DM, Anderson TP, Barratt K, Beaman MH, Buda PJ, Carter M, et al. Evidence that the gonococcal porA pseudogene is present in a broad range of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains; suitability as a diagnostic target. Pathology. 2006;38(5):445–8.
Tabrizi SN, Chen S, Tapsall J, Garland SM. Evaluation of opa-based real-time PCR for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(3):199–202.
Razali MF, Fairley CK, Hocking J, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY. Sampling technique and detection rates for pharyngeal gonorrhea using culture. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(8):522–4.
Golparian D, Tabrizi SN, Unemo M. Analytical specificity and sensitivity of the APTIMA Combo 2 and APTIMA GC assays for detection of commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria gonorrhoeae on the gen-Probe panther instrument. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40(2):175–8.
Perry MD, Jones RN, Corden SA. Is confirmatory testing of Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG test Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive samples required? Comparison of the Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG test with an opa/pap duplex assay for the detection of N gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Infect. 2014;90(4):303–8.
Australian STI Management Guidelines For Use In Primary Care http://www.sti.guidelines.org.au/. Accessed 22 July 2016.
Templeton DJ, Read P, Varma R, Bourne C. Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men 2014: a review of the evidence. Sex Health. 2014;11(3):217–29.
Cornelisse VJ, Fairley CK, Walker S, Young T, Lee D, Chen MY, et al. Adherence to, and acceptability of, Listerine® mouthwash as a potential preventive intervention for pharyngeal gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men in Australia: a longitudinal study. Sex Health. 2016;13(5):494–6.
Zou H, Tabrizi SN, Grulich AE, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS, Cornall AM, et al. Site-specific human papillomavirus infection in adolescent men who have sex with men (HYPER): an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(1):65–73.
Roberts C, Torgerson DJ. Understanding controlled trials: baseline imbalance in randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 1999;319(7203):185.
Fagan T. Exact 95% confidence intervals for differences in binomial proportions. Comput Biol Med. 1999;29(1):83–7.
Bissessor M, Whiley DM, Fairley CK, Bradshaw CS, Lee DM, Snow AS, et al. Persistence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA following treatment for pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea is influenced by antibiotic susceptibility and reinfection. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(4):557–63.
Macfarlane TV, Kawecki MM, Cunningham C, Bovaird I, Morgan R, Rhodes K, et al. Mouthwash use in general population: results from adult dental health survey in grampian, Scotland. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2011;1(4):e2.
Chow EP, Fehler G, Read TR, Tabrizi SN, Hocking JS, Denham I, et al. Gonorrhoea notifications and nucleic acid amplification testing in a very low-prevalence Australian female population. Med J Aust. 2015;202(6):321–3.
Mannion PK, Fairley CK, Fehler G, Tabrizi SN, Tan WS, Chen MY, et al. Trends in gonorrhoea positivity by nucleic acid amplification test versus culture among Australian heterosexual men with a low prevalence of gonorrhoea, 2007-2014. Sex Transm Infect. 2016;92(8):625–8.
Chow EP, Fehler G, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS, Denham I, Law MG, et al. Testing commercial sex workers for sexually transmitted infections in Victoria, Australia: an evaluation of the impact of reducing the frequency of testing. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103081.
Hounsfield VL, Freedman E, McNulty A, Bourne C. Transgender people attending a Sydney sexual health service over a 16-year period. Sex Health. 2007;4(3):189–93.
Wong HT, Lee KC, Chan DP. Community-based sexually transmitted infection screening and increased detection of pharyngeal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in female sex workers in Hong Kong. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42(4):185–91.
Deguchi T, Yasuda M, Yokoi S, Nakano M, Ito S, Ohkusu K, et al. Failure to detect Mycoplasma genitalium in the pharynges of female sex workers in Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2009;15(6):410–3.
Wong ML, Chan RK. A prospective study of pharyngeal gonorrhoea and inconsistent condom use for oral sex among female brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. Int J STD AIDS. 1999;10(9):595–9.
McCullough MJ, Farah CS. The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Aust Dent J. 2008;53(4):302–5.
Wynder EL, Kabat G, Rosenberg S, Levenstein M. Oral cancer and mouthwash use. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983;70(2):255–60.
Winn DM, Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Preston-Martin S, et al. Mouthwash use and oral conditions in the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res. 1991;51(11):3044–7.
Gandini S, Negri E, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C, Boyle P. Mouthwash and oral cancer risk quantitative meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(2):173–80.
La Vecchia C. Mouthwash and oral cancer risk: an update. Oral Oncol. 2009;45(3):198–200.
Donovan B. The repertoire of human efforts to avoid sexually transmissible diseases: past and present. Part 2: strategies used during or after sex. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(2):88–93.