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  1. Melioidosis, the infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is associated with a high case fatality rate, due in part to difficulties in clinical recognition and diagnostic confirmation of the disease. Althou...

    Authors: Anand Mohan, Yuwana Podin, Da-Wei Liew, Jeevithaa Mahendra Kumar, Peter Sie-Teck Lau, Yee-Yen Tan, Yi-Pinn Tai, Ranveer Singh Gill, Ram Shanmugam, Su-Lin Chien, Lee-See Tan, Nurul Asiah Mat Sani, Kamilah Manan and Mong-How Ooi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1069

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Nowadays, most studies of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) are case reports or small sample cohort series. Our study is aimed to present the largest series of TBEO with our management experiences and long...

    Authors: Yin Huang, Bo Chen, Dehong Cao, Zeyu Chen, Jin Li, Jianbing Guo, Qiang Dong, Qiang Wei and Liangren Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1068

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Myiasis is caused by dipterous larvae, and rarely affects the mouth. Diagnosis by traditional means is easy to be confused with other similar species. Here, we report a case of oral myiasis, in a 5-month-old i...

    Authors: Minyu Zhou, Ke Cao, Hui Huang, Xiaojuan Luo, Ying Wang, Weike Ma and Zhiyue Lv

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1067

    Content type: Case report

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  4. The COVID-19 and HIV epidemics have exacerbated existing inequities among vulnerable groups and severely impacted communities of color. People living with HIV (PLWH), who may already face stigma or discriminat...

    Authors: Andre Hall, Olivier Joseph, Samantha Devlin, Jared Kerman, Jessica Schmitt, Jessica P. Ridgway and Moira C. McNulty

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1066

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Transgender and gender diverse individuals often face structural barriers to health care because of their gender minority status. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gender minority st...

    Authors: Yongjie Sha, Willa Dong, Weiming Tang, Lingling Zheng, Xi Huang, Kathryn E. Muessig and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1065

    Content type: Research

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  6. In 2018, Rwanda launched a 5-year hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination plan as per the World Health Organization global targets to eliminate HCV by 2030. To improve awareness of HCV status, strategies are neede...

    Authors: Janvier Serumondo, Sonjelle Shilton, Ladislas Nshimiyimana, Prosper Karame, Donatha Dushimiyimana, Emmanuel Fajardo, Eric Remera, Gallican N. Rwibasira and Guillermo Z. Martínez-Pérez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1064

    Content type: Research

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  7. The incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has increased in recent years, making it a very common childhood illness worldwide. The relationship between different enterovirus genotypes and disease seve...

    Authors: Chenguang Shen, Yi Xu, Jingkai Ji, Jinli Wei, Yujin Jiang, Yang Yang, Minghui Yang, Huaxin Huang, Rongrong Zou, Chunxiao Fang, Fansen Zeng, Fengxia Yang, Xinfa Wang, Jing Yuan, Jianmin Li, Xianfeng Wang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1062

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has reduced the clinical utility of carbapenems. Plasmids often play an important role in the spread of genes encoding drug-resistance fact...

    Authors: Nobuyoshi Mori, Tatsuya Tada, Satoshi Oshiro, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Teruo Kirikae and Yuki Uehara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1061

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Multi-drug resistant—tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging public health concern in Uganda. Prior to 2013, MDR-TB treatment in Uganda was only provided at the national referral hospital and two private-not-for ...

    Authors: Mbonye Kayitale Martin, Otuba John Paul, Riese Sara, Alima Hilary, Mugabe Frank, Muhwezi K. Augustin, Turyahabwe Stavia, Wandera Christopher, Tisna Veldhuijzen van Zanten and Tugume Gladys

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1060

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies depending on a number of factors, including vaccine uptake, in both children and adults, the geographic location, and local serotype prevalence. Ther...

    Authors: Paula O. Narváez, Salome Gomez-Duque, Juan E. Alarcon, Paula C. Ramirez-Valbuena, Cristian C. Serrano-Mayorga, Julian Lozada-Arcinegas, Alirio Bastidas, Sandra Gómez, Hernan Vargas, Charles Feldman and Luis Felipe Reyes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1059

    Content type: Research

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  11. Comorbidities such as undernutrition and parasitic infections are widespread in India and other tuberculosis (TB)-endemic countries. This study examines how these conditions as well as food supplementation and...

    Authors: Chelsie Cintron, Prakash Babu Narasimhan, Lindsey Locks, Senbagavalli Babu, Pranay Sinha, Nonika Rajkumari, Vaishnavi Kaipilyawar, Anurag Bhargava, Kimberly Maloomian, Padma Chandrasekaran, Sheetal Verma, Noyal Joseph, W. Evan Johnson, Christine Wanke, C. Robert Horsburgh Jr., Jerrold J. Ellner…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1058

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Some children hospitalized for severe pertussis need intensive care; moreover, some children die because of deterioration alone or in combination with other complications. The purpose of this study was to iden...

    Authors: Tingting Shi, Ling Wang, Shuling Du, Huifeng Fan, Minghua Yu, Tao Ding, Xuehua Xu, Dongwei Zhang, Li Huang and Gen Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1057

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The importance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with disputed rpoB mutations remains to be defined. This study aimed to assess the frequency and types of rpoB mutations in M. tuberculosis isolates from Cubal...

    Authors: Ariadna Rando-Segura, María Luisa Aznar, María Milagros Moreno, Mateu Espasa Soley, Elena Sulleiro Igual, Cristina Bocanegra Garcia, Eva Gil Olivas, Arlete Nindia Eugénio, Carlos Escartin Huesca, Adriano Zacarias, Josep Vegue Collado, Domingos Katimba, Maria Carmen Vivas Cano, Estevao Gabriel, Maria Teresa López García, Tomas Pumarola Suñe…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1056

    Content type: Research

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  14. Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children is challenging due to paucibacillary disease, and lack of ability for microbiologic confirmation. Hence, we measured the plasma chemokines as biomarkers for diagnosis o...

    Authors: Nathella Pavan Kumar, Syed Hissar, Kannan Thiruvengadam, Velayuthum V. Banurekha, Sarath Balaji, S. Elilarasi, N. S. Gomathi, J. Ganesh, M. A. Aravind, Dhanaraj Baskaran, Srikanth Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan and Subash Babu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1055

    Content type: Research

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  15. Yellow fever outbreaks are documented to have a considerable impact not only on the individuals but on the health system with significant economic implications. Efforts to eliminate yellow fever outbreaks glob...

    Authors: Terna Nomhwange, Anne Eudes Jean Baptiste, Obi Ezebilo, Joseph Oteri, Lois Olajide, Kizito Emelife, Shehu Hassan, Erdoo R. Nomhwange, Kennedy Adejoh, Faith Ireye, Eyo E. Nora, Adamu Ningi, Blaise Bathondeli and Oyewale Tomori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1054

    Content type: Research

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  16. Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete that lives in the environment and can cause infections, mainly those of the respiratory system. Although S. commune is increasingly reported as a cause of allergic broncho...

    Authors: Naoya Itoh, Nana Akazawa, Hiromi Murakami, Yuichi Ishibana, Yusuke Takahashi, Waki Hosoda, Takashi Yaguchi and Katsuhiko Kamei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1052

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Atopy may be associated with disease severity and a poor prognosis of human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia in children. Our aim was to observe the clinical characteristics and pulmonary radiological changes in ch...

    Authors: Miao Li, Xiao-Hua Han, Li-Yun Liu, Hui-Sheng Yao and Li-Li Yi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1051

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Patients have distinct clinical forms, and the host´s immunological response regulate those manifestations. In this work, the presence of th...

    Authors: Stephanni Figueiredo da Silva, Leticia Rossetto da Silva Cavalcante, Ezequiel Angelo Fonseca Junior, Joselina Maria da Silva, José Cabral Lopes and Amilcar Sabino Damazo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1050

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Treatment outcomes were evaluated of a cohort of new pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases that were rifampicin resistant, multidrug-resistant, or extensively resistant during 2013 and 2014 in Brazil. The objectiv...

    Authors: Patricia Bartholomay, Rejane Sobrino Pinheiro, Fernanda Dockhorn, Daniele Maria Pelissari and Wildo Navegantes de Araújo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1049

    Content type: Research

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  20. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common and can have severe consequences. However, there are few recent large-scale studies about them. We aimed to determine the incidence of hospitalization for UTI and to e...

    Authors: Akahito Sako, Hideo Yasunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hidekatsu Yanai, Yoshiaki Gu and Norio Ohmagari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1048

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In Ghana, Balantidium coli (B. coli) has been identified in vegetables and in pigs, although there is a paucity of data regarding human balantidiosis. This study sought to assess human B. coli infection in Ghana,...

    Authors: Enoch Aninagyei, Salifu Nanga, Desmond Omane Acheampong, Rita Mensah, Mercy Nelly Boadu, Henrietta Terko Kwansa-Bentum and Clement Okraku Tettey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1047

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Necrotizing soft-tissue infection (NSTI) is a severe and fast-progressing bacterial infection. Prognostic biomarkers may provide valuable information in treatment guidance and decision-making, but none have pr...

    Authors: Morten Hedetoft, Marco Bo Hansen, Martin Bruun Madsen, Julia Sidenius Johansen and Ole Hyldegaard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1046

    Content type: Research

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  23. Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are the most common soil-transmitted helminths of humans and pigs, respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. suum has been a matter of debate for decades. This study was aim...

    Authors: Giovanni Romano, Paola Pepe, Serena Cavallero, Paola Cociancic, Lorenzo Di Libero, Giovanni Grande, Giuseppe Cringoli, Stefano D’Amelio and Laura Rinaldi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1045

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Here, we examined EM patients in Norwegian general practice to find the proportion exposed to tick-transmitted microorganisms other t...

    Authors: Knut Eirik Eliassen, Lukas Frans Ocias, Karen A. Krogfelt, Peter Wilhelmsson, Susanne Gjeruldsen Dudman, Åshild Andreassen, Morten Lindbak and Per-Eric Lindgren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1044

    Content type: Research

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  25. Current guidelines support different management of cryptococcosis between severely immunodeficient and immunocompetent populations. However, few studies have focused on cryptococcosis patients with mild-to-mod...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Yu Gu, Kunlu Shen, Xuefan Cui, Rui Min, Siqing Sun, Chunlai Feng, Yanbin Chen, Li Wang, Min Cao, Jian Yang, Jian Yao, Jing Xu, Dang Lin, Yujian Tao, Guoer Ma…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1043

    Content type: Research

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  26. The rise of HIV-1 drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) threatens antiretroviral therapy's long-term success (ART). NNRTIs will remain an essential drug for the management ...

    Authors: Julien Riou, Carole Dupont, Silvia Bertagnolio, Ravindra K. Gupta, Roger D. Kouyos, Matthias Egger and Christian L. Althaus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1042

    Content type: Research

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  27. Understanding the risk factors associated with hospital burden of COVID-19 is crucial for healthcare planning for any future waves of infection.

    Authors: Anne M. Presanis, Kevin Kunzmann, Francesca M. Grosso, Christopher H. Jackson, Alice Corbella, Giacomo Grasselli, Marco Salmoiraghi, Maria Gramegna, Daniela De Angelis and Danilo Cereda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1041

    Content type: Research

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  28. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared global pandemic, causing a lot of death. How to quickly screen risk population for severe patients is essential for decreasing the mortality. Many of the predi...

    Authors: Le Fang, Huashan Xie, Lingyun Liu, Shijun Lu, Fangfang Lv, Jiancang Zhou, Yue Xu, Huiqing Ge, Min Yu and Limin Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1040

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The COVID-19 pandemic poses serious threats to global health, and the emerging mutation in SARS-CoV-2 genomes, e.g., the D614G substitution, is one of the major challenges of disease control. Characterizing th...

    Authors: Shi Zhao, Jingzhi Lou, Lirong Cao, Hong Zheng, Marc K. C. Chong, Zigui Chen, Renee W. Y. Chan, Benny C. Y. Zee, Paul K. S. Chan and Maggie H. Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1039

    Content type: Research

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  30. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is important to reduce transmission, morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH).

    Authors: Christian Kraef, Adrian Bentzon, Alexander Panteleev, Alena Skrahina, Natalie Bolokadze, Simona Tetradov, Regina Podlasin, Igor Karpov, Elena Borodulina, Elena Denisova, Inga Azina, Jens Lundgren, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Amanda Mocroft, Daria Podlekareva and Ole Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1038

    Content type: Research

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  31. Timely and accurate identification of uropathogens and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility is paramount to the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The main objective of this study wa...

    Authors: Lalainasoa Odile Rivoarilala, Jeannoda Victor, Tania Crucitti and Jean Marc Collard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1037

    Content type: Research

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  32. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad antibacterial activity against pathogens causing acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted t...

    Authors: Ioanna Vlachaki, Matteo Vacchelli, Daniela Zinzi, Edel Falla, Yilin Jiang, Theo Mantopoulos and Dilip Nathwani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1036

    Content type: Research

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  33. From October 2019–March 2020, several clusters of mumps cases were identified in the Netherlands. Our objective was to describe cluster-associated mumps virus transmission using epidemiological and molecular i...

    Authors: Anita A. Shah, Rogier Bodewes, Linda Reijnen, Timo Boelsums, Claudia M. Weller, Ewout B. Fanoy and Irene K. Veldhuijzen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1035

    Content type: Research

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  34. Bacillary dysentery (BD) is a common infectious disease in China and causes enormous economic burdens. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of BD and to identify its po...

    Authors: Yao Zhang, Mengyuan Zhang, Dianju Kang, Wei Sun, Changhong Yang and Rongjie Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1033

    Content type: Research

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  35. Lockdown measures are the backbone of containment measures for the COVID-19 pandemic both in high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, in view of the inevitably-occurr...

    Authors: Su Yeon Jang, Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Tatiana Rivera Ramirez, Ahmed Asa’ad Al-Aghbari, Dhia Joseph Chackalackal, Rocio Cardenas-Sanchez, Maria Angelica Carrillo, In-Hwan Oh, Eduardo Andrés Alfonso-Sierra, Pia Oechsner, Brian Kibiwott Kirui, Martin Anto, Sonia Diaz-Monsalve and Axel Kroeger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1032

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) remains one of the world’s significant public health challenges. Viral suppression is the key indicator for treatment success in People living with HIV (PLHIV). We determine...

    Authors: Suleiman Bello Abdullahi, Olayinka Rasheed Ibrahim, Abdulkadir Baba Okeji, Rabilu Iliyasu Yandoma, Ibrahim Bashir, Suleiman Haladu, Suleiman Ahmad Idris, T. I. A. Oseni, Bello Muhammad Suleiman, Mohammed Yahaya, Mabel Kamweli Aworh and Mu’awiyyah Babale Sufiyan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1031

    Content type: Research

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  37. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and is also found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy people. Hence, the study aimed to compare the serotyp...

    Authors: Shihui Peng, Hongyu Ren, Jianping Deng, Na Zhao, Yinan Li, Ming Li, Qiwu Yuan, Zhengdong Zhang, Longze Luo, Linzi Zeng, Bin Wang, Nianli Zou, Changguo Gu, Xin Huang, Zheng Liao, Shenen Chen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1030

    Content type: Research

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  38. To date, whether the immune response for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV(PLWH) is different from HIV-naïve individuals is still not clear.

    Authors: Yanbin Liu, Yanling Xiao, Songjie Wu, Gifty Marley, Fangzhao Ming, Xiaoya Wang, Mengmeng Wu, Ling Feng, Weiming Tang and Ke Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1029

    Content type: Research

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  39. Tanzania ranks as the fourth country in the world with respect to the number of sickle cell disease (SCD) births; it is also endemic to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV). T...

    Authors: Grace Shayo, Irene Makundi and Lucio Luzzatto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1028

    Content type: Research

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  40. Bacterial meningitis occurs worldwide but Africa remains the most affected continent, especially in the "Meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia. Three main bacteria are responsible for causing ...

    Authors: Serge Mazamay, Jean-François Guégan, Neby Diallo, Didier Bompangue, Eric Bokabo, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Nadège Taty, Tonton Paul Vita and Hélène Broutin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1027

    Content type: Research

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  41. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is associated with adverse prognoses of critically ill patients. However, the epidemiology and predictors of CMV reactivation in immunocompetent patients receiving mechanical...

    Authors: Zhihui Zhang, Xuesong Liu, Ling Sang, Sibei Chen, Zhan Wu, Jierong Zhang, Yining Sun, Yongbo Huang, Yonghao Xu, Weiqun He, Yimin Li and Xiaoqing Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1026

    Content type: Research

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  42. The immunoregulatory functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the development and progression of some chronic infectious diseases are mediated by immune checkpoint molecules and immunosuppressive cytokines. ...

    Authors: Hua-Li Sun, Xiu-Fang Du, Yun-Xia Tang, Guo-Qiang Li, Si-Yuan Yang, Ling-Hang Wang, Xing-Wang Li, Cheng-Jie Ma and Rong-Meng Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1025

    Content type: Research

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  43. Global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem is set as target in the new World Health Organization’s Neglected Tropical Diseases Roadmap for 2030. Due to a long history of interventions, th...

    Authors: Lydia Trippler, Jan Hattendorf, Said Mohammed Ali, Shaali Makame Ame, Saleh Juma, Fatma Kabole and Stefanie Knopp

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1024

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Globally, tuberculosis disease (TB) is more common among males than females. Recent research proposes that differences in social mixing by sex could alter infection patterns in TB. We examine evidence for two ...

    Authors: Paige B. Miller, Sarah Zalwango, Ronald Galiwango, Robert Kakaire, Juliet Sekandi, Lauren Steinbaum, John M. Drake, Christopher C. Whalen and Noah Kiwanuka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1023

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is thought to be more severe in cancer patients, but this has not been studied since the development of new cancer therapies, increasing antibiotic resistance and the intr...

    Authors: Nobuyoshi Mori, Ariel D. Szvalb, Javier A. Adachi, Jeffrey J. Tarrand and Victor E. Mulanovich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1021

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The role of antibiotics in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and their effectiveness in combination have not been clearly established. To determine whether using a com...

    Authors: Phuong Nguyen Thi Thu, Minh Ngo Thị Huong, Ngan Tran Thi, Hoi Nguyen Thanh and Khue Pham Minh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1019

    Content type: Research

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  47. Preoperative aspiration culture and intraoperative cultures play pivotal roles in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis and pathogen identification. But the discordance between preoperative aspiration...

    Authors: Hao Li, Chi Xu, LiBo Hao, Wei Chai, Fu Jun and Jiying Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1018

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.