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  1. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive inflammation. We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of HLH patients secondary to Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and their tr...

    Authors: Hadi Mottaghipisheh, Kurosh Kalantar, Ali Amanati, Mansoureh Shokripour, Mahdi Shahriari, Omid Reza Zekavat, Soheila Zareifar, Mehran Karimi, Sezaneh Haghpanah and Mohammadreza Bordbar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:732

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require lifelong effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of ART in HIV-infected persons is sustained viral suppression. There is limit...

    Authors: Adwoa K. A. Afrane, Bamenla Q. Goka, Lorna Renner, Alfred E. Yawson, Yakubu Alhassan, Seth N. Owiafe, Seth Agyeman, Kwamena W. C. Sagoe and Awewura Kwara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:731

    Content type: Research

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  3. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of infant and child hospitalizations. The study objective is to estimate the RSV-associated hospitalizations and economic burden in young children in France ...

    Authors: C. Demont, N. Petrica, I. Bardoulat, S. Duret, L. Watier, A. Chosidow, M. Lorrot, A. Kieffer and M. Lemaitre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:730

    Content type: Research

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  4. Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Like other regions, dengue-endemic areas have faced the additional public health and socio-economic impact of ...

    Authors: Tsheten Tsheten, Archie C. A. Clements, Darren J. Gray, Ripon K. Adhikary and Kinley Wangdi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:729

    Content type: Research

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  5. Authors: Marcella Cini Oliveira, Tatiana de Araujo Eleuterio, Allan Bruno de Andrade Corrêa, Lucas Dalsenter Romano da Silva, Renata Coelho Rodrigues, Bruna Andrade de Oliveira, Marlos Melo Martins, Carlos Eduardo Raymundo and Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:728

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:687

  6. Since the novel coronavirus disease outbreak, over 179.7 million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, including the population living in dengue-endemic regions, particularly Latin America and Sou...

    Authors: Heidi Luise Schulte, José Diego Brito-Sousa, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Luciana Ansaneli Naves, Eliana Teles de Gois, Mariana Sirimarco Fernandes, Valéria Paes Lima, Carlos Henrique Reis Esselin Rassi, Clara Correia de Siracusa, Lizandra Moura Paravidine Sasaki, Selma Regina Penha Silva Cerqueira, Cleandro Pires de Albuquerque, Ana Paula Monteiro Gomides Reis, Ciro Martins Gomes, Patricia Shu Kurizky, Licia Maria Henrique da Mota…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:727

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Despite efforts to stop HIV epidemic in Latin America, new HIV cases continue to increase in the region especially among young MSM (YMSM). This study aims to assess if sociodemographic characteristics are asso...

    Authors: Thiago S. Torres, Lara E. Coelho, Kelika A. Konda, E. Hamid Vega-Ramirez, Oliver A. Elorreaga, Dulce Diaz-Sosa, Brenda Hoagland, Cristina Pimenta, Marcos Benedetti, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Carlos F. Caceres and Valdilea G. Veloso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:726

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Patients’ failure to adhere to TB treatment was a major challenge that leads to poor treatment outcomes. In Ethiopia, TB treatment success was low as compared with the global threshold. Despite various studies...

    Authors: Kassahun Dessie Gashu, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye and Binyam Tilahun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:725

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Managing HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) can become challenging in the presence of concurrent unusual central nervous system infections.

    Authors: Newton Kalata, Jayne Ellis, Laura Benjamin, Samuel Kampondeni, Peter Chiodini, Thomas Harrison, David G. Lalloo and Robert S. Heyderman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:724

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia is one of the most severe manifestations of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) infections. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of SM bacteremia and to identify...

    Authors: Lixia Zhu, Lulu Wang, Yuping Zhang, Rongrong Chen, Xueying Li, Jianai Sun, De Zhou, Mingyu Zhu, Xiaolong Zheng, Li Li, Jingjing Zhu, Mixue Xie, Xiudi Yang, Wenjuan Yu, Hongyan Tong, Honghu Zhu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:723

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is an infectious disease of large intestines caused by Brachyspira species, and most HIS cases are asymptomatic or exhibit mild intestinal symptoms. The host reaction to HIS r...

    Authors: Sho Ogata, Ken Shimizu, Susumu Tominaga and Susumu Matsukuma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:721

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease that is prevalent in many areas worldwide. This infectious disease can occasionally affect the central nervous system but intracranial arteries are rarely involved.

    Authors: Yanyan Guan, Nannan Xu, Yongyuan Yao, Feng Zheng, Fengzhe Chen, Wei Wang, Xiaomeng Dong and Gang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:720

    Content type: Case report

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  13. COVID-19 has affected almost every country in the world, especially in terms of health system capacity and economic burden. People from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) often face interaction between human immunodefic...

    Authors: Nandu Goswami, Per Morten Fredriksen, Knut E. A. Lundin, Chidozie Agu, Simiat Olanike Elias, Keolebogile Shirley Motaung, Bianca Brix, Gerhard Cvirn, Harald Sourij, Evelyn Stelzl, Harald H. Kessler, Adam Salon and Benedicta Nkeh-Chungag

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:719

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the key public health problems in Africa. Due to multifaceted challenges, its burden is poorly described in informal settlements. We describe tuberculosis mortality in two info...

    Authors: Judy Gichuki and Donnie Mategula

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:718

    Content type: Research

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  15. Although age, obesity and pre-existing chronic diseases are established risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes, their interactions have not been well researched.

    Authors: Thomas Yates, Francesco Zaccardi, Nazrul Islam, Cameron Razieh, Clare L. Gillies, Claire A. Lawson, Yogini Chudasama, Alex Rowlands, Melanie J. Davies, Annemarie B. Docherty, Peter J. M. Openshaw, J. Kenneth Baillie, Malcolm G. Semple and Kamlesh Khunti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:717

    Content type: Research

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  16. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major global public health problem worldwide; in endemic areas, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is the most common transmission route. Previous studies have shown t...

    Authors: Zhenyan Han, Yuan Zhang, Jin Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Yonghua Huang and Hongying Hou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:716

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  17. Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was introduced in France in 1992 as a 3 + 1 scheme at 2, 3, and 4 months (primary vaccination) with a booster at the age of 16–18 months. The vaccination ...

    Authors: Eva Hong, Aude Terrade, Mélanie Denizon, Myriam Aouiti-Trabelsi, Michaël Falguières, Muhamed-Kheir Taha and Ala-Eddine Deghmane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:715

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for blood screening has been previously performed in some countries to determine NAT yields. The current study sought to explore the non-discriminating reactive NAT yie...

    Authors: Danxiao Wu, Xiaojuan Wang, Fangjun Feng, Dairong Wang, Yiqin Hu, Yang Yu, Jihong Huang, Min Wang, Jie Dong, Yaling Wu, Hong Zhu and Faming Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:714

    Content type: Research

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  19. In addition to rotavirus and norovirus, human adenovirus (HAdV) and classic human astrovirus (classic HAstV) are important pathogens of acute diarrhea in infants and young children. Here, we present the molecu...

    Authors: Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Ran Jia and Jin Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:713

    Content type: Research

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  20. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted supply chains for many types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), particularly surgical N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs; “masks”). As a consequence, an...

    Authors: Deborah Plana, Enze Tian, Avilash K. Cramer, Helen Yang, Mary M. Carmack, Michael S. Sinha, Florence T. Bourgeois, Sherry H. Yu, Peter Masse, Jon Boyer, Minjune Kim, Jinhan Mo, Nicole R. LeBoeuf, Ju Li and Peter K. Sorger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:712

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in the context of HIV co-infection remains challenging. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and neopterin have been validated as potential biomarkers for TB diagnosis. Latent TB infection (LTBI...

    Authors: Esther Uwimaana, Bernard S. Bagaya, Barbara Castelnuovo, David P. Kateete, Anguzu Godwin, Noah Kiwanuka, Christopher C. Whalen and Moses L. Joloba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:711

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Scientists across disciplines, policymakers, and journalists have voiced frustration at the unprecedented polarization and misinformation around coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several false dich...

    Authors: Kevin Escandón, Angela L. Rasmussen, Isaac I. Bogoch, Eleanor J. Murray, Karina Escandón, Saskia V. Popescu and Jason Kindrachuk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:710

    Content type: Review

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  23. The current emergence of multi-drug resistance among nosocomial pathogens has led to increased use of last-resort agents including Tigecycline (TGC). Availability of reliable methods for testing TGC susceptibi...

    Authors: Sima Babaei and Mehri Haeili

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:709

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Prevalence data on viral hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and HIV infection in prison are often scarce or outdated. There is currently no systematic screening for these blood-borne viral infections (BBV) ...

    Authors: Dana Busschots, Cécile Kremer, Rob Bielen, Özgür M. Koc, Leen Heyens, Christian Brixko, Pierre Laukens, Hans Orlent, Pascal Bilaey, Francis De Smet, Geert Hellemans, Gaetan Muyldermans, Luk Van Baelen, Niel Hens, Hans Van Vlierberghe and Geert Robaeys

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:708

    Content type: Research

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  25. The main strategy to contain the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains to implement a comprehensive testing, tracing and quarantining strategy until vaccination of the population is adequate. Scent dogs could su...

    Authors: Paula Jendrny, Friederike Twele, Sebastian Meller, Claudia Schulz, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Albertus Dominicus Marcellinus Eras Osterhaus, Hans Ebbers, Janek Ebbers, Veronika Pilchová, Isabell Pink, Tobias Welte, Michael Peter Manns, Anahita Fathi, Marylyn Martina Addo, Christiane Ernst, Wencke Schäfer…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:707

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The type of pneumonia that is caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the world in a pandemic. It is not clear if COVID-19 patients have any lower urinary tract signs or symptoms.

    Authors: Aida Javan Balegh Marand, Christian Bach, Dick Janssen, John Heesakkers, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Thomas Alexander Vögeli, Hanieh Salehi-Pourmehr, Hadi Mostafae, Sakineh Hajebrahimi and Mohammad Sajjad Rahnama’i

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:706

    Content type: Research article

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  27. A better understanding of the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in primary care is needed for policymakers to make informed decisions regarding new preventive measures and treatments. The ...

    Authors: J. J. G. T. van Summeren, C. Rizzo, M. Hooiveld, J. C. Korevaar, J. M. T. Hendriksen, M. L. A. Dückers, D. Loconsole, M. Chironna, M. Bangert, C. Demont, A. Meijer, S. Caini, E. Pandolfi and J. Paget

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:705

    Content type: Research

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  28. The co-circulation of types of arbovirus in areas where they are endemic increased the risk of outbreaks and limited the diagnostic methods available. Here, we analyze the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIK...

    Authors: Magaly Lima Mota, Robson dos Santos Souza Marinho, Rodrigo Lopes Sanz Duro, James Hunter, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima Silva, Glaubervânio Leite Tavares Pereira, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Anete Grumach, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz, Maria do Socorro Lucena and Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:704

    Content type: Research

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  29. Lower respiratory tract infections continue to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality across all age groups globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, many studies of community acquired pneumonia in adults ...

    Authors: Jamila Nambafu, Mary Achakolong, Fridah Mwendwa, Jumaa Bwika, Felix Riunga, Samuel Gitau, Hanika Patel and Rodney D. Adam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:703

    Content type: Research

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  30. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) lesion microenvironment (LME) is crucial site where parasite-host interactions happen and of great significance during surgery and obtaining liver samples for basic research. Howev...

    Authors: Abudusalamu Aini, Maiweilidan Yimingjiang, Aimaiti Yasen, Bo Ran, Tiemin Jiang, Xiaohong Li, Jian Wang, Abuduaini Abulizi, Zhide Li, Yingmei Shao, Tuerganaili Aji and Hao Wen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:702

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most frequent chronic and inflammatory skin condition. AD is characterized by damaged epidermal barrier, xerosis and pruritus of eczematous skin lesions which tend to flare...

    Authors: Helena Masiuk, Aleksandra Wcisłek and Joanna Jursa-Kulesza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:701

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Predicting hospital length of stay (LoS) for patients with COVID-19 infection is essential to ensure that adequate bed capacity can be provided without unnecessarily restricting care for patients with other co...

    Authors: Bindu Vekaria, Christopher Overton, Arkadiusz Wiśniowski, Shazaad Ahmad, Andrea Aparicio-Castro, Jacob Curran-Sebastian, Jane Eddleston, Neil A Hanley, Thomas House, Jihye Kim, Wendy Olsen, Maria Pampaka, Lorenzo Pellis, Diego Perez Ruiz, John Schofield, Nick Shryane…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:700

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Methadone therapy clinics have been recently introduced in Tanzania, aiming at reducing risk behaviors and infection rates of viral hepatitis and HIV among people who use drugs. The objective of this study was...

    Authors: Semvua B. Kilonzo, Daniel W. Gunda, David C. Majinge, Hyasinta Jaka, Paulina M. Manyiri, Fredrick Kalokola, Grahame Mtui, Elichilia R. Shao, Fatma A. Bakshi and Alex Stephano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:699

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) are reportedly increasing in many parts of the world. However, there are few published data on NTM-PD-related death. Usi...

    Authors: Goh Tanaka, Taisuke Jo, Hiroyuki Tamiya, Yukiyo Sakamoto, Wakae Hasegawa, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga and Takahide Nagase

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:698

    Content type: Research

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  35. The progress of diagnostic strategies and molecular methods improved the detection of Kingella kingae in bone and joint infections, and now, Kingella kingae is being increasingly recognized as the most frequent c...

    Authors: Kaoutar Moutaouakkil, Bouchra Oumokhtar, Hicham Abdellaoui, Samira El Fakir, Btissam Arhoune, Mustapha Mahmoud, Karima Atarraf and Moulay Abderrahmane Afifi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:697

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Waterborne outbreaks are still a risk in high-income countries, and their early detection is crucial to limit their societal consequences. Although syndromic surveillance is widely used for the purpose of dete...

    Authors: Susanne Hyllestad, Ettore Amato, Karin Nygård, Line Vold and Preben Aavitsland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:696

    Content type: Research

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  37. Support groups for people living with HIV (PLWH) may improve HIV care adherence and outcomes. We assessed the impact of support group attendance on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and viral suppression ...

    Authors: Prudence Mbah, Michael Iroezindu, Allahna L. Esber, Nicole Dear, Domonique Reed, Yakubu Adamu, Abdulwasiu Bolaji Tiamiyu, Samirah Sani Mohammed, Hannah Kibuuka, Jonah Maswai, John Owuoth, Emmanuel Bahemana, Julie A. Ake, Christina S. Polyak and Trevor A. Crowell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:694

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Nosocomial infections (NIs) are an important cause of mortality, and increasing evidence reveals that the prevalence of NIs can be reduced through effective prevention and control measures. The aim of this stu...

    Authors: Chunmei Su, Zhiqin Zhang, Xu Zhao, Hanlin Peng, Yi Hong, Lili Huang, Jie Huang, Xiangming Yan, Shuiyan Wu and Zhenjiang Bai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:693

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Authors: Abduzhappar Gaipov, Arnur Gusmanov, Anara Abbay, Yesbolat Sakko, Alpamys Issanov, Kainar Kadyrzhanuly, Zhanar Yermakhanova, Lazzat Aliyeva, Ardak Kashkynbayev, Iklas Moldaliyev, Byron Crape and Antonio Sarria-Santamera

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:692

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:458

  40. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a neglected tropical gynaecological disease that affects millions of women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). FGS is caused by Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic carcinogen inv...

    Authors: H. Rafferty, A. S. Sturt, C. R. Phiri, E. L. Webb, M. Mudenda, J. Mapani, P. L. A. M. Corstjens, G. J. van Dam, A. Schaap, H. Ayles, R. J. Hayes, L. van Lieshout, I. Hansingo and A. L. Bustinduy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:691

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Infective endocarditis (IE) is diagnosed in 7–8% of streptococcal bloodstream infections (BSIs), yet it is unclear when to perform transthoracic (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) according to d...

    Authors: Sandra Chamat-Hedemand, Niels Eske Bruun, Lauge Østergaard, Magnus Arpi, Emil Fosbøl, Jonas Boel, Louise Bruun Oestergaard, Trine K. Lauridsen, Gunnar Gislason, Christian Torp-Pedersen and Anders Dahl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:689

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Being able to use COVID-19 RT-PCR Ct values as simple clinical markers of disease outcome or prognosis would allow for the easy and proactive identification and triaging of high-risk cases. This study’s object...

    Authors: Abdulkarim Abdulrahman, Saad I. Mallah and Manaf Alqahtani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:688

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. COVID-19 can occur asymptomatically, as influenza-like illness, or as more severe forms, which characterize severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Its mortality rate is higher in individuals over 80 years o...

    Authors: Marcella Cini Oliveira, Tatiana de Araujo Eleuterio, Allan Bruno de Andrade Corrêa, Lucas Dalsenter Romano da Silva, Renata Coelho Rodrigues, Bruna Andrade de Oliveira, Marlos Melo Martins, Carlos Eduardo Raymundo and Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:687

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:728

  44. Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remai...

    Authors: Koen F. Tieskens, Prasad Patil, Jonathan I. Levy, Paige Brochu, Kevin J. Lane, M. Patricia Fabian, Fei Carnes, Beth M. Haley, Keith R. Spangler and Jessica H. Leibler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:686

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is often applied in critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) to protect the airway from aspiration, and supplement more oxygen. MV may result in ventilator-associated pn...

    Authors: Wenjuan Luo, Rui Xing and Canmin Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:684

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negatives (3GCR-GN) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common causes of multi-drug resistant healthcare-associated infections, for which gut colonisati...

    Authors: Kelly L. Wyres, Jane Hawkey, Mirianne Mirčeta, Louise M. Judd, Ryan R. Wick, Claire L. Gorrie, Nigel F. Pratt, Jill S. Garlick, Kerrie M. Watson, David V. Pilcher, Steve A. McGloughlin, Iain J. Abbott, Nenad Macesic, Denis W. Spelman, Adam W. J. Jenney and Kathryn E. Holt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:683

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children worldwide. Epidemiological analysis with respect to the virus strains is limited in China. This study aimed to investigate the ...

    Authors: Yulian Fang, Zhaoying Dong, Yan Liu, Wei Wang, Mengzhu Hou, Jinying Wu, Lu Wang and Yu Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:682

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.