In vitro data suggests that suboptimal initial vancomycin exposure may select for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infections. However, no clinical studies have evaluated the relationship between initial vancomycin exposure and emergence of hVISA. This pilot study seeks to assess the relationship between day 1 and day 2 vancomycin area under the curve (AUC) and emergence of hVISA bloodstream infections (BSIs) by Etest® macromethod among patients with a non-hVISA BSI at baseline.
This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) BSIs at Albany Medical Center Hospital (AMCH) between January 2005 and June 2009. The vancomycin AUC exposure variables on day 1 (AUC0-24h) and day 2 (AUC24-48h) were estimated using the maximal a posteriori probability (MAP) procedure in ADAPT 5.
There were 238 unique episodes of MRSA BSIs during the study period, 119 of which met inclusion criteria. Overall, hVISA emerged in 7/119 (5.9%) of patients. All 7 cases of hVISA involved patients who did not achieve area under the curve over broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC0-24h/MICBMD) ratio of 521 or an AUC24-48h/MICBMD ratio of 650. No associations between other day 1 and day 2 AUC variables and emergence of hVISA were noted.
Although more data are needed to draw definitive conclusions, these findings suggest that hVISA emergence among patients with non-hVISA MRSA BSIs at baseline may be partially explained by suboptimal exposure to vancomycin in the first 1 to 2 days of therapy. At a minimum, these findings support further study of the relationship between initial vancomycin exposure and hVISA emergence among patients with MRSA BSIs in a well-powered, multi-center, prospective trial.