This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Performance evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay according to its clinical application
© Huh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 15 July 2014
Accepted: 24 October 2014
Published: 14 November 2014
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is becoming the test of choice for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and rifampin (RIF) resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Xpert assay with respect to its clinical application at a tertiary care hospital in Korea, a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden and high-resource.
A total of 303 Xpert assay results from 109 smear-positive and 194 smear-negative respiratory specimens were retrospectively reviewed. Based on patients’ medical records, four categories of clinical applications of the Xpert assay were identified: (1) the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with a high probability of pulmonary tuberculosis according to their clinical and radiological features; (2) the exclusion of tuberculosis in clinically indeterminate patients for pulmonary tuberculosis; (3) the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculsosis (MTB) from nontuberculous mycobacteria in a smear-positive specimen; and (4) the diagnosis of RIF resistance. Standard culture and drug susceptibility tests were used as reference methods.
The sensitivity of the Xpert assay for MTB detection in category 1 was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.5-95.8%), but 66.7% (95% CI, 12.5-98.2%) in category 2. The positive predictive values ranged from 33.3% (95% CI, 6.0-75.9%) in category 2 to 91.3% and 91.7% in categories 1 and 3, respectively. The negative predictive values were over 90% in all categories. The Xpert assay correctly detected RIF resistance in six of the seven (85.7%) isolates tested.
The Xpert assay exhibited variable performance according to its clinical application; this finding cautions that careful interpretation for the results of this assay would be needed according to its intended purpose.
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a fully automated, cartridge-based, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay designed to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampin (RIF) resistance within 2 hours ,. The Xpert assay can not only be utilized as a rapid diagnostic test for tuberculosis in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis, but also can be used to rapidly exclude tuberculosis (e.g., for determining airborne infection isolation discontinuation) or to differentiate MTB from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in smear-positive cases. In addition, this assay may be used to determine whether a patient with tuberculosis is infected with a RIF-resistant strain –.
According to the 2013 World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Report, South Korea is classified as a high-income country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden, including an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2013 and 1,212 cases of confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis reported in 2012 . The accuracy of the Xpert assay and its effectiveness in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis have both been demonstrated in previous studies –,–. However, the performance of the Xpert assay has not yet been assessed in an intermediate-incidence, high-resource setting with respect to its different applications –.
In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the performance of the Xpert assay according to its clinical application in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea.
Patient medical records and microbiological test results, including acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, mycobacterial culture, and drug susceptibility testing (DST) were reviewed. Based on patient medical records, the samples were divided into four different categories based on the desired clinical application of the Xpert assay. Cases were categorized independently by two doctors. Disagreement in the interpretation of data required final consensus between both doctors. Category 1 consisted of samples from patients with a high probability of pulmonary tuberculosis, for whom rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis was required. Presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis was defined as the presence of the clinical symptoms (cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) and radiologic findings compatible with tuberculosis, in either a chest X-ray or a computed tomography scan. All patients with a high probability of pulmonary tuberculosis had both clinical and radiologic features highly indicative of tuberculosis; moreover, these features were unlikely to be caused by another disease. Category 2 consisted of samples from patients that the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was neither highly probable nor reliably excluded by clinicians. The patients in this clinically indeterminate group were asymptomatic or did not have radiologic features highly suggestive of tuberculosis. Category 3 consisted of samples from patients with an AFB smear-positive specimen, for which MTB needed to be differentiated from NTM. The Xpert assay was performed as add-on test in this category. Category 4 consisted of samples from patients with risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis such as previously treated tuberculosis or no improvement despite standard tuberculosis treatment.
Xpert MTB/RIF Gassays
For the Xpert assay, either 1 mL of respiratory specimen (without decontamination) or 0.5 mL of respiratory specimen sediment prepared according to the N-acetyl-l-cysteine-NaOH (NALC-NaOH) method was used . The Xpert assay was conducted according to the manufacturer’s instructions, as described previously .
Mycobacterial staining and culture
Acid-fast staining was performed with an auramine-rhodamine fluorescent stain, followed by confirmation with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Staining results were graded according to the US Centers for Disease Control recommendations. Specimens in which the AFB smear results were categorized as grades 1 to 4 were defined as smear-positive . All patient specimens were cultured on two different types of media, solid and liquid, for 6 weeks. To this end, decontaminated samples were inoculated into a mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT 960 system; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) and also into 3% Ogawa agar (Shinyang, Seoul, Korea). All positive cultures were subjected to AFB smear to confirm the presence of AFB and to exclude contamination. In addition, positive liquid cultures were confirmed by both the presence of cord formation and by MPT64 antigen testing (SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT64 Rapid; Standard Diagnostics Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea). If any of these tests yielded a negative result, an rpoB-specific PCR test using the MTB-ID V3 kit (YD Diagnostics, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea) was performed to differentiate between MTB and NTM. Positive cultures found only on solid medium were also confirmed by conventional PCR testing.
Detection of rifampin resistance
All MTB isolates were tested for resistance to RIF using the MGIT 960 system, and were also referred to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis for conventional DST using the absolute concentration method with Löwenstein-Jensen medium ,. The critical concentrations for RIF resistance were 1.0 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL in the MGIT 960 system and the absolute concentration method, respectively. For all isolates yielding discrepant results, the rpoB gene was sequenced ,.
The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the assay were calculated for each category. These parameters were based on the results from two reference methods, a concurrent culture test and DST using the absolute concentration method.
Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) and the VassarStats website (http://vassarstats.net/).
After exclusion of nine nonrespiratory specimens and 86 samples for which cultures were not requested at the same day, a total of 303 respiratory specimens (264 sputum samples and 39 samples of bronchial washing or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) from 300 patients were used to analyze the diagnostic performance of the assay. The median age of patients was 58 years (range, 18–93 years); 197 (65.7%) patients were male. Only one subject was infected with HIV.
A total of 109 (36.0%) of the 303 samples were smear-positive, while 194 were smear-negative, including 15 trace results and 179 negative results. Furthermore, 119 (39.3%) samples were positive for MTB according to the Xpert assay, whereas 104 samples (34.3%) gave positive culture results for MTB.
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as stratified by smear status
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay
Total ( n =303)
Total ( n =271) a
Smear result (total, n =271) a
No./Total no.% (95% CI)
Smear-positive ( n =100)
Smear-negative ( n =171)
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as stratified by clinical application
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay
Total ( n =303)
No./Total no.% (95% CI)
( n =118)
( n =103)
( n =19)
( n =63)
89.8 (78.5-95.8 )
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the detection of rifampin resistance
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay
Total (n =98)
No./Total no.% (95% CI)
Recent studies have highlighted the need for evaluating the performance of the Xpert assay in different settings, such as areas with different incidences of tuberculosis and different levels of medical resource –. These evaluations are important for determining whether the Xpert assay is transferrable to different settings. Sohn et al. reported that the impact of Xpert assay in a low-incidence, high-resource ambulatory setting is limited . The present study was performed in South Korea, a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden and a high level of medical resources. The results presented here demonstrate that the Xpert assay does not perform equally well for all clinical applications of MTB detection. A previous study reported that the Xpert assay performed equally well among patients with and without presumptive tuberculosis in a country highly endemic for tuberculosis . These authors suggested the use of the Xpert assay as routine tuberculosis screening. However, in the present study, significant differences in the performance of the Xpert assay were observed when it was used to test samples from patients with a high probability of pulmonary tuberculosis (category 1) and those in clinically indeterminate category 2. A low PPV was noted in the low prevalence population group (category 2). Of the six positive samples, four (66.7%) were false positives (Xpert assay positive and culture-negative); all of the semi-quantitative results given by the Xpert assay were “Very Low” (n =3) or “Low” (n =1). This suggests the limited potential impact of Xpert assay to detect MTB in patients with a low probability of pulmonary tuberculosis in an intermediate burden setting where (1) routine laboratory smear and culture procedures are performed according to the standard diagnostic algorithm; (2) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in the laboratory performs well; and (3) experienced physicians care for tuberculosis patients. However, the Xpert assay showed superior specificity and a better NPV for category 2 samples compared with category 1 samples. Therefore, the Xpert assay is a suitable tool for the exclusion of tuberculosis in patients with a low probability of pulmonary tuberculosis.
In our study, the sensitivity (91.3%) of the Xpert assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was comparable to the pooled sensitivity (89%; 95% credible interval [CrI], 85-92%) in a recent meta-analysis . As expected, a higher proportion of smear-negative results (6/9) in Xpert-negative and culture-positive specimens were noted in our study, consistent with what has been reported previously . With regard to specificity, 10 specimens were Xpert-positive and culture-negative. Five of these specimens were positive by at least one other NAAT, or culture-positive using a follow-up culture specimen.
Phenotypic DST is the gold standard, and has hitherto not been questioned . However, concerns have been raised that some phenotypic DST methods are limited in their detection of certain rpoB mutations that result in RIF resistance –. In this study, 7 isolates were identified as RIF-resistant by the Xpert assays; 6 of these isolates had confirmed resistance according to culture-based DST. Sequencing of the rpoB gene of the isolate with the discrepant result revealed a mutation (Asp516Tyr) that had recently been suggested to be associated with increased treatment failure or relapse rates . This finding suggests that the use of phenotypic DST as the gold standard for RIF resistance should be reconsidered, in the light of our confirmation of the Xpert assay.
The frequency of isolation of NTM from clinical specimens has shown a continuous increase in Korea –. A high specificity value is indispensable in order to discriminate MTB from NTM in smear-positive samples especially in countries with a high percentage of NTM isolates . Furthermore, rapid discrimination between MTB and NTM can significantly decrease airborne infection isolation time for individuals hospitalized without active tuberculosis ,. In this respect, our study revealed that Xpert assay in smear-positive samples well-discriminated MTB from NTM without cross-reactivity with NTM species, albeit the small sample number.
The present study did have some limitations. First, this was a retrospective study in routine clinical practice at a single institution. Majority of the AFB smear were performed only in specimen for culture. Nevertheless, the retrospective design allowed us to understand the real situation regarding the implementation of the Xpert assay in routine clinical laboratories. Second, the strength of our findings might be somewhat limited by the small numbers of positive results, particularly in categories 2 and 3. To strengthen our results, prospective studies in these patient groups would be needed. However, this study successfully provided a foundation for the design of more comprehensive studies to evaluate the performance of Xpert assay with respect to its clinical application.
The retrospective study present here revealed that the Xpert assay exhibited variable performance according to its clinical application in an intermediate-incidence, high-resource setting. The finding in this study cautions that careful interpretation for the results of this assay would be needed in the light of the intended purpose of the test.
NYL, WJK and CSK conceived the concept and design of the study. Data was categorized by BHJ and KJ. HJH performed the data analysis. HJH, WJK and CSK wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We thank Mr. Dong Joon Song, Mr. Yu-Yean Hwang, Mr. Jae Chun Bae, and Mr. Young Jae Park who performed the clinical tests and the data collection.
- Banada PP, Sivasubramani SK, Blakemore R, Boehme C, Perkins MD, Fennelly K, Alland D: Containment of bioaerosol infection risk by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and its applicability to point-of-care settings. J Clin Microbiol. 2010, 48 (10): 3551-3557. 10.1128/JCM.01053-10.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Helb D, Jones M, Story E, Boehme C, Wallace E, Ho K, Kop J, Owens MR, Rodgers R, Banada P, Safi H, Blakemore R, Lan NT, Jones-López EC, Levi M, Burday M, Ayakaka I, Mugerwa RD, McMillan B, Winn-Deen E, Christel L, Dailey P, Perkins MD, Persing DH, Alland D: Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance by use of on-demand, near-patient technology. J Clin Microbiol. 2010, 48 (1): 229-237. 10.1128/JCM.01463-09.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, Allen J, Tahirli R, Blakemore R, Rustomjee R, Milovic A, Jones M, O’Brien SM, Persing DH, Ruesch-Gerdes S, Gotuzzo E, Rodrigues C, Alland D, Perkins MD: Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N Engl J Med. 2010, 363 (11): 1005-1015. 10.1056/NEJMoa0907847.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, Gler MT, Blakemore R, Worodria W, Gray C, Huang L, Caceres T, Mehdiyev R, Raymond L, Whitelaw A, Sagadevan K, Alexander H, Albert H, Cobelens F, Cox H, Alland D, Perkins MD: Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet. 2011, 377 (9776): 1495-1505. 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60438-8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rachow A, Zumla A, Heinrich N, Rojas-Ponce G, Mtafya B, Reither K, Ntinginya EN, O'Grady J, Huggett J, Dheda K, Boehme C, Perkins M, Saathoff E, Hoelscher M: Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples by Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay-a clinical validation study. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (6): e20458-10.1371/journal.pone.0020458.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Antonenka U, Hofmann-Thiel S, Turaev L, Esenalieva A, Abdulloeva M, Sahalchyk E, Alnour T, Hoffmann H: Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with ProbeTec ET DTB and COBAS TaqMan MTB for direct detection of M. tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens. BMC Infect Dis. 2013, 13: 280-10.1186/1471-2334-13-280.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Global Tuberculosis Report 2013. 2013, World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- O'Grady J, Bates M, Chilukutu L, Mzyece J, Cheelo B, Chilufya M, Mukonda L, Mumba M, Tembo J, Chomba M, Kapata N, Maeurer M, Rachow A, Clowes P, Hoelscher M, Mwaba P, Zumla A: Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay at a tertiary care referral hospital in a setting where tuberculosis and HIV infection are highly endemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2012, 55 (9): 1171-1178. 10.1093/cid/cis631.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim SY, Kim H, Kim SY, Ra EK, Joo SI, Shin S, Seong MW, Yoo CG, Kim EC, Park SS: The Xpert(R) MTB/RIF assay evaluation in South Korea, a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012, 16 (11): 1471-1476. 10.5588/ijtld.11.0602.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kwak N, Choi SM, Lee J, Park YS, Lee CH, Lee SM, Yoo CG, Kim YW, Han SK, Yim JJ: Diagnostic accuracy and turnaround time of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in routine clinical practice. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (10): e77456-10.1371/journal.pone.0077456.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Park KS, Kim JY, Lee JW, Hwang YY, Jeon K, Koh WJ, Ki CS, Lee NY: Comparison of the Xpert MTB/RIF and Cobas TaqMan MTB assays for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2013, 51 (10): 3225-3227. 10.1128/JCM.01335-13.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kent PT, Kubica GP: Public Health Mycobacteriology: A Guide for the Level III Laboratory. 1985, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Public Health Service, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
- Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, July 1999. This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000, 161 (4 Pt 1): 1376-1395.Google Scholar
- Koh WJ, Ko Y, Kim CK, Park KS, Lee NY: Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance using a MGIT 960 system. Ann Lab Med. 2012, 32 (4): 264-269. 10.3343/alm.2012.32.4.264.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bai GH, Park YK, Choi YW, Bai JI, Kim HJ, Chang CL, Lee JK, Kim SJ: Trend of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Korea, 1994-2004. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007, 11 (5): 571-576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Interpretive criteria for microorganism identification by DNA target sequencing; approved guideline. Document MM18-A. 2008, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PAGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad S, Araj GF, Akbar PK, Fares E, Chugh TD, Mustafa AS: Characterization of rpoB mutations in rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Middle East. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000, 38 (4): 227-232. 10.1016/S0732-8893(00)00200-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sohn H, Aero AD, Menzies D, Behr M, Schwartzman K, Alvarez GG, Dan A, McIntosh F, Pai M, Denkinger CM: Xpert MTB/RIF testing in a low tuberculosis incidence, high-resource setting: limitations in accuracy and clinical impact. Clin Infect Dis. 2014, 58 (7): 970-976. 10.1093/cid/ciu022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deggim V, Somoskovi A, Voit A, Bottger EC, Bloemberg GV: Integrating the Xpert MTB/RIF assay into a diagnostic workflow for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a low-prevalence area. J Clin Microbiol. 2013, 51 (7): 2396-2399. 10.1128/JCM.00151-13.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Moure R, Martin R, Alcaide F: Effectiveness of an integrated real-time PCR method for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in smear-negative extrapulmonary samples in an area of low tuberculosis prevalence. J Clin Microbiol. 2012, 50 (2): 513-515. 10.1128/JCM.06467-11.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Steingart KR, Schiller I, Horne DJ, Pai M, Boehme CC, Dendukuri N: Xpert(R) MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014, 1: CD009593-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Theron G, Peter J, van Zyl-Smit R, Mishra H, Streicher E, Murray S, Dawson R, Whitelaw A, Hoelscher M, Sharma S, Pai M, Warren R, Dheda K: Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011, 184 (1): 132-140. 10.1164/rccm.201101-0056OC.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Horne DJ, Pinto LM, Arentz M, Lin SY, Desmond E, Flores LL, Steingart KR, Minion J: Diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of WHO-endorsed phenotypic drug susceptibility testing methods for first-line and second-line antituberculosis drugs. J Clin Microbiol. 2013, 51 (2): 393-401. 10.1128/JCM.02724-12.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Van Deun A, Aung KJ, Bola V, Lebeke R, Hossain MA, de Rijk WB, Rigouts L, Gumusboga A, Torrea G, de Jong BC: Rifampin drug resistance tests for tuberculosis: challenging the gold standard. J Clin Microbiol. 2013, 51 (8): 2633-2640. 10.1128/JCM.00553-13.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Somoskovi A, Deggim V, Ciardo D, Bloemberg GV: Diagnostic implications of inconsistent results obtained with the Xpert MTB/Rif assay in detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with an rpoB mutation associated with low-level rifampin resistance. J Clin Microbiol. 2013, 51 (9): 3127-3129. 10.1128/JCM.01377-13.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rigouts L, Gumusboga M, de Rijk WB, Nduwamahoro E, Uwizeye C, de Jong B, Van Deun A: Rifampin resistance missed in automated liquid culture system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with specific rpoB mutations. J Clin Microbiol. 2013, 51 (8): 2641-2645. 10.1128/JCM.02741-12.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jeon K, Koh WJ, Kwon OJ, Suh GY, Chung MP, Kim H, Lee NY, Park YK, Bai GH: Recovery rate of NTM from AFB smear-positive sputum specimens at a medical centre in South Korea. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005, 9 (9): 1046-1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee SK, Lee EJ, Kim SK, Chang J, Jeong SH, Kang YA: Changing epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in South Korea. Scand J Infect Dis. 2012, 44 (10): 733-738. 10.3109/00365548.2012.681695.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee MK, Seo YH, Jeong JH, Park PW, Kim KH, Ahn JY, Kim JY, Park JW: Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from respiratory specimens during recent two years: distribution and clinical significance. Korean J Clin Microbiol. 2012, 15 (3): 98-103. 10.5145/KJCM.2012.15.3.98.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koh WJ, Chang B, Jeong BH, Jeon K, Kim SY, Lee NY, Ki CS, Kwon OJ: Increasing recovery of nontuberculous mycobacteria from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul). 2013, 75 (5): 199-204. 10.4046/trd.2013.75.5.199.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lippincott CK, Miller MB, Popowitch EB, Hanrahan CF, Van Rie A: Xpert MTB/RIF assay shortens airborne isolation for hospitalized patients with presumptive tuberculosis in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2014, 59 (2): 186-192. 10.1093/cid/ciu212.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Millman AJ, Dowdy DW, Miller CR, Brownell R, Metcalfe JZ, Cattamanchi A, Davis JL: Rapid molecular testing for TB to guide respiratory isolation in the U.S.: a cost-benefit analysis. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (11): e79669-10.1371/journal.pone.0079669.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.