- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Updated projections of future vCJD deaths in the UK
© Ghani et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2003
Received: 10 February 2003
Accepted: 27 April 2003
Published: 27 April 2003
Past projections of the future course of the vCJD epidemic in the UK have shown considerable uncertainty, with wide confidence bounds. However, recent vCJD case data have indicated a decrease in the annual incidence of deaths over the past two years.
A detailed survival model is fitted to the 121 vCJD deaths reported by the end of 2002 stratified by age and calendar time to obtain projections of future incidence. The model is additionally fitted to recent results from a survey of appendix tissues.
Our results show a substantial decrease in the uncertainty of the future course of the primary epidemic in the susceptible genotype (MM-homozygous at codon 129 of the prion protein gene), with a best estimate of 40 future deaths (95% prediction interval 9–540) based on fitting to the vCJD case data alone. Additional fitting of the appendix data increases these estimates (best estimate 100, 95% prediction interval 10–2,600) but remains lower than previous projections.
The primary vCJD epidemic in the known susceptible genotype in the UK appears to be in decline.
Since the announcement in March 1996 of a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle [1–3], there has been considerable concern regarding the potential for an epidemic of vCJD in the UK. To date, there have been 129 cases of vCJD reported in the UK, 7 of which remain alive, with further cases reported in Ireland, France, Italy and Canada. The recent decrease in deaths from vCJD in the UK (17 cases in 2002, compared with 20 in 2001 and 28 in 2000) has prompted suggestions that any epidemic of vCJD may indeed be much smaller than previously feared. However, a recent survey of appendix tissues surgically removed between 1995 and 1999 showed a relatively high prevalence of infection (1 positive sample in 8318 tissues) . The latter result has raised concern over the theoretical possibility of secondary transmission of vCJD through surgical instruments or blood products [5, 6].
In this paper we use a previously published model [7–12] which relates estimated exposure to BSE-infected animals to the vCJD case data to provide updated estimates and prediction intervals for the short-and long-term course of the primary vCJD epidemic in the UK, based on fitting to vCJD deaths occurring to the end of 2002 and additionally to the preliminary results from the survey of appendix tissues.
vCJD case data
All cases tested to date are methionine (MM) homozygous at codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene . Approximately 40% of the Caucasian population share this genetic trait, with 13% valine homozygous and the remaining 47% heterozygous [14, 15]. This genetic marker is known to be important for other human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) including sporadic CJD, iatrogenic CJD and kuru [16–18]. Whilst it is possible that other genotypes are also susceptible to vCJD (and are either less susceptible than the MM genotype, or have longer incubation periods), at present we have no cases with which to constrain potential epidemic scenarios among these other genotypes. Our model predictions are therefore limited to the 40% of the population with the MM genotype.
vCJD prevalence data
Preliminary results from testing appendix tissues for the presence of abnormal PrP showed 1 positive appendix in a sample of 8318 tissues . The study was interrupted with this result reported due to public health interest. The majority of tissues tested (70%) were from the 20–29 age group (with the remaining tissues restricted to the 10–50 age-group), and all were removed between 1995 and 1999. The data were analysed in batches of approximately 1000 samples to ensure anonymity. These data provide the first estimate of the prevalence of asymptomatic infection in the population in the highest risk age-group. The observation translates to an estimated detectable prevalence of 120 per million with 95% confidence interval 0.5–892 per million across the whole sample . However, interpretation of this result remains uncertain since it is not known how sensitive the tests are over the course of the incubation period, and whether a positive test is indicative of an infected individual who will go on to develop clinical disease. Whilst evidence of abnormal PrP has been found in the appendix tissue of 19 out of 20 symptomatic vCJD cases examined to date, as well as in 2 cases with appendixes removed prior to the onset of symptoms (3 and 4 years before death respectively), it was not found in the appendix tissue of one patient removed 9 years prior to the onset of symptoms [4, 19]. We assume in our analyses that the positive appendix arose from an MM-homozygous individual. If this is not the case, then projections for the MM-homozygous population are similar to those obtained fitting to the case data alone (data not shown). This would also indicate the potential for vCJD cases to arise in other genotypes. However, since there have not been any vCJD cases in these other genotypes to date, it is difficult at present to project the potential scale of any epidemic in these populations without making additional untestable assumptions regarding these other genotypes.
Full details of the model and fitting procedure, and detailed sensitivity analyses, have previously been published [7–12]. In brief, the probability that an individual dies from clinical disease at time u and age a is given by
where S(u,a) is the survival probability (estimated from UK census data), f(u) is the incubation period distribution and β is the transmission coefficient. The time- and age-dependent exposure hazard I(t,a) is given by
I(t, a) = v(t) g(a) ∫ Ω(z) w(z, t) dz. (2)
Here ν(t) is the effectiveness of control measures limiting the bovine tissues allowed into the human food supply (introduced mid-1989, and allowed to vary between 0 and 100% effective at reducing infectivity from this point onwards), g(a) an age-dependent susceptibility/exposure function, Ω(z) the relative infectiousness of bovines over the course of their incubation period and w(z, t) the proportion of cattle slaughtered at time t and time z away from disease onset. The expected number of cases at time u and age a is given by
c(u, a) = B(u - a) p(u, a) (3)
where B(u - a) is the number of individuals born at time u - a.
The model is fitted using maximum likelihood methods to the time- and age-stratified vCJD deaths to the end of 2002 assuming that the data arise from a Poisson distribution. The individual cases are categorised into cells with at least 5 observations in each cell. The best-fit point is that which maximises the log likelihood (LnL), or equivalently minimises
where x(u,a)are the observed cases at time u and age a. For any model parameter, maximum likelihood confidence intervals are obtained using likelihood ratio tests. Non-linear optimisation techniques are used to fit the model  using custom-written code. An intensive search of parameter space was performed, fitting from multiple starting points and restricting parameter bounds, to ensure that the best-fitting models were obtained.
Confidence intervals for the expected number of cases are obtained by re-parameterising the model so that the expected number of cases between times u 1 and u 2, T(u 1,u 2), is a model parameter. Combining equations 1–3, this is given by:
For each proposed parameter set, equation (5) was solved numerically to calculate β. If no solution was possible (for example, if the proposed parameter set generated fewer infections than the required epidemic size) then the proposed parameter set was rejected. Prediction intervals are obtained by adding Poisson variability to the confidence intervals on the mean.
The model is additionally fitted to the prevalence data obtained from a recent survey of appendix tissues. As the study was interrupted (although not stopped) due to the observation of a positive appendix, the 95% confidence interval for the prevalence of infection in the population is obtained from the likelihood term for a negative binomial distribution. The reported results arise from 9 batches with the positive result arising in the sixth batch. The likelihood for this result (assuming a binomial distribution for the sixth batch conditional on having observed a positive result and for the final three batches) is therefore given by
where p i is the expected prevalence in batch i, n i is the number of samples in batch i and x i is the number of positive appendixes in batch i. The expected prevalence at time u in age-group a is given by
The expected prevalence in batch i is calculated from this expression as the average prevalence in the age-group over the period of time from which the samples were collected. The model fit is then judged by the combination of the Poisson likelihood fit to the cases and the likelihood fit to the prevalence data given by equation (6).
Both the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests at different incubation stages are unknown. We include an additional parameter which specifies the proportion of the incubation period for which the test is assumed to be fully sensitive (working backwards from death), and assume that the test has no sensitivity prior to this time. We also assume the test is fully specific. Throughout this work we assume that the positive appendix is from an MM-homozygous individual, but that the 8318 tissues are representative of the general population (and hence 40% of these tissues are from MM-homozygous individuals).
Predictions from the model are sensitive to the estimates of exposure to BSE-infected material, w(z,t) . As in previous work, our analyses rely on estimates of exposure using data relating to BSE in cattle in Great Britain. However, in our most recent analyses estimating exposure to pre-clinical infected animals and unreported clinical cases we have integrated the analysis of BSE clinical case data (up to October 2002), screening data from apparently healthy cattle and screening data from high risk' (casualty/fallen stock) cattle. Previous work  details the methodological extensions required to integrate the analysis of data on clinical case incidence and results from the screening of apparently healthy cattle to obtain estimates of case ascertainment rates. Key to this is the incorporation of a mechanism underlying the apparent underascertainment of cases indicated by the screening data. Two different possible mechanisms were examined: differential mortality of BSE-infected animals and underreporting of clinical cases . The former is better able to explain the observed data and involves animals close to clinical onset being more likely than their age-matched peers to die on farm or be slaughtered. Thus, differential mortality leads to a higher infection prevalence in slaughtered animals than would be expected naively from the clinical case incidence data alone. Furthermore, animals slaughtered as a result of the excess risk imposed by differential mortality, all in the latest stages of incubating the disease, are allowed via a fitted parameter to be more likely to be categorized as a high-risk animal (either as fallen stock found dead on farms or casualty animals). If the parameter is significant, then the resulting prevalence of infection is greater in high-risk animals than in other animals slaughtered as apparently healthy.
The exposure estimates used here were obtained assuming that diagnostic test sensitivity was 100% for the last 3 months of the incubation period but virtually 0% before this and assuming that deaths due to differential mortality were distributed over the 3 months of the incubation period of infected animals (this is the differential mortality pattern assumed in Donnelly et al. 2002 ). Furthermore, the diagnostic test was assumed to be 100% specific in all animals.
Pathogenesis experiments in cattle have indicated that BSE infectivity is most widely distributed in the carcass towards the end of the incubation period [22, 23]. We therefore model the relative infectiousness of cattle at different stages of incubation assuming that infection increases exponentially towards the end of the incubation period . Clinical BSE cases (including those reported prior to mid-1988) are assumed to be as infectious as those pre-clinical animals within 6 months of onset of disease. Predictions are fairly insensitive to the parameters for this parametric form.
In previous work, we explored a number of different parametric forms for the age-dependent susceptibility/exposure function, g(a) . The best fitting distributional form is a 3-parameter combined uniform distribution with gamma-distributed tails, which in its limits is either the uniform or gamma distribution.
The functional form of the incubation period distribution is informed by patterns observed for other TSEs. In particular, for other human TSEs it is known that the incubation period is long and highly variable [16, 24, 25]. For many TSEs there is a minimum incubation period so that functional forms must allow for the potential for a substantial delay following infection until the onset of clinical symptoms of vCJD [26, 27]. We use a modified form of the four-parameter Generalised Lambda distribution  (with inverse CDF ). This distribution is more flexible than distributions based on standard functional forms (such as the Weibull, LogNormal or Gamma distributions), and incorporates all of these standard distributions as special cases.
Projected future number of vCJD cases (MLE and 95% prediction interval) based on fitting to the vCJD case data alone and to the case data and prevalence data simultaneously.
vCJD case data alone
vCJD case data and prevalence data simultaneously
Fit of the model (-2LnL)
The continued decrease in the annual incidence of vCJD in the UK has resulted in revised projections which are considerably lower than in previous years. In particular, the uncertainty in the potential size of the primary epidemic in the known susceptible genotype (MM-homozygotes) has decreased resulting in narrower prediction intervals. Our results suggest that the vCJD epidemic will continue to decline with a best estimate of only 40 future cases and upper limit of the 95% prediction interval of 500 future cases. Even with the additional fitting of the appendix data (which estimates a higher prevalence of asymptomatic infection in the population than would be predicted by fitting the model to the vCJD case data alone), the best fitting model estimates just 100 future cases with an upper limit of the 95% prediction interval of 2,500 cases. These results show a substantial decline in the worst-case epidemic even compared to one year ago , and indicate that the epidemic now appears to be in decline. The narrower prediction intervals obtained, and in particular the reduction in the upper 95% prediction interval (from approximately 50,000 based on cases to the end of 2000 and 7,000 based on cases to the end of 2001) are due solely to the decline in vCJD cases observed over the past 2 years and to the stable age distribution of these cases.
Our analyses relate only to the 40% of the population known to be genetically susceptible to infection (MM-homozygotes). To date, there have been no cases of vCJD in other genotypes and hence it is difficult to make projections of the scale of any epidemic in the remainder of the population. Throughout our analyses we have assumed that the one positive appendix arose from an MM-homozygous individual. If this is not the case, then the results from the appendix study could indicate the presence of infection in other genotypes. Whilst it remains possible that cases may arise in these other genotypes in the future, it is unlikely that large epidemics would occur. This is because these genotypes must either have longer incubation periods or be less susceptible to infection to have resulted in no observed cases to date. In the former case, longer incubation periods are likely to result in a lower per-capita incidence because of the increased probability as they age that these individuals will die from other causes. In the latter case, reduced susceptibility will result in a lower per-capita incidence. The only way in which a large future epidemic could therefore occur is if the vCJD cases diagnosed to date are from a very small group of highly susceptible individuals (defined by a rare, and currently unknown, genetic marker) and the remainder of the population are less susceptible but will eventually develop disease. Such a scenario appears unlikely.
The analyses presented here do not provide any indication of the potential for secondary transmission of the agent, for example through blood products or via surgical instruments. Preliminary data from the study of appendix tissue suggest that the prevalence of asymptomatic infection may well be significant, although one must be cautious in extrapolating from small samples. Population-based studies of tonsil tissues are now planned (testing approximately 50,000 tissues) and a national archive is in preparation . Although the results of these studies will provide useful information on the prevalence of late-stage infection, their interpretation will remain limited by our relatively poor understanding of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests throughout disease incubation. Furthermore, such studies are necessarily limited in scale by both the samples available and the limited automation of the detection process. The development of a diagnostic test (for example, a blood test) that is able to detect infection early in the incubation period and that can be used to reduce the risk of secondary transmission therefore remains a high priority.
This work was supported by the Department of Health. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health. ACG and NMF acknowledge fellowship support from The Royal Society. NMF thanks the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for research funding, and RMA the Wellcome Trust. We thank Bob Will for providing data on the vCJD cases, and David Hilton and James Ironside for data on the appendix study.
- Will RG, Ironside JW, Zeidler M, Cousens SN, Estibeiro K, Alperovitch A, Poser S, Pocchiari M, Hofman A, Smith PG: A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK. Lancet. 1996, 347: 921-925. 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)91412-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collinge J, Sidle KCL,, Meads J,, Ironside J,, Hill AF: Molecular analysis of prion strain variation and the aetiology of 'new variant' CJD. Nature. 1996, 383: 685-690. 10.1038/383685a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bruce ME, Will RG, Ironside JW, McConnell I, Drummond D, Suttie A, McCardle L, Chree A, Hope J, Birkett C, Cousens S, Fraser H, Bostock CJ: Transmissions to mice indicate that 'new variant' CJD is caused by the BSE agent. Nature. 1997, 389: 498-501. 10.1038/39057.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hilton DA, Ghani AC, Conyers L, Edwards P, McCardle L, Penney M, Ritchie D, Ironside JW: Accumulation of prion protein in tonsil and appendix: review of tissue samples. BMJ. 2002, 325: 633-634. 10.1136/bmj.325.7365.633.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zobeley E, Flechsig E, Cozzio A, Enari M, Weissmann C: Infectivity of scrapie prions bound to a stainless steel surface. Molecular Medicine. 1999, 5: 240-243.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Houston F, Foster JD, Chong A, Hunter N, Bostock CJ: Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep. Lancet. 2000, 356: 999-1000. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02719-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghani AC, Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Hagenaars TJ, Anderson RM: Epidemiological determinants of the pattern and magnitude of the vCJD epidemic in Great Britain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 1998, 265: 2443-2452. 10.1098/rspb.1998.0596.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ghani AC, Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM: Predicted vCJD mortality in Great Britain. Nature. 2000, 406: 583-584. 10.1038/35020688.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghani AC, Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM: Factors determining the pattern of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) epidemic in Great Britain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 2003, DOI 10.1098/rspb.2002.2313-Google Scholar
- Ferguson NM, Ghani AC, Donnelly CA, Hagenaars TJ, Anderson RM: Estimating the risk to human health posed by possible entry of BSE infection into the GB sheep flock. Nature. 2002, 415: 420-425. 10.1038/nature709.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghani AC, Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Hagenaars TJ, Anderson RM: Estimation of the number of people incubating variant CJD. Lancet. 1998, 352: 1353-1354. 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)00046-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghani AC, Donnelly CA, Ferguson NM, Anderson RM: Assessment of the prevalence of vCJD through testing tonsils and appendixes for the abnormal prion protein. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B. 2000, 267: 23-29. 10.1098/rspb.2000.0961.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- The National CJD Surveillance Unit: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in the UK. 2002, Western General Hospital, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
- Collinge J, Palmer MS, Dryden AJ: Genetic predisposition to iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lancet. 1991, 337: 1441-1442. 10.1016/0140-6736(91)93128-V.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Owen F, Poulter M, Collinge J, Crow TJ: Codon 129 changes in the prion protein gene in Caucasians. American Journal of Human Genetics. 1990, 46: 1215-1216.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Brown P, Preece M, Brandel JP, Sato T, McShane L, Zerr I, Fletcher A, Will RG, Pocchiari M, Cashman NR, d'Aignaux JH, Cervenakova L, Fradkin J, Schonberger LB, Collins SJ: Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at the millennium. Neurology. 2000, 55: 1075-1081.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee HS, Brown P, Cervenakova L, Garruto RM, Alpers MP, Gajdusek DC, Goldfarb LG: Increased susceptibility to Kuru of carriers of the PRNP 129 methionine/methionine genotype. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2001, 183: 192-196. 10.1086/317935.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alperovitch A, Zerr I, Pocchiari M, Mitrova E, de Pedro Cuesta J, Hegyi I, Collins S, Kretzschmar H, van Dujin C, Will RG: Codon 129 prion protein genotype and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lancet. 1999, 353: 1673-1674. 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01342-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ironside JW, Hilton DA, Ghani A, Johnston NJ, Conyers L, McCardle LM, Best D: Retrospective study of prion-protein accumulation in tonsil and appendix tissues. Lancet. 2000, 355: 1693-1694. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02243-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, Flannery BP: Numerical Recipes in C - The Art of Scientific Computing. 1992, Cambridge, CUP, 2ndGoogle Scholar
- Donnelly CA, Ferguson NM, Ghani AC, Anderson RM: Implications of BSE infection screening data for the scale of the British BSE epidemic and current European infection levels. Procedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 2002, 269: 2179-2190 (DOI 10.1098/rspb.2002.2156). 10.1098/rspb.2002.2156.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wells GAH, Dawson M, Hawkins SAC, Green RB, Dexter I, Francis ME, Simmons MM, Austin AR, Horigan MW: Infectivity in the ileum of cattle challenged orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Veterinary Record. 1994, 135: 40-41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wells GAH, Hawkins SAC, Green RB, Austin AR, Dexter I, Spencer YI, Chaplin MJ, Stack MJ, Dawson M: Preliminary observations on the pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): an update. Veterinary Record. 1998, 142: 103-106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huillard d'Aignaux J, Costagliola D, Maccario J, Billette de Villemeur T, Brandel JP, Deslys JP, Hauw JJ, Chaussain JL, Agid Y, Dormont D, Alperovitch A: Incubation period of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human growth hormone recipients in France. Neurology. 1999, 53: 1197-1201.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huillard d'Aignaux JN, Cousens SN, Maccario J, Costagliola D, Alpers MP, Smith PG, Alpérovitch A: An analysis of the incubation period of kuru by sex and age at infection. Epidemiology. 2002, 13: 402-408. 10.1097/00001648-200207000-00007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asher DM, Gibbs CJ, David E, Alpers MP, Gajdusek DC, Sadowsky DA: Experimental kuru in the chimpanzee: physical findings and clinical laboratory studies. Symp. IVth Int. Congr. Primatology c. Nonhuman primates and human diseases. Edited by: McNulty WP. 1973, Basel, Karger, 43-90.Google Scholar
- Anderson RM, Donnelly CA, Ferguson NM, Woolhouse MEW, Watt CJ, Udy HJ, MaWhinney S, Dunstan SP, Southwood TRE, Wilesmith JW, Ryan JBM, Hoinville LJ, Hillerton JE, Austin AR, Wells GAH: Transmission dynamics and epidemiology of BSE in British cattle. Nature. 1996, 382: 779-788. 10.1038/382779a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramberg JS, Tadikamalia PR, Dudewicz EJ, Mykytka EF: A probability distribution and its uses in fitting data. Technometrics. 1979, 21: 201-209.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cooper JD, Bird SM: UK bovine carcass meat consumed as burgers, sausages and other meat products: by birth cohort and gender. J Cancer Epidemiol Prev. 2002, 7: 49-57. 10.1080/147666502321082719.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cooper JD, Bird SM: UK dietary exposure to BSE in head meat: by birth cohort and gender. J Cancer Epidemiol Prev. 2002, 7: 59-70. 10.1080/147666502321082728.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kimberlin RH, Walker CA: Pathogenesis of mouse scrapie: effect of route of inoculation on infectivity titres and dose-response curves. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1978, 88: 39-47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Department of Health: Chief medical officer welcomes vCJD research results. 2002Google Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/3/4/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.