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  1. Host genetic factors may play a role in the occurrence and progress of SARS-Cov infection. This study was to investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene polymorphisms with the occurren...

    Authors: Shixin Wang, Maoti Wei, Yi Han, Keju Zhang, Li He, Zhen Yang, Bing Su, Zhilun Zhang, Yilan Hu and Wuli Hui
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:27
  2. Anaemia is the most common haematological complication of HIV and associated with a high morbidity and a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated anaemia is poorly understood and may include a direct...

    Authors: Job CJ Calis, Hellen P Rotteveel, Antoinette C van der Kuyl, Fokla Zorgdrager, David Kachala, Michaël Boele van Hensbroek and Marion Cornelissen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:26
  3. Circulating levels of endothelin-1 are increased in sepsis and correlate with severity of disease. A rapid and easy immunoassay has been developed to measure the more stable ET-1 precursor peptides proET-1. Th...

    Authors: Philipp Schuetz, Daiana Stolz, Beat Mueller, Nils G Morgenthaler, Joachim Struck, Christian Mueller, Roland Bingisser, Michael Tamm and Mirjam Christ-Crain
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:22
  4. Guidelines established for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and genotype interpretation do not apply for HIV-2. Data about antiretroviral (ARV) drug efficacy and resistance mutations is scarce.

    Authors: Jean Ruelle, François Roman, Anne-Thérèse Vandenbroucke, Christine Lambert, Katrien Fransen, Fedoua Echahidi, Denis Piérard, Chris Verhofstede, Kristel Van Laethem, Marie-Luce Delforge, Dolorès Vaira, Jean-Claude Schmit and Patrick Goubau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:21
  5. The common response to stopping anti-HIV treatment is an increase of HIV-RNA load and decrease in CD4+, but not all the patients have similar responses to this therapeutic strategy. The aim was to identify predic...

    Authors: Elena Seoane, Salvador Resino, Santiago Moreno, Juan Carlos Lopez Bernaldo de Quiros, Ana Moreno, Rafael Rubio, Juan Gonzalez-García, José Ramón Arribas, Federico Pulido and Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:20
  6. Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in...

    Authors: Olalekan A Uthman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:19
  7. Recent data have suggested that 18 million of new sepsis cases occur each year worldwide, with a mortality rate of almost 30%. There is not consensus on the clinical definition of sepsis and, because of lack o...

    Authors: Gisela D De La Rosa, Marta L Valencia, Clara M Arango, Carlos I Gomez, Alex Garcia, Sigifredo Ospina, Susana Osorno, Adriana Henao and Fabián A Jaimes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:18
  8. High antibiotic resistance is described in atypical Mycobacteriosis, mainly by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).

    Authors: María T Milanés-Virelles, Idrian García-García, Yamilet Santos-Herrera, Magalys Valdés-Quintana, Carmen M Valenzuela-Silva, Gaspar Jiménez-Madrigal, Thelvia I Ramos-Gómez, Iraldo Bello-Rivero, Norma Fernández-Olivera, Reinaldo B Sánchez-de la Osa, Carmen Rodríguez-Acosta, Lidia González-Méndez, Gregorio Martínez-Sánchez and Pedro A López-Saura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:17
  9. The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly qu...

    Authors: Francesco Checchi, João AN Filipe, Daniel T Haydon, Daniel Chandramohan and François Chappuis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:16
  10. Nonencapsulated and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of human respiratory tract infections. Some strains of NTHi can cause invasive diseases such as septicemia and meningitis, even if H....

    Authors: Yukie Sekiya, Masahiro Eguchi, Masahiko Nakamura, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Omura and Hidenori Matsui
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:15
  11. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia remains a condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a common but little-studied problem outside of Europe and...

    Authors: Jonathan Wei-Zhong Chia, Li-Yang Hsu, Louis Yi-Ann Chai and Paul Ananth Tambyah
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:14
  12. There is currently a lack of consensus for the diagnosis, investigations and treatments of acute bacterial prostatitis (AP).

    Authors: Manuel Etienne, Pascal Chavanet, Louis Sibert, Frédéric Michel, Hervé Levesque, Bernard Lorcerie, Jean Doucet, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer and François Caron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:12
  13. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent co-infection in HIV-infected individuals still presenting diagnostic difficulties particularly in developing countries. Recently an assay based on IFN-gamma response to M. t...

    Authors: Delia Goletti, Stefania Carrara, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Joy Baseke, Michael Angel Mugerwa, Enrico Girardi and Zahra Toossi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:11
  14. With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerabl...

    Authors: Ellen M Zager and Ruth McNerney
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:10
  15. Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by ne...

    Authors: Rosemary E Weir, Patricia Gorak-Stolinska, Sian Floyd, Maeve K Lalor, Sally Stenson, Keith Branson, Rose Blitz, Anne Ben-Smith, Paul EM Fine and Hazel M Dockrell
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:9
  16. Studies from developed countries have reported on host-related risk factors for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). However, similar studies from high-burden countries like Nepal are lacking. Therefore, we ca...

    Authors: Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Kishore V Panduru, Sharat C Verma, Hari S Joshi and Michael N Bates
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:8
  17. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is a frequently occurring healthcare-associated infection, which is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality amongst elderly patients in healthcare fa...

    Authors: Katherine Roberts, Caroline F Smith, Anna M Snelling, Kevin G Kerr, Kathleen R Banfield, P Andrew Sleigh and Clive B Beggs
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:7
  18. Although resistance to isoniazid (INH) is the most common form of drug resistance seen among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, there have been few studies on the efficacy and optimal duration of treatment for ...

    Authors: Yee Hyung Kim, Gee Young Suh, Man Pyo Chung, Hojoong Kim, O Jung Kwon, Seong Yong Lim, Si Young Lim and Won-Jung Koh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:6
  19. Blood transfusion has always been an important route for Chagas Disease (CD) transmission. The high prevalence of CD in Latin America and its lifelong asymptomatic clinical picture pose a threat for the safety...

    Authors: Erich V De Paula, Neiva SL Goncales, Serge Xueref, Marcelo Addas-Carvalho, Simone CO Gilli, Rodrigo N Angerami and Fernando L Goncales Jr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:5
  20. Escherichia coli infections are common and often treated with fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance is of worldwide importance and is monitored by national and international surveillance networks. In this...

    Authors: Lauren Becnel Boyd, Robert L Atmar, Graham L Randall, Richard J Hamill, David Steffen and Lynn Zechiedrich
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:4
  21. In the setting of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), plasma levels of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) rapidly decay to below the limit of detection of standard clinical assays. However, reacti...

    Authors: Ahmad R Sedaghat, Robert F Siliciano and Claus O Wilke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:2
  22. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem that may lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Approximately 30% of the world's population has b...

    Authors: Zheng Zeng, Li Guan, Ping An, Shan Sun, Stephen J O'Brien and Cheryl A Winkler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:1
  23. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major world health problem. Around 2 billions of people are infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal agent of this disease. This fact accounts for a third of the total world ...

    Authors: Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, Michelle Cristina Guerreiro dos Reis, Walter Oelemann and Marcus Barreto Conde
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:148
  24. In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neur...

    Authors: Paulo P Christo, Dirceu B Greco, Agdemir W Aleixo and Jose A Livramento
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:147
  25. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can enter into a dormant state which has resulted in one third of the world's population being infected with latent tuberculosis making the study of latency and reactivation of utmost ...

    Authors: Sergey Biketov, Vasilii Potapov, Elena Ganina, Katrina Downing, Bavesh D Kana and Arseny Kaprelyants
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:146
  26. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputi...

    Authors: Peter Bacchetti, Phyllis C Tien, Eric C Seaberg, Thomas R O'Brien, Michael H Augenbraun, Alex H Kral, Michael P Busch and Brian R Edlin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:145
  27. The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The...

    Authors: Massimo Giuliani, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Concetta Castilletti, Aldo Di Carlo, Guido Palamara, Stefano Boros and Giovanni Rezza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:143
  28. Among the surface antigens of Mycoplasma hominis, the P120' protein was previously shown to elicit a subtle antibody response and appears to be relatively conserved. To get better insight into the evolution of th...

    Authors: Boutheina Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, Hajer Ayari, Awatef Béjaoui-Khiari, Béhija Mlik, Imed Moalla and Faten Amouna
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:142
  29. The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) has collected clinical and virological data on influenza since 1996 in an increasing number of countries. The EISS dataset was used to characterise important e...

    Authors: John Paget, Richard Marquet, Adam Meijer and Koos van der Velden
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:141
  30. The rate of development of parasite-specific immune responses can be studied by following their age profiles in exposed and infected hosts. This study determined the cytokine-age profiles of Zimbabweans reside...

    Authors: Francisca Mutapi, Georgina Winborn, Nicholas Midzi, Matthew Taylor, Takafira Mduluza and Rick M Maizels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:139
  31. Quantitative real-time PCR assays, which are more rapid and practical than pp65 antigenemia determination, are progressively becoming the preferred method for monitoring Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) reactivati...

    Authors: Elisabetta Cariani, Caterina P Pollara, Barbara Valloncini, Francesca Perandin, Carlo Bonfanti and Nino Manca
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:138
  32. Procalcitonin (PCT) is an inflammatory marker that has been used as indicator of severe bacterial infection. We evaluated the concentrations of PCT as a marker for systemic infection compared to C-reactive pro...

    Authors: Karin SR Massaro, Silvia F Costa, Claudio Leone and Dalton AF Chamone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:137
  33. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) receptors play a key role in the early host response to viruses. In this work, we determined mRNA levels of two members of the Toll-like Receptors family, (TLR3 an...

    Authors: Rafael Atencia, Francisco J Bustamante, Andrés Valdivieso, Arantza Arrieta, Marta Riñón, Alvaro Prada and Natalia Maruri
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:136
  34. This paper describes the third large outbreak of Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis reported in the Southern Italy region of Puglia.

    Authors: Caterina Rizzo, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Marilina Santantonio, Maria Francesca Coscia, Rosa Monno, Danila De Vito, Franco Maria Ruggeri and Giovanni Rizzo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:135
  35. High blood levels of soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) are associated with poor outcomes in human immunodeficiency-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals. Research on the clinical value of suPAR...

    Authors: Uffe V Schneider, Rikke L Nielsen, Court Pedersen and Jesper Eugen-Olsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:134
  36. No country is fully prepared for a 1918-like pandemic influenza. Averting a pandemic of H5N1 influenza virus depends on the successful control of its endemicity, outbreaks in poultry and occasional spillage in...

    Authors: Y Guan, H Chen, KS Li, S Riley, GM Leung, R Webster, JSM Peiris and KY Yuen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:132
  37. Infections can aggravate the course of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in the anti-oxidant enzyme Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) are associat...

    Authors: Miriam Goos, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Saju Balakrishnan, Sandra Ebert, Timothy Mitchell, Maria Teresa Carrì, Bernhard U Keller and Roland Nau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:131
  38. The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low p...

    Authors: Héctor de Arazoza, Jose Joanes, Rachid Lounes, Camille Legeai, Stéphan Clémençon, Jorge Pérez and Bertran Auvert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:130
  39. Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infec...

    Authors: Radhouane Gdoura, Wiem Kchaou, Chiraz Chaari, Abir Znazen, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai and Adnane Hammami
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:129
  40. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the etiology of which is still uncertain, increases the risk of preterm birth. Recent PCR-based studies suggested that BV is associated with complex vaginal bacterial communities, inc...

    Authors: Renuka Tamrakar, Takashi Yamada, Itsuko Furuta, Kazutoshi Cho, Mamoru Morikawa, Hideto Yamada, Noriaki Sakuragi and Hisanori Minakami
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:128
  41. Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection ...

    Authors: Arne B Brantsaeter, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Stig Jeansson, Anne K Goplen and Johan N Bruun
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:127
  42. Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem among international travellers and much of the burden falls on general practitioners. We assessed whether sentinel surveillance based in primary care cou...

    Authors: Gemma Northey, Meirion R Evans, Tinnu S Sarvotham, Daniel R Thomas and Tony J Howard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:126
  43. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis sin...

    Authors: James O Lloyd-Smith, Denise J Greig, Sharon Hietala, George S Ghneim, Lauren Palmer, Judy St Leger, Bryan T Grenfell and Frances MD Gulland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:125

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