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  1. ESAT6-CFP10 (EC) skin test has been reported accurate and safe in identifying tuberculosis infection. We aimed to demonstrate the safety of EC skin test compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) in university f...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Zhixiong Fang, Wei Huang, Haiming Zhang, Si Luo, Sha Lin, Shaojie Li and Shuihua Lu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:780
  2. Sepsis is a heterogeneous syndrome due to a variable range of dysregulated processes in the host immune response. Efforts are made to stratify patients for personalized immune-based treatments and better progn...

    Authors: Isis Ricaño-Ponce, Anca-Lelia Riza, Aline H. de Nooijer, Andrei Pirvu, Stefania Dorobantu, Adina Dragos, Ioana Streata, Mihaela Roskanovic, Inge Grondman, Florentina Dumitrescu, Vinod Kumar, Mihai G. Netea and Mihai Ioana
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:778
  3. Burkholderia cepacia (BC) has been detected more and more in infected patients in recent years. However, as a high-risk population, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of BC infection in hematopoietic stem...

    Authors: Yan Jia, Ya Liu, Yi Liu, Kaitai Yang and Yanfeng Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:777
  4. Randomised controlled trials have shown that steroids reduce the risk of dying in patients with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), whilst many real-world studies have failed to replicate this result. ...

    Authors: Wenjuan Wang, Luke B Snell, Davide Ferrari, Anna L Goodman, Nicholas M Price, Charles D Wolfe, Vasa Curcin, Jonathan D Edgeworth and Yanzhong Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:776
  5. Inappropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment (IET) contributes to worsened outcomes. While IET’s differential impact across types of nosocomial pneumonia (NP: non-ventilated [nvHABP], ventilated [vHABP] hospi...

    Authors: Marya D. Zilberberg, Brian H. Nathanson, Laura A. Puzniak, Ryan J. Dillon and Andrew F. Shorr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:775
  6. Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a common neonatal disease with high morbidity, and can cause serious sequelae when left untreated. Escherichia coli is the common pathogen, and its endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (...

    Authors: Peicen Zou, Fan Yang, Yijun Ding, Di Zhang, Ying Liu, Jinjing Zhang, Dan Wu and Yajuan Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:774
  7. The clinical presentation of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in older patients is often complex and non-specific, posing a diagnostic challenge. This study evaluates the value of serum soluble triggering rec...

    Authors: Zhang Wang, Binbin Chang, Yong Zhang, Jieyu Chen, Fang Xie, Ying Xiang, Tingting Liu and Ying Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:773
  8. Ultrasonographic guidance is widely used for central venous catheterization. Several studies have revealed that ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization increases the rate of success during the first a...

    Authors: Jun Takeshita, Kazuya Tachibana, Yasufumi Nakajima and Nobuaki Shime
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:772
  9. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a life-threatening condition in critically ill patients, but pathogen quantification techniques during treatment are laborious. This study aimed to explore the impact of monitori...

    Authors: Ziqiang Shao, Jingwen Zhu, Yanyan Wei, Jun Jin, Yang Zheng, Jingquan Liu, Run Zhang, Renhua Sun and Bangchuan Hu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:771
  10. Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease that is characterized by non-caseating epithelioid-cell granulomas upon histology. However, similar histological findings may also be seen with certain infections...

    Authors: Sara Denicolò, Sophie Laydevant, Julia Fink, Christoph Geiger, Alex Pizzini, Mario Sarcletti, Johannes Zschocke, Rosa Bellmann-Weiler, Günter Weiss and Ivan Tancevski
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:770
  11. Protection by preventive Ebola vaccines has been demonstrated in clinical trials, but a complete picture of real-world effectiveness is lacking. Our previous study modeling the impact of preventively vaccinati...

    Authors: Ravi Potluri, Amit Kumar, Valérie Oriol-mathieu, Thierry Van Effelterre, Laurent Metz and Hitesh Bhandari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:769
  12. Malaria remains a public health problem in Kenya despite sustained interventions deployed by the government. One of the major impediments to effective malaria control is a lack of accurate diagnosis and effect...

    Authors: Wilfred Ouma Otambo, Patrick O. Onyango, Kevin Ochwedo, Julius Olumeh, Shirley A. Onyango, Pauline Orondo, Harrysone Atieli, Ming-Chieh Lee, Chloe Wang, Daibin Zhong, Andrew Githeko, Guofa Zhou, John Githure, Collins Ouma, Guiyun Yan and James Kazura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:768
  13. Clinical trials and individual-level observational data in Israel demonstrated approximately 95% effectiveness of mRNA-based vaccines against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Individual-level data are not ava...

    Authors: Romain Fantin, Rolando Herrero, Allan Hildesheim, Cristina Barboza-Solís, Amada Aparicio, D. Rebecca Prevots, Ruth M. Pfeiffer and Mitchell H. Gail
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:767
  14. We aimed to assess the prevalence of Salmonella Typhi through DNA and IgM-antibody detection methods as a prelude to extended surveillance activities at sites in Ghana, Madagascar, and Ethiopia.

    Authors: Ursula Panzner, Ondari Daniel Mogeni, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Trevor Toy, Hyon Jin Jeon, Gi Deok Pak, Se Eun Park, Yeetey Enuameh, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Trinh Van Tan, Abraham Aseffa, Mekonnen Teferi, Biruk Yeshitela, Stephen Baker, Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy and Florian Marks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:766
  15. COVID-19 vaccines have been administered in many countries; however, a sufficient vaccine coverage rate is not guaranteed due to vaccine hesitancy. To improve the uptake rate of COVID-19 vaccine, it is essenti...

    Authors: Yiman Huang, Yijin Wu, Zhenwei Dai, Weijun Xiao, Hao Wang, Mingyu Si, Wenjun Wang, Xiaofen Gu, Li Ma, Li Li, Shaokai Zhang, Chunxia Yang, Yanqin Yu, Youlin Qiao and Xiaoyou Su
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:765
  16. Recently, with the rapid progress of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), inconsistency between mNGS results and clinical diagnoses has become more common. There is currently no reasonable explanatio...

    Authors: Jin Wang, Jun Ye, Liqi Yang, Xiangfeng Chen, Haoshu Fang, Zhou Liu, Guomei Xia, Yafei Zhang and Zhenhua Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:764
  17. The COVID-19 pandemic was met with strict containment measures. We hypothesized that societal infection control measures would impact the number of hospital admissions for respiratory tract infections, as well...

    Authors: Sondre Serigstad, Dagfinn L. Markussen, Christian Ritz, Marit H. Ebbesen, Siri T. Knoop, Øyvind Kommedal, Lars Heggelund, Elling Ulvestad, Rune O. Bjørneklett and Harleen M. S. Grewal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:763
  18. Polymyxin E (colistin) is a last-resort antibiotic to treat infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). However, reports of CPEs resistant to colistin have been increasing, and the mcr ...

    Authors: Yusuke Miyazato, Noriko Iwamoto, Masaru Usui, Toyotaka Sato, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Maki Nagashima, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Kayoko Hayakawa and Norio Ohmagari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:762
  19. An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), caused by a Hantavirus, affected nine adult males in the southwest area of Xi’an in November 2020 was analyzed in this study.

    Authors: Xiao Wei, Biao Meng, Hong Peng, Yan Li, Min Liu, Hairui Si, Rui Wu, Hailong Chen, Ying Bai, Yan Li, Qunling Feng, Changjun Wang and Xiangna Zhao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:761

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:896

  20. Patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation may become aggravated with a secondary respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to describe secondary respiratory infections, their predictive fa...

    Authors: María Elena Ceballos, Carolina Nuñez, Javier Uribe, María Magdalena Vera, Ricardo Castro, Patricia García, Gabriel Arriata, Vicente Gándara, Camila Vargas, Angélica Dominguez, Inés Cerón, Pablo Born and Eduardo Espíndola
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:760
  21. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major cause of morbidity in children. However, its disease burden remains poorly understood, particularly outside of the hospital setting. Our study aimed to es...

    Authors: F. Martinón-Torres, M. Carmo, L. Platero, G. Drago, J. L. López-Belmonte, M. Bangert, J. Díez-Domingo and M. Garcés-Sánchez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:759
  22. Environmental contamination contributes to hospital associated infections, particularly those caused by multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO). This study investigated bioburden presence on surfaces in a critic...

    Authors: Anjay Khandelwal, Brian Lapolla, Tina Bair, Frances Grinstead, Meaghan Hislop, Christine Greene and Michael T. Bigham
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:758
  23. Acanthamoeba is an emerging pathogen, infamous for its resilience against antiprotozoal compounds, disinfectants and harsh environments. It is known to cause keratitis, a sight-threatening, painful and difficult ...

    Authors: Binod Rayamajhee, Savitri Sharma, Mark Willcox, Fiona L. Henriquez, Raksheeth Nathan Rajagopal, Gauri Shankar Shrestha, Dinesh Subedi, Bhupesh Bagga and Nicole Carnt
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:757
  24. Patients with Lyme borreliosis (LB) may report persisting non-specific symptoms such as fatigue, widespread musculoskeletal pain or cognitive difficulties. When present for more than 6 months and causing a red...

    Authors: Laurence Geebelen, Tinne Lernout, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Benoît Kabamba-Mukadi, Veroniek Saegeman, Leïla Belkhir, Paul De Munter, Bénédicte Dubois, Rene Westhovens, Herman Van Oyen, Niko Speybroeck and Katrien Tersago
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:756
  25. In this retrospective cohort study, we explored the correlation of blood human myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) level with severity of disease in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

    Authors: Otto Lehtinen, Niklas Broman, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen, Ville Peltola, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jarmo Oksi and Thijs Feuth
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:755
  26. Tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant public health threat in India. Adherence to antitubercular therapy (ATT) is the key to reducing the burden of this infectious disease. Suboptimal adherence to ATT and...

    Authors: Clint Vaz, Nisha K. Jose, Jeremiah Jacob Tom, Georgia R. Goodman, Jasper S. Lee, Rana Prathap Padappayil, Manjunath Madathil, Conall O’Cleirigh, Rashmi Rodrigues and Peter R. Chai
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:754
  27. Despite recommendations from the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO), pneumococcal vaccination coverage remains low in vulnerable populations. This study estimated the pneumococcal vaccination cov...

    Authors: Arijita Deb, Bélène Podmore, Rosemarie Barnett, Dominik Beier, Wolfgang Galetzka, Nawab Qizilbash, Dennis Haeckl, Timo Boellinger, Kelly D. Johnson and Thomas Weiss
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:753
  28. The advent of the effective COVID-19 vaccine was the most eagerly expected worldwide. However, this hope quickly became hesitation and denial in many countries, including Guinea. Understanding the reasons for ...

    Authors: Almamy Amara Toure, Fodé Amara Traore, Gnoume Camara, Aboubacar Sidiki Magassouba, Ibrahima Barry, Mohamed Lamine Kourouma, Younoussa Sylla, Naby Yaya Conte, Diao Cisse, Nafissatou Dioubaté, Sidikiba Sidibe, Abdoul Habib Beavogui and Alexandre Delamou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:752
  29. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are consistently burdened by HIV at higher levels than other adults. While HIV prevention programs for MSM are growing in coverage and quality, HIV incidence remains high. In re...

    Authors: Carrie E. Lyons, Owen J. Stokes-Cawley, Anna Simkin, Anna L. Bowring, Iliassou Mfochive Njindam, Oudou Njoya, Anne Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Ubald Tamoufe, Sandra Georges, Florence Zeh Kakanou, Gnilane Turpin, Daniel Levitt, Serge Clotaire Billong, Sharmistha Mishra and Stefan Baral
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:751
  30. The post-partum period is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), possibly including the period after miscarriage as illustrated here. This case demonstrates how non-specific symptoms can hide widely disseminated...

    Authors: Arya Zandvakili, Takaaki Kobayashi, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Meredith G. Parsons, Bradley Ford, Jason H. Barker and Melinda Johnson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:750
  31. Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis), is endemic worldwide, especially in countries with warm and humid climates. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) is an ex...

    Authors: De-Han Cai, Jun Wang and Xiao-Lin Fang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:749
  32. Yearly, up to 1 million patients worldwide suffer from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In Ecuador, CL affects an estimated 5000 patients annually. CL leads to reduced Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) as a r...

    Authors: Jacob Machiel Bezemer, Manuel Calvopiña Hinojosa, Andrea Estefania Corral Zabala, Fernando Ortega Pérez, Veronica Cristina Vargas Román, Henk Dirk Frederik Herman Schallig and Henry John Christiaan de Vries
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:748
  33. Countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region aim to achieve malaria elimination by 2030. In the region, malaria is concentrated in high-risk areas and populations such as forest-going mobile and migrant populati...

    Authors: Win Htike, Win Han Oo, Thet Lynn, Lun Sovanda, Paul A. Agius, May Chan Oo, Naw Hkawng Galau, Kaung Myat Thu, Aung Khine Zaw, Ei Phyu Htwe, Julia C. Cutts, Ellen A. Kearney, Nick Scott, Katherine O’Flaherty, Bangyuan Wang, Boualam Khamlome…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:747
  34. A paradoxical hypothesis about the effect of smoking on patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrom 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection still exists. Furthermore, gender-discrepancy in the impact of smoking o...

    Authors: Abbas Hoballah, Rana El Haidari, Rima Badran, Ali Jaber, Samir Mansour and Linda Abou-Abbas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:746
  35. In persons living with HIV (PLWH), the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases increased over time, because of aging associated with chronic inflammation, systemic immune activation, and long-term exposure...

    Authors: Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Barbara Menzaghi, Chiara Molteni, Nicola Squillace, Lucia Taramasso, Marta Guastavigna, Giulia Gamboni, Giordano Madeddu, Francesca Vichi, Antonio Cascio, Eleonora Sarchi, Giovanni Pellicanò, Canio Vito Martinelli, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Laura Valsecchi…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:745
  36. The durability of immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines among older people living with HIV (PWH) is clinically important.

    Authors: Jessica J. Tuan, Heidi Zapata, Lydia Barakat, Laurie Andrews, Anousheh Behnegar, Yee Won Kim, Jehanzeb Kayani, Suzana Mutic, Linda Ryall, Barbara Turcotte, Terese Critch-Gilfillan, Min Zhao, Syim Salahuddin, Shaili Gupta, Richard Sutton, Gerald Friedland…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:744
  37. Lockdowns imposed throughout the US to control the COVID-19 pandemic led to a decline in all routine immunizations rates, including the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine. It is feared that post-lockdown, t...

    Authors: Mugdha Thakur, Richard Zhou, Mukundan Mohan, Achla Marathe, Jiangzhuo Chen, Stefan Hoops, Dustin Machi, Bryan Lewis and Anil Vullikanti
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:743
  38. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to constitute an international public health emergency. Vaccination is a prospective approach to control this pandemic. However, apprehension about the safety of v...

    Authors: Lin Gan, Yan Chen, Jinlin Tan, Xuezhi Wang and Dingmei Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:742
  39. HIV drug resistance increased with the widespread use of antiretroviral drugs, and posed great threat to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Pu’er Prefecture, lying in the southwest of Yunnan Province, China, border...

    Authors: Difei Li, Huichao Chen, Huilan Li, Yanling Ma, Lijuan Dong, Jie Dai, Xiaomei Jin, Min Yang, Zhijun Zeng, Pengyan Sun, Zhizhong Song and Min Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:741
  40. Basidiobolus ranarum belongs to the Entomophthorales order and the Zygomycetes class. This fungus is an environmental saprophyte that can be found in soil and rotting vegetables.Primarily restricted to tropica...

    Authors: Elham Barahimi, Tuba Abbasi, Zahra Ghaeini Hesarooeyeh, Hanieh Raad, Mohadeseh Karimi and Mahsa Shahi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:740
  41. Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a common and largely preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to health systems. We conducted a nation...

    Authors: Ronza Najjar-Debbiny, Bibiana Chazan, Rona Lobl, M. Todd Greene, David Ratz, Sanjay Saint, Yehuda Carmeli and Mitchell J. Schwaber
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:739
  42. People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionally affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and many remain undiagnosed. HCV self-testing (HCVST) may be an effective approach to increase testing uptake,...

    Authors: Elena Ivanova Reipold, Emmanuel Fajardo, Emily Juma, David Bukusi, Elkin Bermudez Aza, Muhammad S. Jamil, Cheryl Case Johnson, Carey Farquhar, Philippa Easterbrook and Aliza Monroe-Wise
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:738
  43. Outbreaks of new HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) are a major public health concern. Oral daily PrEP, has been identified as a critical addition to the biomedical toolkit for this populati...

    Authors: Adrian R. King, Saanchi Shah, Laura A. Randall, Paula M. Frew, Anne Spaulding and Ian W. Holloway
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:737
  44. To investigate the clinical features and risk factors of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) associated surgical site infections (SSIs) in HIV-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM).

    Authors: Lejia Xu, Jianyun Zhu, Xiaoyun Wang, Guofen Zeng, Zhiliang Gao and Jing Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:736
  45. The clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is diverse, and the usefulness of phenotyping in predicting the severity or prognosis of the disease has been demonstrated overseas. This study aimed to in...

    Authors: Shiro Otake, Shotaro Chubachi, Ho Namkoong, Kensuke Nakagawara, Hiromu Tanaka, Ho Lee, Atsuho Morita, Takahiro Fukushima, Mayuko Watase, Tatsuya Kusumoto, Katsunori Masaki, Hirofumi Kamata, Makoto Ishii, Naoki Hasegawa, Norihiro Harada, Tetsuya Ueda…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:735
  46. Effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients receiving treatment with B-cell depleting agents is challenging. Information on vaccination responses in these patients are a valuable tool to develop efficient vac...

    Authors: Frederic Arnold, Daniela Huzly, Yakup Tanriver and Thomas Welte
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:734
  47. Fungal ball sinusitis is characterized by complex fungus infections with non-invasive inflammation. But no research reported fungal ball composition and metabolic-related product types currently. 12 patients w...

    Authors: Xiaoqing Zhang, Na Zhang, Qian Huang, Shunjiu Cui, Lingyan Liu and Bing Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:733
  48. Several interventions have shown benefits in improving mental health problems such as depression which is common in people living with HIV. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the effect of these interv...

    Authors: Jackson Jr Nforbewing Ndenkeh, Akindeh Mbuh Nji, Habakkuk Azinyui Yumo, Camilla Rothe and Arne Kroidl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:732
  49. Chronic inflammation has been reported as one of the novel coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Knowing that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) provokes a local inflammation, the relationship between H. pylori

    Authors: Lionel Danny Nguefak Tali, Ghislaine Florice Nintewoue Faujo, Justine Laure Nguieguia Konang, Jean Paul Dzoyem and Laure Brigitte Mabeku Kouitcheu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:731

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