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  1. There is a significant increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection reports in various countries. However, the trend of reinfection rate over time is not clear.

    Authors: Ying Chen, Wenhui Zhu, Xinyue Han, Miaoshuang Chen, Xin Li, Haiping Huang, Mengyuan Zhang, Rongjie Wei, Huadong Zhang, Changhong Yang and Tao Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:339
  2. A dearth of studies showed that infectious diseases cause the majority of deaths among under-five children. Worldwide, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) continues to be the second most frequent cause of illnes...

    Authors: Mulugeta Hayelom Kalayou, Abdul-Aziz Kebede Kassaw and Kirubel Biruk Shiferaw
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:338
  3. Genetic variation underly inter-individual variation in host immune responses to infectious diseases, and may affect susceptibility or the course of signs and symptoms.

    Authors: Hedwig D. Vrijmoeth, Jeanine Ursinus, Javier Botey-Bataller, Yunus Kuijpers, Xiaojing Chu, Freek R. van de Schoor, Brendon P. Scicluna, Cheng-Jian Xu, Mihai G. Netea, Bart Jan Kullberg, Cees C. van den Wijngaard, Yang Li, Joppe W. Hovius and Leo A. B. Joosten
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:337
  4. Data on the characteristics of individuals with mild and asymptomatic infections with different SARS-CoV-2 variants are limited. We therefore compared the characteristics of individuals infected with ancestral...

    Authors: Cheryl Cohen, Jackie Kleynhans, Anne von Gottberg, Meredith L. McMorrow, Nicole Wolter, Jinal N. Bhiman, Jocelyn Moyes, Mignon du Plessis, Maimuna Carrim, Amelia Buys, Neil A. Martinson, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Limakatso Lebina, Floidy Wafawanaka, Jacques du Toit…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:336
  5. Lung endothelial barrier injury plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy has shown promise in AR...

    Authors: Manliang Guo, Shiqi Li, Chuan Li, Xueyan Mao, Liru Tian, Xintong Yang, Caixia Xu and Mian Zeng
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:335
  6. Dengue fever is a well-studied vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Several methods for predicting the occurrence of dengue fever in Taiwan have been proposed. However, to the b...

    Authors: Chao-Yang Kuo, Wei-Wen Yang and Emily Chia-Yu Su
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24(Suppl 2):334

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 24 Supplement 2

  7. Anopheles stephensi is native to Southeast Asia and the Arabian Peninsula and has emerged as an effective and invasive malaria vector. Since invasion was reported in Djibouti in 2012, the global invasion range of...

    Authors: Qing Liu, Ming Wang, Yu-Tong Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Zi-Ge Yin, Jing-Hong Cai, Tong-Yan Zhao and Heng-Duan Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:333
  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the highly prevalent endemic diseases in the Middle East. The disease is a complex skin infection imposing a heavy burden on many developing countries. This study aimed t...

    Authors: Ahmad Reza Parhizkar, Mehdi Sharafi, Susan Mansuri, Maryam Hadibarhaghtalab, Sima Afrashteh, Hossein Fatemian and Mahsa Rostami Chijan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:332
  9. Viruses are the leading etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children. However, there is limited knowledge on drivers of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases involving viruses. We aimed...

    Authors: Abdoul Kader Ilboudo, Assana Cissé, Jennifer Milucky, Dieudonné Tialla, Sara A. Mirza, Alpha Oumar Diallo, Brice W. Bicaba, Kondombo Jean Charlemagne, Potiandi Serge Diagbouga, Daniel Owusu, Jessica L. Waller, Ndahwouh Talla-Nzussouo, Myrna D. Charles, Cynthia G. Whitney and Zekiba Tarnagda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:331
  10. Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) is the most clinically relevant side effect of vancomycin. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between VTC and VA-AKI as well as 30...

    Authors: Jialong Chen, Jing Lin, Jianzhen Weng, Yang Ju and Yanming Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:330
  11. The burden of herpes zoster (shingles) virus and associated complications, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, is higher in older adults and has a significant impact on quality of life. The incidence of herpes zo...

    Authors: Maxime Hentzien, Fabrice Bonnet, Enos Bernasconi, Emmanuel Biver, Dominique L. Braun, Aline Munting, Karoline Leuzinger, Olivier Leleux, Stefano Musardo, Virginie Prendki, Patrick Schmid, Cornelia Staehelin, Marcel Stoeckle, Carla S. Walti, Linda Wittkop, Victor Appay…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:329
  12. Over one-third of people living with HIV (PLH) in Ukraine are not on treatment. Index testing services, which link potentially exposed partners (named partners) of known PLH (index patients) with testing and t...

    Authors: Andrew M. Secor, Alyona Ihnatiuk, Anna Shapoval, Misti McDowell, Larisa Hetman, Anjuli D. Wagner, Jillian Pintye, Kristin Beima-Sofie, Matthew R. Golden and Nancy Puttkammer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:328
  13. Currently, culture methods are commonly used in clinical tests to detect pathogenic fungi including Candida spp. Nonetheless, these methods are cumbersome and time-consuming, thereby leading to considerable diffi...

    Authors: Qingmei Yao, Yuan He, Liehua Deng, Dafeng Chen, Yuanli Zhang, Hui Luo and Wei Lei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:326
  14. Our aim was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of difficult-to-treat HIV in the current Swedish HIV cohort and to compare treatment outcomes between people with difficult and non-difficult-to-treat ...

    Authors: Olof Elvstam, Viktor Dahl, Anna Weibull Wärnberg, Susanne von Stockenström and Aylin Yilmaz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:325
  15. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequntly accompanied by venous thromboembolism (VTE), and its mechanism may be related to the abnormal inflammation and immune status of COVID-19 patients. It has been p...

    Authors: Haiyu Liu, Ningjing Guo, Qixian Zheng, Qianyuan Zhang, Jinghan Chen, Yuanyuan Cai, Qiong Luo, Qian Xu, Xiangqi Chen, Sheng Yang and Suyun Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:324
  16. Pasteurella multocida is a zoonotic pathogen that mainly causes local skin and soft tissue infections in the human body through cat and dog bites. It rarely causes bacteraemia (or sepsis) and meningitis. We repor...

    Authors: Yijun Zhu, Fang Zhu, Xiaoyun Shan and Jingchao Shi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:323
  17. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 is a rare and serious medical condition. This study aims to review the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, outcomes, and...

    Authors: Eman Shhada, Hussein Hamdar, Ali Alakbar Nahle, Diana Mourad, Basheer Khalil and Sawssan Ali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:322
  18. Multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus continues to influence treatment complications in clinical settings globally. Multidrug-resistant-S. aureus (MDR-SA) is often genetically driven by resistance markers...

    Authors: Martina C. Agbo, Ifeoma M. Ezeonu, Beatrice O. Onodagu, Chukwuemeka C. Ezeh, Chizoba A. Ozioko and Stephen C. Emencheta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:320
  19. Dengue is an important public health problem, which caused by the dengue virus (DENV), a single-stranded RNA virus consisted of four serotypes. Central nervus system (CNS) impairment in dengue usually results ...

    Authors: Xingyu Leng, Huiqin Yang, Lingzhai Zhao, Jiamin Feng, Kanghong Jin, Lu Liao and Fuchun Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:319
  20. Childhood vaccination against hepatitis B has been recommended in Germany since 1995. WHO defines a primary vaccination series as successful if the initial hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) level is ≥ 10...

    Authors: Ida Sperle, Sofie Gillesberg Lassen, Martin Schlaud, Achim Dörre, Sandra Dudareva, Christina Poethko-Müller and Thomas Harder
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:318
  21. Cases of mpox have been reported worldwide since May 2022. Limited knowledge exists regarding the long-term course of this disease. To assess sequelae in terms of scarring and quality of life (QoL) in mpox pat...

    Authors: Christoph Zeyen, Maria Kinberger, Helene Kriedemann, Frieder Pfäfflin, Pinkus Tober-Lau, Leu Huang, Victor Max Corman, Alexander Nast, Leif Erik Sander, Florian Kurth and Ricardo Niklas Werner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:317
  22. In 2022, the WHO reported that 29.8 million people around the world were living with HIV (PLHIV) and receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), including 25‌ 375 people in Gabon (54% of all those living with HI...

    Authors: Guy Francis Nzengui-Nzengui, Gaël Mourembou, Hervé M’boyis-Kamdem, Ayawa Claudine Kombila-Koumavor and Angélique Ndjoyi-Mbiguino
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:316
  23. This study aims to explore the infection and age distribution of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Herpes simplex virus type II (HSV II) among the outpatients...

    Authors: Jiancheng Zeng, Tingli Wu, Laiping Wang, Liumin Yu, Hua Lin and Zhanfei Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:315
  24. Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), which has been classified by the World Health Organization as one of the top infectious diseases requiring prioritized research. Previous stud...

    Authors: Xia Wang, Xianwei Ye, Ruihua Li, Xiaodong Zai, Mingda Hu, Shaoyan Wang, Hongguang Ren, Yuan Jin, Junjie Xu and Junjie Yue
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:314
  25. International guidelines recommend routine screening for syphilis (aetiological agent: Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum) amongst key populations and vulnerable populations using tests detecting treponemal a...

    Authors: Lorenzo Gios, Massimo Mirandola, Maddalena Cordioli, Antonella Zorzi, Nigel Sherriff, Jaime Vera, Dominika Wlazly, Mohammed Osman Hassan-Ibrahim, Valeska Padovese, Anabel Darmanin, Rosanna W. Peeling, Magnus Unemo, Karel Blondeel and Igor Toskin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24(Suppl 1):313

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 24 Supplement 1

  26. Availability and accessibility of Antiretroviral drugs (ARV’s) improve the lives of People living with HIV (PLHIV) by improving client’s immune system to overcome infections and prevent the development of AIDS...

    Authors: Eric Mboggo, Expeditho Mtisi, Stella E. Mushy, Simon Mkawe, Frida Ngalesoni, Aisa Muya, Edwin Kilimba, Denice Kamugumya and Boniface Silvan Mlay
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:312
  27. Bats are a reservoir for many viruses causing haemorrhagic fevers. Proximity to bats is a risk factor for virus spillover to animals and humans. We conducted this study to assess knowledge, perceptions, and ex...

    Authors: Lesley Rose Ninsiima, Luke Nyakarahuka, Steven Kisaka, Collins GK. Atuheire, Lawrence Mugisha, Terence Odoch, Javier Sánchez Romano, Jörn Klein, Siobhan M. Mor and Clovice Kankya
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:311
  28. Escherichia coli is a common fecal coliform, facultative aerobic, gram-negative bacterium. Pathogenic strains of such microbes have evolved to cause diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and septicemias. The emerg...

    Authors: Tamirat Salile Sada and Tesfaye Sisay Tessema
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:310
  29. Early during the COVID-19 pandemic, it was important to better understand transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Household contacts of infected individuals are particularly at ris...

    Authors: Anne Emanuels, Amanda M. Casto, Jessica Heimonen, Jessica O’Hanlon, Eric J. Chow, Constance Ogokeh, Melissa A. Rolfes, Peter D. Han, James P. Hughes, Timothy M. Uyeki, Christian Frazar, Erin Chung, Lea M. Starita, Janet A. Englund and Helen Y. Chu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:309
  30. Scedosporium apiospermum (S. apiospermum) belongs to the asexual form of Pseudallescheria boydii and is widely distributed in various environments. S. apiospermum is the most common cause of pulmonary infection; ...

    Authors: Jingru Han, Lifang Liang, Qingshu Li, Ruihang Deng, Chenyang Liu, Xuekai Wu, Yuxin Zhang, Ruowen Zhang and Haiyun Dai
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:308
  31. Infections are one of the most common causes of death after lung transplant (LT). However, the benefit of ‘targeted’ prophylaxis in LT recipients pre-colonized by Gram-negative (GN) bacteria is still unclear.

    Authors: Sabrina Congedi, Arianna Peralta, Luisa Muraro, Martina Biscaro, Tommaso Pettenuzzo, Nicolò Sella, Silvia Crociani, Arméla Anne-Sabine Tagne, Ida Caregnato, Francesco Monteleone, Elisa Rossi, Gabriella Roca, Silvia Manfrin, Serena Marinello, Maria Mazzitelli, Andrea Dell’Amore…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:307
  32. Bloodstream infections (BSI) are highly prevalent in hospitalized patients requiring intensive care. They are among the most serious infections and are highly associated with sepsis or septic shock, which can ...

    Authors: Lei Wang, Li Zhang, Xiaolong Huang, Hao Xu and Wei Huang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:306
  33. There is controversy concerning the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and osteoporosis. This study is to examine the causal relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis a...

    Authors: Ling Zhang, Daya Zhang, Ling Wei, Yan Zhou, Ximei Li, Runxiang Chen, Xiaodong Zhang, Shiju Chen and Feihu Bai
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:305
  34. To effectively promote vaccine uptake, it is important to understand which people are most and least inclined to be vaccinated and why. In this study, we examined predictors of COVID-19 vaccine uptake and reas...

    Authors: Alistair Thorpe, Angela Fagerlin, Frank A. Drews, Holly Shoemaker, Federica S. Brecha and Laura D. Scherer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:304
  35. Diarrhea is a serious health problem in children under the age of five that is both preventable and treatable. In low-income countries like Ethiopia, children under the age five years frequently experience dia...

    Authors: Zewudalem Getachew, Nega Asefa, Tigist Gashaw, Abdi Birhanu, Adera Debella, Bikila Balis, Usmael Jibro, Sina Tolera, Aboma Motuma, Mulugeta Gamachu, Alemayehu Deressa, Fethia Mohammed, Moti Tolera, Addis Eyeberu, Lemma Demissie Regassa and Ibsa Mussa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:303
  36. Influenza viruses cause pneumonia in approximately one-third of cases, and pneumonia is an important cause of death. The aim was to identify risk factors associated with severity and those that could predict t...

    Authors: M. I. Fullana Barceló, F. Artigues Serra, A. R. Millan Pons, J. Asensio Rodriguez, A. Ferre Beltran, M. del Carmen Lopez Bilbao, J. Reina Prieto and M. Riera Jaume
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:302
  37. In Malawi, female sex workers (FSW) have high HIV incidence and regular testing is suggested. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a safe and acceptable alternative to standard testing services. This study assessed; wh...

    Authors: Paul Mee, Melissa Neuman, Moses Kumwenda, Wezzie S. Lora, Simon Sikwese, Mwiza Sambo, Katherine Fielding, Pitchaya P. Indravudh, Karin Hatzold, Cheryl Johnson, Elizabeth. L. Corbett and Nicola Desmond
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 22(Suppl 1):978

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 22 Supplement 1

  38. Globally, 80 million people are suffering from chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Sofosbuvir ribavirin-based anti-HCV therapy is associated with anemia and other adverse effects. Polymorphisms of Inosi...

    Authors: Sameen Amjed, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza Saleem, Sajjad Ullah, Shahzad Latif, Shabana, Junaid Jafar and Ahmad Bilal Waqar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:301
  39. Symptoms of COVID-19 including fatigue and dyspnea, may persist for weeks to months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study compared self-reported disability among SARS-CoV-2-positive and negative persons with ...

    Authors: Jennifer P. King, Jessie R. Chung, James G. Donahue, Emily T. Martin, Aleda M. Leis, Arnold S. Monto, Manjusha Gaglani, Kayan Dunnigan, Chandni Raiyani, Sharon Saydah, Brendan Flannery and Edward A. Belongia
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:300
  40. There are currently limited data regarding the clinical and economic significance of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and bone and joint infections in Australian people who inject drugs (PWID).

    Authors: B. Morgan, R. Lancaster, B. Boyagoda, R. Ananda, LO Attwood, D. Jacka and I. Woolley
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:299
  41. The significant proportion of asymptomatic patients and the scarcity of genotypic analysis of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), mainly among men who have sex with men (MSM), triggers a high incidence of underdia...

    Authors: David Sánchez, Josep Ferrer, Estela Giménez, Ignacio Torres, Diego Carretero, María Jesús Alcaraz, María Jesús Castaño, David Navarro and Eliseo Albert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:298
  42. Dengue is caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus called dengue virus, which is spread by Aedes mosquito species. It is a fast-growing acute febrile disease with potentially lethal consequences that is a globa...

    Authors: Eshetu Nigussie, Daniel Atlaw, Getahun Negash, Habtamu Gezahegn, Girma Baressa, Alelign Tasew and Demisu Zembaba
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:297
  43. Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a severe but rarely seen fungal infection presenting in patients with hematologic malignancies after a prolonged duration of neutropenia. A high index of suspicion is ...

    Authors: Allison Graeter, Dasom Lee, Guy Handley, Aliyah Baluch and Olga Klinkova
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:296
  44. Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed forms of cancer, and it is associated with several common symptoms and signs such as rectal bleeding, altered bowel habits, abdominal pain, anemia, and...

    Authors: Kuan-Yu Lu, Wei-En Tung, Chang-Jung Chiang, Yueh-Ying Hsieh, Chia-Hsien Chen, Mei-Hui Lee, Min-Hsuan Yen, Po-Wen Lu and Lien-Chen Wu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:293
  45. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global concern, with Indigenous Peoples bearing the highest burden. Previous studies exploring HCV prevalence within Indigenous populations have predominantly used ...

    Authors: Noel Tsui, Gabriel B. Tjong, Abigail J. Simms, Sarah A. Edwards and Shelley Cripps
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2024 24:287

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