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  1. We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initia...

    Authors: Dianne J Marais, Candice Sampson, Anthea Jeftha, Dherendra Dhaya, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Lynette Denny, Edward P Rybicki, Eric Van Der Walt, Lawrence XG Stephen and Anna-Lise Williamson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:95
  2. Injecting drug use is a key risk factor, for several infections of public health importance, especially hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). In England and Wales, where less than 1% of the population are l...

    Authors: AJ Sutton, NJ Gay, WJ Edmunds, VD Hope, ON Gill and M Hickman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:93
  3. Infectious diseases are often studied by characterising the population structure of the pathogen using genetic markers. An unresolved problem is the effective quantification of the extent of transmission using...

    Authors: Mark M Tanaka, Renault Phong and Andrew R Francis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:92
  4. This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as on cell proliferation in p...

    Authors: Mostafa K El-Awady, Samar S Youssef, Moataza H Omran, Ashraf A Tabll, Wael T El Garf and Ahmed M Salem
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:91
  5. Microbicides must protect against STD pathogens without causing unacceptable toxic effects. Microbicides based on nonoxynol-9 (N9) and other detergents disrupt sperm, HSV and HIV membranes, and these agents ar...

    Authors: Richard A Cone, Timothy Hoen, XiXi Wong, Raed Abusuwwa, Deborah J Anderson and Thomas R Moench
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:90
  6. As a greater number of HIV-infected patients survive despite profound immunodepression due to medical progress, we face complex infection with multiple agents in AIDS-patients.

    Authors: Clarisse Rovery, Jean Marc Rolain, Hubert Lepidi, Christine Zandotti, Jacques Moreau and Philippe Brouqui
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:89
  7. Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS ...

    Authors: Vera J Adams, Miles B Markus, Zilungile L Kwitshana, Muhammad A Dhansay, Lize van der Merwe, Gerhard Walzl and John E Fincham
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:88
  8. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a ...

    Authors: Livia Di Trani, Barbara Bedini, Isabella Donatelli, Laura Campitelli, Barbara Chiappini, Maria Alessandra De Marco, Mauro Delogu, Canio Buonavoglia and Gabriele Vaccari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:87
  9. Helicobacter cinaedi is a rare pathogen in humans, occurring mostly in immuno-compromised patients, with a high potential for recurrence. We describe a case of a patient with lymphoma hospitalized for chemothera...

    Authors: Ilker Uçkay, Jorge Garbino, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Béatrice Ninet, Peter Rohner and Véronique Jacomo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:86
  10. Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phas...

    Authors: Paul K Drain, Jared M Baeten, Julie Overbaugh, Mark H Wener, Daniel D Bankson, Ludo Lavreys, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Jeckoniah O Ndinya-Achola and R Scott McClelland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:85
  11. Cytokines play important roles in antiviral action. We examined whether polymorphisms of IFN-γ,TNF-α and IL-10 affect the susceptibility to and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

    Authors: Wai Po Chong, WK Eddie Ip, Gloria Hoi Wan Tso, Man Wai Ng, Wilfred Hing Sang Wong, Helen Ka Wai Law, Raymond WH Yung, Eudora Y Chow, KL Au, Eric YT Chan, Wilina Lim, JS Malik Peiris and Yu Lung Lau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:82
  12. Evidence for an increased prevalence of candidaemia and for high associated mortality in the 1990s led to a number of different recommendations concerning the management of at risk patients as well as an incre...

    Authors: Boualem Sendid, Angélique Cotteau, Nadine François, Annie D'Haveloose, Annie Standaert, Daniel Camus and Daniel Poulain
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:80
  13. previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP) has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be ...

    Authors: Galo Peralta, María José Rodríguez-Lera, Jose Carlos Garrido, Luis Ansorena and María Pía Roiz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:79
  14. Despite bacteraemia is present in the majority of patients with pneumococcal, little is known about the influence of the systemic infection on the meningeal inflammatory response.

    Authors: Christian ∅stergaard, Terence O'Reilly, Christian Brandt, Niels Frimodt-Møller and Jens D Lundgren
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:78
  15. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in many provinces with high incidence in mainland China, although integrated intervention measures including rodent control, environment management and v...

    Authors: Liqun Fang, Lei Yan, Song Liang, Sake J de Vlas, Dan Feng, Xiaona Han, Wenjuan Zhao, Bing Xu, Ling Bian, Hong Yang, Peng Gong, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Wuchun Cao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:77
  16. Post-sternotomy mediastinitis (PSM) is a devastating surgical complication affecting 1–3% of patients that undergo cardiac surgery. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogen...

    Authors: Gulden Ersoz, Barlas Naim Aytacoglu, Nehir Sucu, Lulufer Tamer, Ismet Bayindir, Necmi Kose, Ali Kaya and Murat Dikmengil
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:76
  17. Disseminated leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease, mostly due to L. braziliensis, which has clinical and histopathological features distinct from cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Authors: Paulo TG Leopoldo, Paulo RL Machado, Roque P Almeida, Albert Schriefer, Angela Giudice, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, John L Ho, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Olívia Bacellar and Edgar M Carvalho
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:75
  18. Daptomycin is a novel cyclic lipopeptide whose bactericidal activity is not affected by current antibiotic resistance mechanisms displayed by S. aureus clinical isolates. This study reports the therapeutic activi...

    Authors: Heinz J Schaad, Manuela Bento, Daniel P Lew and Pierre Vaudaux
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:74
  19. Fungal mural endocarditis is a rare entity in which the antemortem diagnosis is seldom made. Seven cases of mural endocarditis caused by Candida spp. have been collected from literature and six of these patients ...

    Authors: Víctor López-Ciudad, María J Castro-Orjales, Cristóbal León, César Sanz-Rodríguez, María J de la Torre-Fernández, Miguel A Pérez de Juan-Romero, María D Collell-Llach and María D Díaz-López
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:73
  20. The optimal treatment regimen and duration of the therapy is still controversial in spinal brucellosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, adverse drug reactions, complications and cost of cipro...

    Authors: Emine Alp, Rahmi Kemal Koc, Ahmet Candan Durak, Orhan Yildiz, Bilgehan Aygen, Bulent Sumerkan and Mehmet Doganay
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:72
  21. Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria to lung cells is a first step in the progression from asymptomatic carriage to pneumonia. Adherence abilities vary widely among S. pneumoniae patient isolates. In th...

    Authors: Rachel L Robson, Natalie A Reed and Rebecca T Horvat
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:71
  22. The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology...

    Authors: Bonita E Lee, Rupesh Chawla, Joanne M Langley, Sarah E Forgie, Mohammed Al-Hosni, Krista Baerg, Entesar Husain, James Strong, Joan L Robinson, Upton Allen, Barbara J Law, Simon Dobson and H Dele Davies
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:68
  23. Recent data demonstrate the utility of the string test for the diagnosis of sputum-scarce HIV-associated TB in adults. We hypothesized that, if well-tolerated by children, this simple tool might offer a breakt...

    Authors: Felicia Chow, Nora Espiritu, Robert H Gilman, Rosmery Gutierrez, Sonia Lopez, A Roderick Escombe, Carlton AW Evans and David AJ Moore
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:67
  24. New tools are required to improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment, including enhanced ability to compare new treatment strategies. The ELISPOT assay uses Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens to ...

    Authors: Alexander M Aiken, Philip C Hill, Annette Fox, Keith PWJ McAdam, Dolly Jackson-Sillah, Moses D Lugos, Simon A Donkor, Richard A Adegbola and Roger H Brookes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:66
  25. Patients with HIV infection are at risk of co-infection with HBV, as the routes of transmission are shared and thus immunization with HBV vaccine could be protective in them. The aim of the present study was t...

    Authors: Neelam Pasricha, Usha Datta, Yogesh Chawla, Surjit Singh, Sunil K Arora, Archana Sud, Ranjana W Minz, Biman Saikia, Haqeeqat Singh, Isaac James and Shobha Sehgal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:65
  26. The way various antiretroviral drugs and drug combinations affect HIV-1 infection in the central nervous system is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) st...

    Authors: Aylin Yilmaz, Dietmar Fuchs, Lars Hagberg, Ulrika Nillroth, Lars Ståhle, Jan-Olof Svensson and Magnus Gisslén
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:63
  27. Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections.

    Authors: Donato Rigante, Teresa Spanu, Lorenzo Nanni, Assunta Tornesello, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Tiziana D'Inzeo, Achille Stabile and Giovanni Fadda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:61
  28. Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is an acute febrile, zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted to humans by the brown dogtick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Nearly four hundred cases are reported...

    Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Valentina Frasca Polara, Raffaella Rubino and Lucina Titone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:60
  29. Patients accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa frequently have very advanced immunodeficiency. Previous data suggest that such patients may have diminished capacity for CD4 ...

    Authors: Stephen D Lawn, Landon Myer, Linda-Gail Bekker and Robin Wood
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:59
  30. Influenza is characterized by seasonal outbreaks, often with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is also known to be a cause of significant amount secondary bacterial infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae i...

    Authors: Katarzyna Grabowska, Liselotte Högberg, Pasi Penttinen, Åke Svensson and Karl Ekdahl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:58
  31. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains susceptible to penicillin, however, resistance to second-line antimicrobials, clindamycin and erythromycin, has increased since 1996. We describe the age-specific antibiotic su...

    Authors: Stephanie M Borchardt, Joan H DeBusscher, Patricia A Tallman, Shannon D Manning, Carl F Marrs, Terrence A Kurzynski and Betsy Foxman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:57
  32. For its low cost and ease of handling, the mouse remains the preferred experimental animal for preclinical tests. To avoid the interaction of the animal immune system, in vivo antibiotic pharmacodynamic studie...

    Authors: Andres F Zuluaga, Beatriz E Salazar, Carlos A Rodriguez, Ana X Zapata, Maria Agudelo and Omar Vesga
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:55
  33. The role of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the etiology and in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in patients with urinary tract infection has not been well clarified. For this reason we have evaluated th...

    Authors: Mario Bonadio, Silvia Costarelli, Giovanna Morelli and Tiziana Tartaglia
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:54
  34. Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) has relevant clinical impact especially in relation to drug resistance determinants. The PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a common...

    Authors: Andrea Endimiani, Francesco Luzzaro, Beatrice Pini, Gianfranco Amicosante, Gian Maria Rossolini and Antonio Q Toniolo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:52
  35. Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were foun...

    Authors: Ellen De Backer, Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Geert Claeys, Gerda Verschraegen, Marleen Temmerman and Mario Vaneechoutte
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:51
  36. Most of the studies about invasive Candida infections in cancer patients have focused on haematological patients. The aim of this study was to provide information about risk factors for candidaemia in patients wi...

    Authors: Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto, Daniela Dornelles Rosa, Lidia Rosi Medeiros and Luiz Carlos Severo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:50
  37. Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare but associated with high mortality. Knowledge about the disease is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical progno...

    Authors: Michael Pedersen, Thomas L Benfield, Peter Skinhoej and Allan G Jensen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:49
  38. The whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is recommended in some settings as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST). Outcomes from field implementation of the IGRA for routine tuberculosi...

    Authors: Puneet Kumar Dewan, Jennifer Grinsdale, Sally Liska, Ernest Wong, Robert Fallstad and L Masae Kawamura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:47
  39. It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes...

    Authors: Vanessa Cumming, Susanna Ali, Terrence Forrester, Karen Roye-Green and Marvin Reid
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:46
  40. Digital clubbing is a sign of chest disease known since the time of Hippocrates. Its association with tuberculosis (TB) has not been well studied, particularly in Africa where TB is common. The prevalence of c...

    Authors: Henry Ddungu, John L Johnson, Marek Smieja and Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:45

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