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  1. the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of...

    Authors: Tariq A Madani, Ali M Albarrak, Mohammad A Alhazmi, Tarik A Alazraqi, Abdulahakeem O Althaqafi and Abdulrahman H Ishaq
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:135
  2. Schistosomiasis affects the reproductive health of women. Described sequelae are ectopic pregnancy, infertility, abortion, and cervical lesions and symptoms mimicking cervical cancer and STIs. There are indica...

    Authors: Britta Swai, Gabriele Poggensee, Sabina Mtweve and Ingela Krantz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:134
  3. End stage renal disease patients are at risk of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections. The first reports of VRE isolation were from hemodialysis patients. However, to date, VRE fecal colonization ...

    Authors: Maria Cecília S Freitas, Alvaro Pacheco-Silva, Dulce Barbosa, Suzane Silbert, Hélio Sader, Ricardo Sesso and Luis Fernando A Camargo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:133
  4. Several acute illness severity scores have been proposed for evaluating patients on admission to intensive care units but these have not been compared for patients with nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI)....

    Authors: Alexandre R Marra, Gonzalo ML Bearman, Richard P Wenzel and Michael B Edmond
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:132
  5. Purified water for pharmaceutical purposes must be free of microbial contamination and pyrogens. Even with the additional sanitary and disinfecting treatments applied to the system (sequential operational stag...

    Authors: Priscila G Mazzola, Alzira MS Martins and Thereza CV Penna
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:131
  6. The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular ...

    Authors: Valentina Kolodkina, Leonid Titov, Tatyana Sharapa, Francine Grimont, Patrick AD Grimont and Androulla Efstratiou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:129
  7. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pathogen that can cause severe illness in infants and young children. In this study, we assessed whether data on RSV collected by the European Influenza Survei...

    Authors: Tamara J Meerhoff, Douglas Fleming, Ann Smith, Anne Mosnier, Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber and W John Paget
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:128
  8. Combined kidney pancreas transplantation (PTx) evolved as excellent treatment for diabetic nephropathy. Infections remain common and serious complications.

    Authors: Natalie Berger, Sigmund Guggenbichler, Wolfgang Steurer, Christian Margreiter, Gert Mayer, Reinhold Kafka, Walter Mark, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Raimund Margreiter and Hugo Bonatti
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:127
  9. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) continues to be a problem for clinicians worldwide. However, few data on the antibiotic susceptibility patterns ...

    Authors: Adebayo O Shittu and Johnson Lin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:125
  10. Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unkn...

    Authors: Hoang Lan Phuong, Peter J de Vries, Tran TT Nga, Phan T Giao, Le Q Hung, Tran Q Binh, Nguyen V Nam, Nico Nagelkerke and Piet A Kager
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:123
  11. In women, Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucl...

    Authors: Janneke E den Hartog, Sander Ouburg, Jolande A Land, Joseph M Lyons, James I Ito, A Salvador Peña and Servaas A Morré
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:122
  12. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) are caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia rickettsii, respectively. The pathogenesis of RMSF relates to rickettsia-mediated vasc...

    Authors: Kerry L Dierberg and J Stephen Dumler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:121
  13. Several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-kits are commercially available for the rapid diagnosis of dengue infection, and have demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in paired serum samples. In...

    Authors: Ole Wichmann, Klaus Stark, Pei-Yun Shu, Matthias Niedrig, Christina Frank, Jyh-Hsiung Huang and Tomas Jelinek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:120
  14. Spread of antibiotic resistance in hospitals is a well-known problem, but studies investigating the importance of factors potentially related to the spread of resistant bacteria in outpatients are sparse.

    Authors: Susanne Lietzau, Elke Raum, Heike von Baum, Reinhard Marre and Hermann Brenner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:119
  15. AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis has a high mortality. Fluconazole was the only systemic antifungal therapy available in our centre. From 1999–2001 we used low-dose fluconazole (200 mg daily initially),...

    Authors: CF Schaars, GA Meintjes, C Morroni, FA Post and G Maartens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:118
  16. Emergence and global dissemination of multiresistant strains of enteric pathogens is a very concerning problem from both epidemiological and Public Health points of view. Shigella sonnei is the serogroup of Shige...

    Authors: Caterina Mammina, Aurora Aleo, Cristina Romani and Antonino Nastasi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:117
  17. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes severe infections in very young infants and invasive disease in pregnant women and adults with underlying medical conditions. GBS pathogenicity varies between and within serotyp...

    Authors: Shannon D Manning, Moran Ki, Carl F Marrs, Kiersten J Kugeler, Stephanie M Borchardt, Carol J Baker and Betsy Foxman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:116
  18. Lemierre's syndrome presents a classic clinical picture, the pathophysiology of which remains obscure. Attempts have been made to trace genetic predispositions that modify the host detection of pathogen or the...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Constantin, Jean-Paul Mira, Renaud Guerin, Sophie Cayot-Constantin, Olivier Lesens, Florence Gourdon, Jean-Pierre Romaszko, Philippe Linval, Henri Laurichesse and Jean-Etienne Bazin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:115
  19. Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis ...

    Authors: Mehmet Horoz, Cengiz Bolukbas, Filiz F Bolukbas, Mehmet Aslan, Ahmet O Koylu, Sahbettin Selek and Ozcan Erel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:114
  20. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefor...

    Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Antonio Sifuentes-Álvarez, Sergio Guadalupe Narro-Duarte, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Juan Humberto Díaz-García, Oliver Liesenfeld, Sergio Arturo Martínez-García and Arturo Canales-Molina
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:113
  21. Recent advances in characterizing the immune recovery of HIV-1-infected people have highlighted the importance of the thymus for peripheral T-cell diversity and function. The aim of this study was to investiga...

    Authors: Salvador Resino, Elena Seoane, Alicia Pérez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal and Maria Á Muñoz-Fernández
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:112
  22. No data currently exist about use of antibiotics to prevent surgical site infections (SSI) among patients undergoing appendectomy in Thailand. We therefore examined risk factors, use, and efficacy of prophylac...

    Authors: Nongyao Kasatpibal, Mette Nørgaard, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Silom Jamulitrat and Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:111
  23. The population of Nukufetau, a remote coral atoll island in Tuvalu in the Western Pacific, received annual mass drug administration (MDA) of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole under the Pacific Elimination of ...

    Authors: Rick Speare, Falatea Fab Latasi, Tekaai Nelesone, Sonia Harmen, Wayne Melrose, David Durrheim and Jorg Heukelbach
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:110
  24. In a substantial proportion of respiratory tract diseases of suspected infectious origin, the etiology is unknown. Some of these cases may be caused by the recently described human bocavirus (hBoV). The aim of...

    Authors: Benedikt Weissbrich, Florian Neske, Jörg Schubert, Franz Tollmann, Katharina Blath, Kerstin Blessing and Hans Wolfgang Kreth
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:109
  25. Noroviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause gastroenteritis in the community and in semi-closed institutions such as hospitals. During outbreaks, multiple units within a hospital are often affected,...

    Authors: Ben A Lopman, Chris Gallimore, Jim J Gray, Ian B Vipond, Nick Andrews, Joyshri Sarangi, Mark H Reacher and David W Brown
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:108
  26. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) in children has special features and consequently, results obtained from clinical trials with antiretroviral drugs in adults may not be representative of children. Nelfinavir (NF...

    Authors: Salvador Resino, Beatriz Larrú, Jose Ma Bellón, Rosa Resino, Ma Isabel de José, Marisa Navarro, Juan Antonio Léon, José Tomás Ramos, Ma José Mellado and Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:107
  27. Host genetic factors may play a role in susceptibility and resistance to SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. The study was carried out to investigate the association between the genetic polymorph...

    Authors: Jing He, Dan Feng, Sake J de Vlas, Hongwei Wang, Arnaud Fontanet, Panhe Zhang, Sabine Plancoulaine, Fang Tang, Lin Zhan, Hong Yang, Tianbao Wang, Jan H Richardus, J Dik F Habbema and Wuchun Cao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:106
  28. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is biologically different from other genotypes. We aimed to clinically and immunologically compare human tuberculosis caused by Beijing and non-Beijing strains.

    Authors: Yong-Jiang Sun, TK Lim, Adrian Kheng Yeow Ong, Benjamin Choon Heng Ho, Geok Teng Seah and Nicholas I Paton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:105
  29. The speed and sensitivity of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have made it a popular method for the detection of microbiological agents in both research and clinical specimens. For the detection and g...

    Authors: Mark W Pandori, John Lei, Ernest H Wong, Jeffrey Klausner and Sally Liska
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:104
  30. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of death among infectious diseases worldwide. Despite its low incidence rates in countries of Western Europe and North America, the resurgence of TB in Easte...

    Authors: Vasilios German, Georgios Giannakos, Petros Kopterides and Matthew E Falagas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:102
  31. Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and identified ris...

    Authors: Wasim Jafri, Nadim Jafri, Javed Yakoob, Muhammad Islam, Syed Farhan Ali Tirmizi, Tazeen Jafar, Saeed Akhtar, Saeed Hamid, Hasnain Ali Shah and Sheikh Qamaruddin Nizami
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:101
  32. Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative agent of melioidosis. Increasing resistance of the disease to antibiotics is a severe problem in treatment regime and has led to intensification of the search for new ...

    Authors: R Perumal Samy, A Pachiappan, P Gopalakrishnakone, Maung M Thwin, Yap E Hian, Vincent TK Chow, Ho Bow and Joseph T Weng
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:100
  33. The aim of our study is to describe a fast molecular method, able to distinguish and quantize the two different genotypes (652 and JP2) of an important periodontal pathogen: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. ...

    Authors: Germano Orrù, Mario Francesco Marini, Maria Laura Ciusa, Daniela Isola, Marina Cotti, Marco Baldoni, Vincenzo Piras, Elisabetta Pisano and Caterina Montaldo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:98
  34. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Isoniazid (INH) is recommended for treatment of latent TB infection, however non-adherence is common...

    Authors: Tom A Szakacs, Douglas Wilson, D William Cameron, Michael Clark, Paul Kocheleff, F James Muller and Anne E McCarthy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:97
  35. Schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people in the developing world with a further 400 million people at risk of infection. The aim of this study was to identify a single ant...

    Authors: Francisca Mutapi, Takafira Mduluza, Natalia Gomez-Escobar, William F Gregory, Cecilia Fernandez, Nicholas Midzi and Rick M Maizels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:96
  36. We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initia...

    Authors: Dianne J Marais, Candice Sampson, Anthea Jeftha, Dherendra Dhaya, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Lynette Denny, Edward P Rybicki, Eric Van Der Walt, Lawrence XG Stephen and Anna-Lise Williamson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:95
  37. Patients prescribed intravenous (IV) glycopeptides usually remain in hospital until completion of this treatment. Some of these patients could be discharged earlier if a switch to an oral antibiotic was made. ...

    Authors: Mohammed Desai, Bryony Dean Franklin, Alison H Holmes, Sarah Trust, Mike Richards, Ann Jacklin and Kathleen B Bamford
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:94
  38. Injecting drug use is a key risk factor, for several infections of public health importance, especially hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). In England and Wales, where less than 1% of the population are l...

    Authors: AJ Sutton, NJ Gay, WJ Edmunds, VD Hope, ON Gill and M Hickman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:93
  39. Infectious diseases are often studied by characterising the population structure of the pathogen using genetic markers. An unresolved problem is the effective quantification of the extent of transmission using...

    Authors: Mark M Tanaka, Renault Phong and Andrew R Francis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:92
  40. This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as on cell proliferation in p...

    Authors: Mostafa K El-Awady, Samar S Youssef, Moataza H Omran, Ashraf A Tabll, Wael T El Garf and Ahmed M Salem
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:91
  41. Microbicides must protect against STD pathogens without causing unacceptable toxic effects. Microbicides based on nonoxynol-9 (N9) and other detergents disrupt sperm, HSV and HIV membranes, and these agents ar...

    Authors: Richard A Cone, Timothy Hoen, XiXi Wong, Raed Abusuwwa, Deborah J Anderson and Thomas R Moench
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:90
  42. As a greater number of HIV-infected patients survive despite profound immunodepression due to medical progress, we face complex infection with multiple agents in AIDS-patients.

    Authors: Clarisse Rovery, Jean Marc Rolain, Hubert Lepidi, Christine Zandotti, Jacques Moreau and Philippe Brouqui
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:89
  43. Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS ...

    Authors: Vera J Adams, Miles B Markus, Zilungile L Kwitshana, Muhammad A Dhansay, Lize van der Merwe, Gerhard Walzl and John E Fincham
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:88
  44. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a ...

    Authors: Livia Di Trani, Barbara Bedini, Isabella Donatelli, Laura Campitelli, Barbara Chiappini, Maria Alessandra De Marco, Mauro Delogu, Canio Buonavoglia and Gabriele Vaccari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:87
  45. Helicobacter cinaedi is a rare pathogen in humans, occurring mostly in immuno-compromised patients, with a high potential for recurrence. We describe a case of a patient with lymphoma hospitalized for chemothera...

    Authors: Ilker Uçkay, Jorge Garbino, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Béatrice Ninet, Peter Rohner and Véronique Jacomo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:86

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