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  1. Parapneumonic empyema continues to be a disease of significant morbidity and mortality among children despite recent advances in medical management. To date, only a limited number of studies have assessed the ...

    Authors: Batmunkh Nyambat, Paul E Kilgore, Dong Eun Yong, Dang Duc Anh, Chen-Hsun Chiu, Xuzhuang Shen, Luis Jodar, Timothy L Ng, Hans L Bock and William P Hausdorff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:90

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Viral load monitoring is not available for the vast majority of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. However, the practical utility of CD4 cell count measurements as an alter...

    Authors: Motasim Badri, Stephen D Lawn and Robin Wood

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:89

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Sleeping sickness (HAT) caused by T.b. rhodesiense is a major veterinary and human public health problem in Uganda. Previous studies have investigated spatial risk factors for T.b. rhodesiense at large geographic...

    Authors: Thomas Zoller, Eric M Fèvre, Susan C Welburn, Martin Odiit and Paul G Coleman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:88

    Content type: Research article

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  4. All mucosal epithelia, including those of the tubotympanium, are secreting a variety of antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMs). In our previous study, we showed the bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions...

    Authors: Haa-Yung Lee, Tamotsu Takeshita, Jun Shimada, Arsen Akopyan, Jeong-Im Woo, Huiqi Pan, Sung K Moon, Ali Andalibi, Rae-Kil Park, Sung-Ho Kang, Shin-Seok Kang, Robert Gellibolian and David J Lim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:87

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Dengue virus pathogenesis is not yet fully understood and the identification of patients at high risk for developing severe disease forms is still a great challenge in dengue patient care. During the present s...

    Authors: Fernando A Bozza, Oswaldo G Cruz, Sonia MO Zagne, Elzinandes L Azeredo, Rita MR Nogueira, Edson F Assis, Patricia T Bozza and Claire F Kubelka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:86

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Because the outcomes and sequelae after different types of brain injury (BI) are variable and difficult to predict, investigations on whether enhanced expressions of BI-associated biomarkers (BIABs), including...

    Authors: Chien-Wei Liao, Chia-Kwung Fan, Ting-Chang Kao, Dar-Der Ji, Kua-Eyre Su, Yun-Ho Lin and Wen-Long Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:84

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but also a common colonizer of the upper respiratory tract. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant pneumococcal strains h...

    Authors: Diana Karlsson, Andreas Jansson, Birgitta Henriques Normark and Patric Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:83

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is ...

    Authors: Guy-Roger Ndong-Atome, Maria Makuwa, Richard Njouom, Michel Branger, Francoise Brun-Vézinet, Antoine Mahé, Dominique Rousset and Mirdad Kazanji

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:82

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The study describes the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Gambian children

    Authors: Martin Antonio, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Ekow Biney, Tim Awine, John O'Callaghan, Valentin Pfluger, Godwin Enwere, Brown Okoko, Claire Oluwalana, Adeola Vaughan, Syed MA Zaman, Gerd Pluschke, Brian M Greenwood, Felicity Cutts and Richard A Adegbola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:81

    Content type: Research article

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  10. This study was conducted to evaluate drug resistance amongst bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients with particular emphasis on emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria and vancomy...

    Authors: Seema Irfan, Faiza Idrees, Vikram Mehraj, Faizah Habib, Salman Adil and Rumina Hasan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:80

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The nosocomial infections surveillance system must be strongly effective especially in highly critic areas, such as Intensive Care Units (ICU). These areas are frequently an epidemiological epicentre for trans...

    Authors: Carla Fontana, Marco Favaro, Silvia Minelli, Maria Cristina Bossa, Gian Piero Testore, Francesca Leonardis, Silvia Natoli and Cartesio Favalli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:79

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enteric, viral, infectious disease endemic in many developing countries such as Madagascar. Infection is often subclinical or asymptomatic in children; however, symptomatic acute ...

    Authors: Vaomalala Raharimanga, Jean-François Carod, Charles-Emile Ramarokoto, Jean-Baptiste Chrétien, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Antoine Talarmin and Vincent Richard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:78

    Content type: Research article

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  13. How HIV-1 enter into the eyes remains obscure. We postulated that HIV-1 Tat protein can alter the expression of specific tight-junction proteins and disturb the blood retinal barrier, and contributes to HIV tr...

    Authors: Ling Bai, Zhenping Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xiumei Li, Qiurong Yu, Haotian Lin and Wenhui Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:77

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and...

    Authors: Peter Hillemanns, J Gabrielle Breugelmans, Friederike Gieseking, Stève Bénard, Emilie Lamure, Kavi J Littlewood and Karl U Petry

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:76

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of new HIV infections in African countries are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Thus, the magnitude of HSV-2 infection in an area may suggest...

    Authors: Khadija I Yahya-Malima, Bjørg Evjen-Olsen, Mecky I Matee, Knut Fylkesnes and Lars Haarr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:75

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a cont...

    Authors: Uwem F Ekpo, Chiedu F Mafiana, Clement O Adeofun, Adewale RT Solarin and Adewumi B Idowu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:74

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains challenging. Culture and histopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are useful but have suboptimal sensitivity and in th...

    Authors: Prasanna D Khot, Daisy L Ko, Robert C Hackman and David N Fredricks

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:73

    Content type: Technical advance

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  18. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) results in excess morbidity and mortality, particularly among HIV-infected individuals. This study was conducted at a secondary level hospital serving communities wi...

    Authors: Graeme Meintjes, Hennie Schoeman, Chelsea Morroni, Douglas Wilson and Gary Maartens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:72

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic.

    Authors: Arne Simon, Roland A Ammann, Udo Bode, Gudrun Fleischhack, Hans-Martin Wenchel, Dorothee Schwamborn, Chara Gravou, Paul-Gerhardt Schlegel, Stefan Rutkowski, Claudia Dannenberg, Dieter Körholz, Hans Jürgen Laws and Michael H Kramer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:70

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Information regarding hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes circulating in Pakistan and various risk factors for their transmission are not known well. The specific objective of this study was to find out t...

    Authors: Muhammad Idrees and Sheikh Riazuddin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:69

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae results mainly from mutations in type II DNA topoisomerase genes and/or changes in the expression of outer membrane and efflux pumps. Several recent studies have indicat...

    Authors: Aihua Wang, Yonghong Yang, Quan Lu, Yi Wang, Yuan Chen, Li Deng, Hui Ding, Qiulian Deng, Hong Zhang, Chuanqing Wang, Lan Liu, Xiwei Xu, Li Wang and Xuzhuang Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:68

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Escherichia coli infections are frequent in ICU patients. The increased resistance to fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin/clavulanate of this pathogen mandates the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as...

    Authors: Agnès Meybeck, Jean-Damien Ricard, Guilène Barnaud, Mathieu Eveillard, Guillaume Chevrel, Roman Mounier and Didier Dreyfuss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:67

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. ...

    Authors: Julius Atashili, Linda Kalilani, Vidyunmala Seksaria and Emily E Sickbert-Bennett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:66

    Content type: Research article

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  24. QuantiFERON®TB Gold (QFT) is a promising blood test for tuberculosis infection but with few data so far from immigrant screening. The aim of this study was to compare results of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST)...

    Authors: Brita Askeland Winje, Fredrik Oftung, Gro Ellen Korsvold, Turid Mannsåker, Anette Skistad Jeppesen, Ingunn Harstad, Berit Tafjord Heier and Einar Heldal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:65

    Content type: Research article

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  25. An ultraviolet visible marker (UVM) was used to assess the cleaning compliance of housekeeping staff for toilets in a tertiary healthcare setting.

    Authors: Michelle J Alfa, Christine Dueck, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, Selena Papetti, Alana Wald, Evelyn Lo and Godfrey Harding

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:64

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapewo...

    Authors: Jernej Logar, Barbara Soba and Tadeja Kotar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:63

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Australia is developing a chlamydia screening program. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of young women to the introduction of chlamydia screening in Australian General Practice.

    Authors: Natasha L Pavlin, Rhian Parker, Christopher K Fairley, Jane M Gunn and Jane Hocking

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:62

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are considered an emerging disease in industrialized countries. In the Netherlands, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been associated with travel to high-endemic ...

    Authors: Katrine Borgen, Tineke Herremans, Erwin Duizer, Harry Vennema, Saskia Rutjes, Arnold Bosman, Ana Maria de Roda Husman and Marion Koopmans

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:61

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Multi drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) remains a major threat to public health, reinforced by recent reports about the clinical course of patients infected with extensively drug res...

    Authors: Stefan H Blaas, Ralf Mütterlein, Johannes Weig, Albert Neher, Bernd Salzberger, Norbert Lehn and Ludmila Naumann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:60

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The advantage of treatment interruptions (TIs) in salvage therapy remains controversial. Regardless, characterizations of the correlates of CD4 count fall during TI are important to identify since patients wit...

    Authors: Kenneth H Huang, Mona R Loutfy, Christos M Tsoukas and Nicole F Bernard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:59

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases a...

    Authors: Immaculada Pons, Isabel Sanfeliu, María Mercedes Nogueras, Montserrat Sala, Manuel Cervantes, M José Amengual and Ferran Segura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:58

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Genetic variations in MBL2 that reduce circulating levels and alter functional properties of the mannose binding lectin (MBL) have been associated with many autoimmune and infectious diseases. We examined whether...

    Authors: Elizabeth E Brown, Mingdong Zhang, Rebecca Zarin-Pass, Toralf Bernig, Fan-Chen Tseng, Nianqing Xiao, Meredith Yeager, Brian R Edlin, Stephen J Chanock and Thomas R O'Brien

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:57

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly bein...

    Authors: Anke Schaeffer and Birgit Henrich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:56

    Content type: Technical advance

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  34. In addition to their antimicrobial activity, antibiotics modulate cellular host defence. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is also a well known immunomodulator; however little is known about the in...

    Authors: Artur Bauhofer, Markus Huttel, Wilfried Lorenz, Daniel I Sessler and Alexander Torossian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:55

    Content type: Research article

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  35. A novel Ehrlichia, closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium, was recently discovered from Panola Mountain State Park, GA, USA. We conducted a study to determine if this agent was recently introduced into the Unit...

    Authors: Amanda D Loftis, Tonya R Mixson, Ellen Y Stromdahl, Michael J Yabsley, Laurel E Garrison, Phillip C Williamson, Robert R Fitak, Paul A Fuerst, Daryl J Kelly and Keith W Blount

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:54

    Content type: Research article

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  36. For winter 2003/2004 in Scotland, it was recommended that all those aged 65 and over be eligible to receive 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV), which has been shown to be effective in reduc...

    Authors: John D Mooney, Amanda Weir, Jim McMenamin, Lewis D Ritchie, Tatania V Macfarlane, Colin R Simpson, Syed Ahmed, Chris Robertson and Stuart C Clarke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:53

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Studies of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in Africa have shown high initial mortality. Factors contributing to this high mortality are poorly described. The aim of the present study was to assess mortal...

    Authors: Asgeir Johannessen, Ezra Naman, Bernard J Ngowi, Leiv Sandvik, Mecky I Matee, Henry E Aglen, Svein G Gundersen and Johan N Bruun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:52

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Infectious mastitis is a common condition during lactation and in fact, represents one of the main causes leading to a precocious weaning. The number of studies dealing with lactational mastitis is low and, up...

    Authors: Susana Delgado, Rebeca Arroyo, Rocío Martín and Juan M Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:51

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The use of hypertonic crystalloid solutions, including sodium chloride and bicarbonate, for treating severe sepsis has been much debated in previous investigations. We have investigated the effects of three cr...

    Authors: Zhi Xun Fang, Yu Feng Li, Xiao Qing Zhou, Zhen Zhang, Jin Song Zhang, Hai Ming Xia, Guo Ping Xing, Wei Ping Shu, Ling Shen and Guo Qing Yin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:50

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Only a few previous studies have focused on the long-term prognosis of the patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Our purpose was to delineate factors potentially associated with the long-term outcome of I...

    Authors: Maija Heiro, Hans Helenius, Saija Hurme, Timo Savunen, Kaj Metsärinne, Erik Engblom, Jukka Nikoskelainen and Pirkko Kotilainen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:49

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Invasive amebiasis is an emerging parasitic disorder in Taiwan, especially in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Thirty-three Taiwanese subjects with amebic liver abscess (AL...

    Authors: Meng-Shuian Hsu, Szu-Min Hsieh, Mao-Yuan Chen, Chien-Ching Hung and Shan-Chwen Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:48

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne...

    Authors: Ana Martinez, Angela Dominguez, Nuria Torner, Laura Ruiz, Neus Camps, Irene Barrabeig, Cesar Arias, Josep Alvarez, Pere Godoy, Pilar Jorgina Balaña, Analia Pumares, Rosa Bartolome, Dolors Ferrer, Unai Perez, Rosa Pinto and Javier Buesa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:47

    Content type: Research article

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  43. French Guiana has the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden among all French departments, with a strong increase in the TB incidence over the last few years. It is now uncertain how best to explain this incidence. ...

    Authors: Vanina Guernier, Christophe Sola, Karine Brudey, Jean-François Guégan and Nalin Rastogi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:46

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men in Switzerland is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for C. trachomatis inf...

    Authors: David Baud, Katia Jaton, Claire Bertelli, Jean-Pierre Kulling and Gilbert Greub

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:45

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Infectious disease is often the reason for intravenous drug users being seen in a clinical setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of treatment and outcomes for this patient po...

    Authors: Dominik Mertz, Nina Viktorin, Marcel Wolbers, Gerd Laifer, Bernd Leimenstoll, Ursula Fluckiger and Manuel Battegay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:42

    Content type: Research article

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  46. On 20–21 February 2006, six cases of diarrhoea-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) were reported by paediatricians to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We initiated an investigation to identif...

    Authors: Barbara Schimmer, Karin Nygard, Hanne-Merete Eriksen, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn-Arne Lindstedt, Lin T Brandal, Georg Kapperud and Preben Aavitsland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:41

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.