Mao F, Chen T, Zhao Y, et al. Insulin resistance: a potential marker and risk factor for active tuberculosis? Med Hypotheses. 2011;77(1):66–8.
International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the Metabolic Syndrome ([article online].2006. https://www.idf.org/our-activities/advocacy-awareness/resources-and-tools/60:idfconsensus-worldwide-definitionof-the-metabolic-syndrome.html. Accessed 10 Aug 2017.
Trout K, Homko C, Tkacs NC. Methods of measuring insulin sensitivity. Biol Res Nurs. 2007;8(4):305–18.
Cefalu WT, Leahy JL, Clark NG. Medical management of diabetes mellitus. New York; 2000. p. 57–75.
Mlinar B, Marc J, Janez A, Pfeifer M. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and associated diseases. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;375(1–2):20–35.
Granberry MC, Fonseca VA. Insulin resistance syndrome: options for treatment. South Med J. 1999;92(1):2–15.
Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37(12):1595–607.
Ginsberg HN. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(4):453–8.
Natali A, Ferrannini E. Hypertension, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2004;33(2):417–29.
Matsuda M, DeFronzo RA. Insulin sensitivity indexes obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycaemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(9):1462–70.
Bonara E, Kiechl S, Willeit J, et al. Insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment predicts incident symptomatic cardiovascular disease in Caucasian subjects from the general population: the Bruneck study. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):318–24.
Pickup JC. Inflammation and activated innate immunity in the pathogensis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(3):813–23.
Van Cromphaut S, Vanhorebeek I. D Berghe GV. Glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in sepsis. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(19):1887–99.
Blumenthal A, Isovski F, Rhee KY. Tuberculosis and host metabolism: ancient associations, fresh insights. Trans Res. 2009;154(1):7–14.
Bell L, Bhat V, George G, Awotedu AA, Gqaza B. Sluggish glucose tolerance in tuberculosis patients. SAMJ. 2007;97(5):374–7.
Karachunskiĭ MA, Balabolkin MI, Beglarian NR. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in patients with tuberculosis. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 1995;7:18–21.
Hayashi S, Takeuchi M, Hatsuda K, et al. The impact of nutrition and glucose intolerance on the development of tuberculosis in Japan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18(1):84–8.
Singh MM, Biswas SK, Ashok S, Ashok KR, Singh PP. Impaired glucose tolerance in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Indian J Tuberc. 1984;31(3):118–21.
Jawad F, Shem AS, Memon R, Ansari G. Glucose intolerance in pulmonary tuberculosis. J Pak Med Assoc. 1995;45(9):237–8.
Takasu N, Yamada T, Miura H, et al. Rifampicin-induced early phase hyperglycemia in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125(1):23–7.
Stock KP, Riemann JF, Stadler W, Rösch W. Tuberculosis of the pancreas. Endoscopy. 1981;13(4):178–80.
Broxmeyer L. Diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and the mycobacteria: two millennia of enigma. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(3):433–9.
Erol A. Visceral adipose tissue specific persistence of mycobacterium tuberculosis may be reason for the metabolic syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 2008;71(2):222–8.
Lee RD, Nieman DC. Nutritional Assessment. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2003.
World Health Organization. BMI classification. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html. Accessed 25 May 2012.
World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist: hip ratio. Geneva: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation; 2008. p. 8–11.
Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499–501.
Matthews D, Hosker J, Rudenski A, Naylor B, Treacher D, Turner R. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28:412–9.
Katz A, Nambi SS, Mather K, et al. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index: a simple, accurate method for assessing insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(7):2402–10.
Hedblad B, Nilsson P, Janzon L, Berglund G. Relation between insulin resistance and carotid intima-media thickness and stenosis in non-diabetic subjects. Results from a cross-sectional study in Malmo, Sweden. Diabetic Med. 2000;17(4):299–307.
Marques-Vidal P, Mazoyer E, Bongard V, et al. Prevalence of insulin resistance syndrome in southerwestern France and its relationship with inflammatory and hemostatic markers. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(8):1371–7.
Ascaso JF, Pardo S, Real JT, Lorente RI, Priego A, Carmena R. Diagnosing insulin resistance by simple quantitative methods in subjects with normal glucose metabolism. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3320–5.
Lee S, Choi S, Kim HJ, et al. Cutoff values of surrogate measures of insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean non-diabetic adults. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21(4):695–700.
Amod A, Ascott-Evans BH, Berg GI, et al. The 2012 SEMDSA guideline for the Management of Type 2 diabetes. JEMDSA. 2012;17(1):1–94.
Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome – a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the international diabetes federation. Diabetic Med. 2006;23(5):469–80.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III). JAMA. 2001;285(19):2486–97.
Hood MLH. A narrative review of recent progress in understanding the relationship between tuberculosis and protein energy malnutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:1122–8.
Edwards LB, Livesay VT, Acquaviva FA, Palmer CE. Height, weight, tuberculosis infection, and tuberculous disease. Arch Environ Health. 1971;22(1):106–12.
Zachariah R, Spielmann MP, Harries AD, Salaniponi FM. Moderate to severe malnutrition in patients with tuberculosis is a risk factor associated with early death. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96(3):291–4.
Dodor EA. Evaluation of nutritional status of new tuberculosis patients at the Effia Nkwanta regional hospital. Ghana Med J. 2008;42(1):22–8.
Villamor E, Saathoff E, Mugusi F, Bosch RJ, Urassa W, Fawzi WW. Wasting and body composition of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in relation to HIV-1 coinfection, socioeconomic status and severity of tuberculosis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60:163–71.
Directorate. TB DOTS Strategy Coordination, National Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa. Department of Health, Republic of South Africa. National Tuberculosis Management Guidelines; 2014.
Schwenk A, Macallan D. Tuberculosis, malnutrition and wasting. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2000;3(4):285–91.
Paton NI, Ng YM. Body composition studies in patients with wasting associated with tuberculosis. Nutrition. 2006;22(3):245–51.
PrayGod G, Range N, Faurholt-Jepsen D, et al. Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a matched cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105(3):140–7.
Bhargava A, Chatterjee M, Jain Y, et al. Nutritional status of adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural central India and its association with mortality. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e77979.
Frediani JK, Sanikidze E, Kipiani M, et al. Macronutrient intake and body composition changes during anti-tuberculosis therapy in adults. Clin Nutr. 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.02.007.
Kennedy N, Ramsay A, Uiso L, Gutmann J, Ngowi FI, Gillespie SH. Nutritional status and weight gain in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1996;90(2):162–6.
How SH, Kuan YC, Ng TH, Razali MR, Fauzi AR. Monitoring treatment response in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients: comparison of weight gain, sputum conversion and chest radiograph. Malays J Pathol. 2014;36(2):91–6.
Opolot JO, Theron AJ, Anderson R, Feldman C. Acute phase proteins and stress hormone responses in patients with newly diagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis. Lung. 2015;193(1):13–8.
Sahin F, Yildiz P. Distinctive biochemical changes in pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia. Arch Med Sci. 2013;9(4):656.
Taha DA, Thanoon IAJ. Antioxidant status, C-reactive protein and iron status in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. SQU Medical Journal. 2010;10(3):361–9.
Peresi E, Silva SM, Calvi SA, Marcondes-Machado J. Cytokines and acute-phase serum proteins as markers of inflammatory regression during pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. J Bras Pneumol. 2008;34(11):942–9.
Bongiovanni B, Diaz A, D’Attilio L, et al. Changes in the immune and endocrine responses of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis undergoing specific treatment. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1262(1):10–5.
Gupta A, Shah A. Tuberculosis and diabetes: an appraisal. Ind J Tub. 2000;47(1):3–8.
Deniz O, Gumus S, Yaman H, et al. Serum total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations significantly correlate wtih radiological extent of disease and the degree of smear positively in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Biochem. 2007;40(3):162–6.
Sammalkorpi K, Valtonen V, Kerttula Y, Nikkilä E, Taskinen MR. Changes in serum lipoprotein pattern induced by acute infections. Metab. 1988;37(9):859–65.
Cabana VG, Siegel JN, Sabesin SM. Effects of the acute phase response on the concentration and density distribution of plasma lipids and apolipoporiteins. J Lipid Res. 1989;30:39–49.
Deniz O, Tozkoprana E, Yaman H, et al. Serum HDL-C levels, log (TG/HDL-C) values and serum total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios significantly correlate with radiological extent of disease in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Clin Biochem. 2006;39(3):287–92.
Tietge UJ, Maugeais C, Lund-Katz S, Grass D, de Beer FC, Rader DJ. Human secretory phospholipase A2 mediates decreased plasma concentrations of HDL-C cholesterol and Apoa-I in response to inflammation in human Apoa-I transgenic mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22(7):1213–8.
Artl A, Marsche G, Lestavel S, Sattler W, Malle E. Role of serum amyloid a during metabolism of acute-phase HDL-C by macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20(3):763–72.
Miida T, Yamada T, Yamadera T, Ozaki K, Inano K, Okada M. Serum amyloid a protein generates Preβ1 high-density lipoprotein from alpha-migrating high-density lipoprotein. Biochemist. 1999;38(51):16958–62.
Banka CL, Yuan T, de Beer MC, Kindy M, Curtiss LK, de Beer FC. Serum amyloid a (SAA): influence on HDL-C-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. Lipid Res. 1999;36(5):1058–65.
De Moraes ML, de Paula RM, Delogo KN, et al. Association of serum levels of iron, copper and zinc, and inflammatory markers with bacteriological sputum conversion during tuberculosis treatment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;160(2):176–84.
Lawn SD, Obeng J, Acheampong JW, Griffin GE. Resolution of the acute-phase response in west African patients receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000;4(4):340–4.
Jeon CY, Harries AD, Baker MA, et al. Bi-directional screening for tuberculosis and diabetes: a systematic review. Tropical Med Int Health. 2010;15(11):1300–14.
Ade S, Affolabi D, Agodokpessi P, et al. Low prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with tuberculosis in Cotonou. Benin PHA. 2015;5(2):147–9.
Rajapakshe W, Isaakidis P, Sagili KD, et al. Screening patiens with tuberculosis for diabetes mellitus in Ampara. Sri Lanka PHA. 2015;5(2):150–2.
Oluboyo PO, Erasmus RT. The significance of glucose intolerance in pulmonary tuberculosis. Tubercle. 1990;71(2):135–8.
Faurholt-Jepsen D, Range N, PrayGod G, et al. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis: A case-control study from Mwanza, Tanzania. PloS ONE. 2011;6(8):1–5.(e24215).
Matsuda M. Measuring and estimating insulin resistance in clinical and research settings. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(2):79–86.
Monzillo LA, Hamdy O. Evaluation of insulin sensitivity in clinical practice and in research settings. Nutr Rev. 2003;61(12):397–412.
Kapur A, Harries AD. The double burden of diabetes and tuberculosis – public health implications. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013;101(1):10–9.
Başoğlu OK, Bacakoğlu F, Cok G, Sayiner A, Ateş M. The oral glucose tolerance test in patients with respiratory infections. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1999;54(4):307–10.
Stevenson CR, Forouhi NG, Roglic G, et al. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence. BMC Public Health. 2007;7(1):234.
Viswanathan V, Kumpatla S, Aravindalochanan V, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and associated risk factors among tuberculosis patients in India. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41367.
Balakrishnan S, Vijayan S, Nair S, et al. High diabetes prevalence among tuberculosis cases in Kerala. India PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46502.
Restrepo BI, Fisher-Hoch SP, Smith B, et al. Mycobacterial clearance from sputum is delayed during the first phase of treatment in patients with diabetes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(4):541–4.
DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Phys. 1979;237(3):214–23.
Ryan AS. Insulin resistance with aging. Sports Med. 2000;30(5):327–46.
Ford ES. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the international diabetes federation among adults in the US. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(11):2745–9.
DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance: a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Diabetes Care. 1991;14(3):173–94.
Knowles JW, Xie W, Zhang Z, et al. Identification and validation of N-acetyltransferase 2 as an insulin sensitivity gene. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(4):1739–51.
Simarro RM, Carbayo HJ, Massó OJ, et al. Association of insulin resistance with different anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors in a non-diabetic popualation. Endocrinol Nutr. 2011;58(9):464–71.
Yeni-Komshian H, Carantoni M, Abbasi F, Reaven GM. Relationship beween several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy nondiabetic volunteers. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(2):171–5.
Esteghamati A, Khalilzadeh O, Anvari M, Ahadi MS, Abbasi M, Rashidi A. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance significantly correlate with body mass index. Arch Med Res. 2008;39(8):803–8.
Gayoso-Diz P, Otero-Gonzalez A, Rodriguez-Alvarez MX, et al. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels in a general adult population: curves percentile by gender and age. The EPIRCE study. Diab Res Clin Pract. 2011;94(1):146–55.
Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C. Definition of metabolic syndrome. Report of the National Heart, lung and blood institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation. 2004;109(3):433–8.
Addo OY, Pereira MA, Himes JH. Is skinfold thickness as good as DXA when measuring adipositiy contributions to insulin resistance in adolescents? Am J Hum Bio. 2012;24(6):806–11.
Jellinger PS. Metabolic consequences of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Insulin. 2009;4(1):2–14.
Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CDA, Emeis JJ, Coppack SW. C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. A potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19(4):972–8.
Fonseca V, Desouza C, Asnani S, Jialal I. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Endocrinol Rev. 2004;25(1):153–75.
Lord GM, Matarese G, Howard JK, Baker RJ, Bloom SR, Lechler RI. Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immuno-suppression. Nature. 1998;394(6696):897–901.
Berglund E, Vianna C, Donato J, et al. Direct leptin action of POMC neurons regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1000–9.
Zheng Y, Ma A, Wang Q, et al. Relation of leptin, ghrelin and inflammatory cytokines with body mass index in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80122.
Yüksel I, Şencan M, Dökmetas HS, Dökmetas I, Ataseven H, Yönem O. The relation between serum leptin levels and body fat mass in patients with active lung tuberculosis. Endocr Res. 2003;29(3):257–64.
Çakir B, Yönem A, Güler S, et al. Relation of leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha to body weight changes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Horm Res. 1999;52(6):279–83.
Van Crevel R, Ottenhoff THM, van der Meer JWM. Innate immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15(2):294–309.
Van Lettow M, van der Meer JWM, West CE, van Crevel R, Semba RD. Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(8):4771–6.
Schwenk A, Hodgson I, Rayner CF, Griffin GE, Macallan DC. Leptin and energy metabolism in pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(2):392–8.
Keicho N, Matsushita I, Tanaka T, et al. Circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a and retinol-binding protein in patients with tuberculosis: markers of metabolism and inflammation. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38703.
Ravussin E, Pratley R, Maffei M, et al. Relatively llow plasma leptin concentrations precede weight gain in pima Indians. Nat Med. 1997;3:238–40.