Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Treating patients with severe sepsis. New Engl J Med. 1999;340(3):207–14.
Cohen J, Vincent J-L, Adhikari NKJ, Machado FR, Angus DC, Calandra T, et al. Sepsis: a roadmap for future research. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(5):581–614.
Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour C, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315(8):801–10.
Levy MM, Artigas A, Phillips GS, Rhodes A, Beale R, Osborn T, et al. Outcomes of the surviving sepsis campaign in intensive care units in the USA and Europe: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:919–24.
Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, Opal SM, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:580–637.
Levy MM, Dellinger RP, Townsend SR, Linde-Zwirble WT, Marshall JC, Bion J, et al. The surviving sepsis campaign: results of an international guideline-based performance improvement program targeting severe sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:222–31.
Bloos F, Reinhart K. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis. Virulence. 2014;5:154–60.
Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, Opal SM, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. 2012;39(2):165–228.
Silvestre J, Povoa P, Coelho L, Almeida E, Moreira P, Fernandes A, et al. Is C-reactive protein a good prognostic marker in septic patients? Intensive Care Med. 2009;35(5):909–13.
Kibe S, Adams K, Barlow G. Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of sepsis in critical care. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:33–40.
Breviarios F, Aniellos EM, Golay J, Bottazzis B, Bairochll A, Sacconell S, et al. Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22190–7.
Lee GW, Lee TH, Vileek J. TSG-14, a tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-inducible protein, is a novel member of the Pentaxin family of acute phase proteins. J Immunol. 1993;150:1804–12.
Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Doni A, Bottazzi B. Pentraxins in innate immunity: from C-reactive protein to the long pentraxin PTX3. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:1–13.
Garlanda C, Bottazzi B, Bastone A, Mantovani A. Pentraxins at the crossroads between innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:337–66.
Bottazzi B, Garlanda C, Cotena A, Moalli F, Jaillon S, Deban L, et al. The long pentraxin PTX3 as a prototypic humoral pattern recognition receptor: interplay with cellular innate immunity. Immunol Rev. 2009;227:9–18.
Moalli F, Jaillon S, Inforzato A, Sironi M, Bottazzi B, Mantovani A, et al. Pathogen recognition by the long pentraxin PTX3. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:830421.
Reading PC, Bozza S, Gilbertson B, Tate M, Moretti S, Job ER, et al. Antiviral activity of the long chain Pentraxin PTX3 against influenza viruses. J Immunol. 2008;180(5):3391–8.
Garlanda C, Hirsch E, Bozza S, Salustri A, De Acetis M, Nota R, et al. Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response. Nature. 2002;420(6912):182–6.
Jaillon S, Moalli F, Ragnarsdottir B, Bonavita E, Puthia M, Riva F, et al. The Humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 is a key component of innate immunity against urinary tract infection. Immunity. 2014;40(4):621–32.
Bottazzi B, Santini L, Savino S, Giuliani MM, Dueñas Díez AI, Mancuso G, et al. Recognition of Neisseria meningitidis by the long Pentraxin PTX3 and its role as an endogenous adjuvant. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0120807.
Bottazzi B, Inforzato A, Messa M, Barbagallo M, Magrini E, Garlanda C, et al. The pentraxins PTX3 and SAP in innate immunity, regulation of inflammation and tissue remodelling. J Hepatol. 2016;64(6):1416–27.
Cuello F, Shankar-Hari M, Mayr U, Yin X, Marshall M, Suna G, et al. Redox state of Pentraxin 3 as a novel biomarker for resolution of inflammation and survival in sepsis. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13(10):2545–57.
Liu S, Qu X, Liu F, Wang C. Pentraxin 3 as a prognostic biomarker in patients with systemic inflammation or infection. Mediat Inflamm. 2014;2014:421429.
Muller B, Peri G. Doni a, Torri V, Landmann R, Bottazzi B, et al. circulating levels of the long pentraxin PTX3 correlate with severity of infection in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:1404–7.
Mauri T, Bellani G, Patroniti NA, Coppadoro A, Peri G, Cuccovillo I, et al. Persisting high levels of plasma pentraxin 3 over the first days after severe sepsis and septic shock onset are associated with mortality. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:621–9.
De Kruif MD, Limper M, Sierhuis K, Wagenaar JFP, Spek CA, Garlanda C, et al. PTX3 predicts severe disease in febrile patients at the emergency department. J Inf Secur. 2009;60:122–7.
Huttunen R, Hurme M, Aittoniemi J, Huhtala H, Vuento R, Laine J, et al. High plasma level of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with fatal disease in bacteremic patients: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e17653.
Uusitalo-Seppala R, Huttunen R, Aittoniemi J, Koskinen P, Leino A, Vahlberg T, et al. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with severe sepsis and fatal disease in emergency room patients with suspected infection: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53661.
Bastrup-Birk S, Skjoedt MO, Munthe-Fog L, Strom JJ, Ma YJ, Garred P. Pentraxin-3 serum levels are associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73119.
Bastrup-Birk S, Munthe-Fog L, Skjoedt MO, Ma YJ, Nielsen H, Køber L, et al. Pentraxin-3 level at admission is a strong predictor of short-term mortality in a community-based hospital setting. J Intern Med. 2015;277(5):562–72.
Caironi P, Masson S, Mauri T, Bottazzi B, Leone R, Magnoli M, et al. Pentraxin 3 in patients with severe sepsis or shock: the ALBIOS trial. Eur J Clin Investig. 2017;47(1):73–83.
Behnes M, Bertsch T, Lepiorz D, Lang S, Trinkmann F, Brueckmann M, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of soluble CD 14 subtype (presepsin) for severe sepsis and septic shock during the first week of intensive care treatment. Crit Care Med. 2014;18(507):1–13.
Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, et al. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Chest. 1992;101(6):1644–55.
Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML, et al. Developing a new definition and assessing new clinical criteria for septic shock: for the third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315(8):775–87.
Knaus W, Draper E, Wagner D, Zimmerman J. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit Care Med. 1985;13:818–29.
Vincent JL, Moreno R, Takala J, Willatts S, De Mendonça A, Bruining H, et al. The SOFA (sepsis related organ failure assessment) score to describe organ/dysfunction/failure. On behalf of the working group on sepsis-related problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(7):707–10.
Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(19):1368–77.
Angus DC, van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:840–51.
Henriquez-Camacho C, Losa J. Biomarkers for sepsis. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:547818.