UNAIDS. Global report. UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
Kaplan JE, Hu DJ, Holmes KK, Jaffe HW, Masur H, De Cock KM. Preventing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: implications for the developing world. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996;55(1):1–11.
Holmes BC, Losina E, Walensky RP, Yazdanpanah Y, Freedberg KA. Review of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–related opportunistic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:652–62.
Mermin J, Were W, Ekwaru JP, Moore D, Dawning R, Behumbiize P, et al. Mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults receiving antiretroviral treatment and survival of their HIV-uninfected children: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2008;371:752–9.
Staine JG. AIDS up date 2007: An overview of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Inc: New York McGraw-Hill co.; 2008.
Microsoft A, Ledergerber B, Katlama C, Kirk O, Reiss P, d’Arminio Monforte A, et al. Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study. Lancet. 2003;362:22–9.
McNaghten AD, Hanson DL, Jones JL, Dworkin MS, Ward JW. Effects of antiretroviral therapy and opportunistic illness primary prophylaxis on survival after AIDS diagnosis. AIDS. 1999;13:1687–95.
Sansone GR, Frengley JD. Impact of HAART on causes of death of persons with late stage AIDS. J Urban Health. 2000;77(2):166–75.
Jones JL, Hanson DL, Dworkin MS, Alderton DL, Fleming PL, Kaplan JE, et al. Surveillance for AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (1992–97). MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1999;48(2):1–22.
Palella FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV outpatient study investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:853–60.
Jones JL, Hanson DL, Dworkin MS, Kaplan JE, Ward JW. Trends in AIDS-related opportunistic infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men and among injecting drug users, 1991–1996. J Infect Dis. 1998;178:114–20.
Kaplan JE, Hanson D, Dworkin MS, Frederick T, Bertolli J, Lindergren ML, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic infections in the united states in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30 Suppl 1:S5–14.
UNAIDS. Access to Antiretroviral therapy in Africa: Satus report on progress towards 2015 targets. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2014.
Selik MR, Starcher ET, Curran JW. Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: Freqiencies, associations and trends. AIDS. 1987;1:175–82.
Pezzotti P, Serraino D, Rezza G, Maso LD, Vaccher E, Lepri AC, et al. The spectrum of AIDS-defining diseases: temporal trends in Italy prior to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies, 1982–1996. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28:975–81.
Nesheim SR, Kapogiannis BG, Soe MM, Sullivan KM, Abrams E, Farley J, et al. Trends in opportunistic infections in the pre- and post- HAART eras among HIV-infected children in the perinatal AIDS collaborative transmission study (1986–2004). Pediatrics. 2007;120:100–9.
Muñoz A, Schrager LK, Bacellar H, Speizer I, Vermund SH, Detels R, et al. Trends in the incidence of outcomes defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: 1985–1991. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137(4):423–38.
Wohl AR, Lu S, Turner J, Kovacs A, Witt M, Squires K, et al. Risk of opportunistic infections in the HAART era among HIV- infected Latinos born in the United States compared to Latinos born in Mexico and Central America. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2003;17(6):267–75.
Singh N. Trends in the epidemiology of opportunistic fungal infections: predisposing factors and the impact of antimicrobial use practices. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1692–6.
San-Andres FJ, Rubio R, Castilla J, Pulido F, Palao G, de Pedro I, et al. Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–associated opportunistic diseases and the effect of treatment on a cohort of 1115 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, 1989–1997. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1177–85.
Guimaraes MD, Castilho EA, Fonseca MG. Temporal trends in AIDS associated opportunistic infections in Brazil, 1980–1999. In: Int Conf AIDS, vol. 13. 2000. abstract MoPeB2286.
Corbett EL, Marston B, Churchyard GJ, De Cock KM. Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, challenges, and change in the era of anti-retroviral treatment. Lancet. 2006;367:926–37.
WHO. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
UNAIDS. HIV and AIDS Uganda Country Progress Report 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2014.
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFPED). Millennium Development Goals Report for Uganda 2010. Kampala; Uganda
WHO. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents; recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: WHO; 2006.
WHO. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents: recommendations for a public health approach 2010 revision. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
Calvarese M, Bame S, Bakanume B. Historical analysis of AIDS patients in Uganda using innovative community clinical service: The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). J Hum Soc Sci. 2007;1:1–13.
TASO. TASO Annual Report. Kampala, Uganda: TASO; 2013.
TASO Services and Programmes. [http://www.tasouganda.org/].
Ministry of Health Uganda. Antiretroviral treatment policy. Kampala: Uganda Ministry of Health; 2009.
Box, Jenkins, Reinsel, editor. Time Series Analysis, Forecasting and Control. 3rd ed. Englewood Clifs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1994.
Stata corp. Nonparametric analysis: kruskal wallis rank test, vol. 2012. 2012th ed. College statation, Texas, USA: Stata corp LP; 2012.
WHO. Global Tuberculosis Control Report 2013. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2013.
Ives NJ, Gazzard BG, Easternbrook PJ. The changing pattern of AIDS-defining illnesses with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a London clinic. J Infect. 2001;42:134–9.
Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Ngwira BMM, Mwaungulu FD, Mwafulirwa DT, Floyd S. Po¨ nnighaus JM, Warndorff D K, E.M. FP: Trends in tuberculosis and the influence of HIV infection in northern Malawi, 1988–2001. AIDS. 2004;18:1459–63.
WHO. Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing: WHO report 2005. WHO/HTM/ TB/2005.349. Geneva: WHO; 2005.
Moore D, Liechty C, Ekwaru P, Were W, Mwima G, Solberg P, et al. Prevalence, incidence and mortality associated with tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. AIDS. 2007;21(6):713–9.
UNAIDS. Government of Uganda: UNGASS 2010 country progress report. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
Moanna A, Rimland D. Decreasing incidence of Herpes zoster in the HAART era. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(1):122–5.
Vanhems P, Voisin L, Gayet-Ageron A, Trepo C, Cotte L, Peyramond D, et al. The incidence of Herpes zoster is less likely than other opportunistic infectionss to be reduced by highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;38:111–3.
IDSA. Trends in Herpes zoster prevalence in a Populaion based cohort from 1945 to 2008. In: IDSA 48th Annual Meeting: 2010. Vancouver, Canada: IDSA; 2010.
Kamali A, Nunn AJ, Mulder DW, Dyck EV, Dobbins JG, Whitworth AG. Seroprevalence and incidence of genital ulcer infections in a rural Ugandan population. Sex Transm Infect. 1999;75:98–102.
Glynn RJ, Biraro S, Weiss HA. Herpes simplex virus type 2: a key role in HIV incidence. AIDS. 2009;23:1595–8.
Freeman EE, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Cross PL, Whitworth JA, Hayes RJ. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. AIDS. 2006;20(1):73–83.
Jougla E, Pequignot F, Carbon C, Pavillon G, Eb M, Bourdais JP, et al. AIDS-related conditions: Study of a representative sample of 1203 patients deceased in 1992 in France. Int J Epidemiol. 1996;25:190–7.
Looker KJ, Garnett GP, Schmid GP. An estimate of the global prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Geneva: WHO; 2007.
Mendiratta V, Bhawna H. Genital herpes: changing patterns and current trends. Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2006;27(1):6.
Kumar B, Sahoo B, Gupta S, Jain R. Raising incidence of genital herpes over two decades in a sexually transmitted disease clinic in North India. J Dermatol. 2002;29:74–8.
Jarvis JN, Lawn SD, Vogt M, Bangani N, Wood R, Harrison TS. Screening for cryptococcal antigenemia in patients accessing an antiretroviral treatment program in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(7):856–62.
Warnock DW. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Fungal infections. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2007;48:1–12.
WHO. Rapid Advice: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Management of Cryptococcal Disease in HIV-Infected Adults, Adolescents, and Children. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
WHO. Retention in HIV programmes: defining the challenges and identifying solutions: meeting report. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
Brinkhof MW, Dabis F, Myer L, Bangsberg DR, Boulle A, Nash D, et al. Early loss of HIV-infected patients on potent antiretroviral therapy programmes in lower-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:559–67.
Egger M, Spycher BD, Sidle J, Weigel R, Geng EH, Fox MP, et al. Correcting mortality for loss to follow-up: a nomogram applied to antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med. 2011;8(1):e1000390.
Rosen S, Fox MP, Gill C. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e298.
Ware CN, Wyatt MA, Geng HE, Kaaya SF, Agbaji OO, Muyindike WR, et al. Toward an understanding of disengagement from HIV treatment and care in Sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative study. PLoS Med. 2013;10(1):e1001369.
Fox MP, Rosen S. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs up to three years on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2009: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15(Sup1):1–15.
Geng EH, Glidden DV, Bwana MB, Musinguzi N, Emenyonu N, Muyindike W, et al. Retention in care and connection to care among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Africa: estimation via a sampling-based approach. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e21797.
Nakiwogga-Muwanga A, Alamo-Talisuna S, Musaazi J, Kambugu A, Ssekawungu P, Katabira E, et al. Inadequate monitoring in advanced stages of disease with lack of supportive counseling increasesAttrition among patients on antiretroviral treatment at a large urban clinic in Uganda. J Int Assoc Prov AIDS Care (JIAPAC). 2014;13(6):547–54.
Mills E, Nabiryo C. Preventing antiretroviral treatment interruptions among HIV/AIDS patients in Africa. PLoS Med. 2013;10(1):e1001370.
Braitstein P, Brinkhof MW, Dabis F, Schechter M, Boulle A, Miotti P, et al. Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries. Lancet. 2006;367(9526):817–24.
Kiragga NA, Lok JJ, Musick SB, Bosch JR, Mwangi A, Wools-Kaloustian KK, et al. CD4 trajectory adjusting for dropout among HIV-positive patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in an East African HIV care centre. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18957.
Kiragga NA, Castelnuovo B, Schaefer P, Muwonge T, Easterbrook JP. Quality of data collection in a large HIVobservational clinic database in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for clinical research and audit of care. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:3.