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  1. Patients with COVID-19 infection are commonly reported to have an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The choice of anti-thrombotic agents and doses are currently being studied in randomized controlled trials...

    Authors: Yi Lee, Qasim Jehangir, Pin Li, Deepthi Gudimella, Pooja Mahale, Chun-Hui Lin, Dinesh R. Apala, Geetha Krishnamoorthy, Abdul R. Halabi, Kiritkumar Patel, Laila Poisson, Venugopal Balijepally, Anupam A. Sule and Girish B. Nair
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:462
  2. With the decline in local malaria transmission in Vietnam as a result of the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) elimination activities, a greater focus on the importation and potential reintroduction of t...

    Authors: Kimberly A. Edgel, Sara Canavati, Hoi Thi Le, Tho Huy Tran, Kinh Van Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Nga Thi Nguyen, Hoa Mai Tran, Thang Duc Ngo, Duong Thanh Tran, Binh Thi Huong Nguyen, Long Khanh Tran, Thu Minh Nguyen, Rosalie J. Whedbee, Ekaterina I. Milgotina and Nicholas J. Martin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:460
  3. Most non-clinic based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programs require fingersticks to self-collect blood specimens for laboratory monitoring, a technique that often results in inadequate blood volume for ...

    Authors: Chase A. Cannon, Meena S. Ramchandani and Matthew R. Golden
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:459
  4. Prospective observational data show that infected persons with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for a prolonged duration, and tha...

    Authors: Monia Makhoul, Farah Abou-Hijleh, Shaheen Seedat, Ghina R. Mumtaz, Hiam Chemaitelly, Houssein Ayoub and Laith J. Abu-Raddad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:458
  5. Studies which examine quality of life (QOL) provide important insights that are needed to understand the impacts of HIV/AIDS anti-retroviral treatment (ART), comorbid conditions and other factors on the daily ...

    Authors: Nomcebo Oratile Mokgethi, Nicola Christofides, Mercilene Machisa, Godspower Akpomiemie and Samantha Lalla-Edward
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:456
  6. COVID-19 continues to disrupt social lives and the economy of many countries and challenges their healthcare capacities. Looking back at the situation in Germany in 2020, the number of cases increased exponent...

    Authors: Moritz Schäfer, Karunia Putra Wijaya, Robert Rockenfeller and Thomas Götz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:455
  7. Since 2006, Nepal has experienced frequent Dengue fever (DF) outbreaks. Up to now, there have been no knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) studies carried out on DF in Nepal that have included qualitative in...

    Authors: Parbati Phuyal, Isabelle Marie Kramer, Ulrich Kuch, Axel Magdeburg, David A Groneberg, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Doreen Montag, Harapan Harapan, Edwin Wouters, Anjani Kumar Jha, Meghnath Dhimal and Ruth Müller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:454
  8. Authors: Moira A. Mugglestone, Natasha V. Ratnaraja, Aggie Bak, Jasmin Islam, Jennie A. Wilson, Jennifer Bostock, Samuel E. Moses, James R. Price, Michael Weinbren, Heather P. Loveday, Lucy Rivett, Simon M. Stoneham and A. Peter R. Wilson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:453
  9. The geographic distribution of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis D virus (HDV) genotypes is uneven. We reconstructed the temporal evolution of HBV and HDV in Yakutia, one of the regions of Russia m...

    Authors: Anastasia A. Karlsen, Karen K. Kyuregyan, Olga V. Isaeva, Vera S. Kichatova, Fedor A. Asadi Mobarkhan, Lyudmila V. Bezuglova, Irina G. Netesova, Victor A. Manuylov, Andrey A. Pochtovyi, Vladimir A. Gushchin, Snezhana S. Sleptsova, Margarita E. Ignateva and Mikhail I. Mikhailov
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:452
  10. Monocytes play an important role in inflammation, and monocytosis and monocyte activation are features of chronic inflammation. We aimed to investigate if HIV status was associated with monocyte count and mono...

    Authors: Andreas D. Knudsen, Randa Bouazzi, Shoaib Afzal, Marco Gelpi, Thomas Benfield, Julie Høgh, Magda Teresa Thomsen, Marius Trøseid, Børge G. Nordestgaard and Susanne D. Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:451
  11. Concerns that athletes may be at a higher risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has led to reduced participation in sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to...

    Authors: Raymond J. Kreienkamp, Christopher J. Kreienkamp, Cindy Terrill, Mark E. Halstead and Jason G. Newland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:450
  12. In sub-Saharan Africa, data on virologic outcomes of young people living with HIV (YLWH) enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains scarce. In this study, we describe the prevalence of HIV virological no...

    Authors: Moses K. Nyongesa, Mwaganyuma H. Mwatasa, Vincent A. Kagonya, Gabriel Mwambingu, Caroline Ngetsa, Charles R. J. C. Newton and Amina Abubakar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:449
  13. The etiopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stem partially from the abnormal activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here in the current investigation, the mRNA expression levels ...

    Authors: Zahra Bagheri-Hosseinabadi, Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Mohammad Mirabzadeh, Ali Amiri and Mitra Abbasifard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:448
  14. In Mexico, HIV genotyping is performed in people living with HIV (PLWH) failing their first-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimen; it is not routinely done for all treatment-naive PLWH before ARV initiation. The f...

    Authors: Samantha Climaco-Arvizu, Víctor Flores-López, Carolina González-Torres, Francisco Javier Gaytán-Cervantes, María Concepción Hernández-García, Paola Berenice Zárate-Segura, Monserrat Chávez-Torres, Emiliano Tesoro-Cruz, Sandra María Pinto-Cardoso and Vilma Carolina Bekker-Méndez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:447
  15. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a disease with increased systemic inflammation and a high fatality rate. Oxidative stress is crucial for inflammation in the pathogeneses of various diseases. We...

    Authors: Zhen Tian, Naijuan Yao, Yuchao Wu, Fei Wang and Yingren Zhao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:446
  16. Several cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated leukoencephalopathy have been reported. Although most cases involve hypoxia, the pathophysiological mechanism and neurologic outcomes of COVID-19...

    Authors: Hiroki Kojima, Naoya Sakamoto, Atsushi Kosaka, Masayoshi Kobayashi, Mitsuo Amemiya, Takuya Washino, Yusuke Kuwahara, Takuto Ishida, Mayu Hikone, Satoshi Miike, Tatsunori Oyabu, Sentaro Iwabuchi and Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:444
  17. Diagnostic testing accessibility and asymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 present major challenges for curbing and preventing community prevalence of COVID-19. At-home sample collection for molecular testin...

    Authors: Devon P. Humphreys, Kathleen M. Gavin, Kaylan M. Olds, Marc P. Bonaca and Timothy A. Bauer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:443
  18. Legionella-related community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease with an increasing incidence and a high mortality rate, especially if empirical antibiotic therapy is inadequate. Antibiotic treatment highly rel...

    Authors: Rosalie R. A. L. Beekman, Ruud R. Duijkers, Dominic D. Snijders, Menno M. van der Eerden, Martijn M. Kross and Wim W. G. Boersma
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:442
  19. Serum vitamin D levels may have a protective role against severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Studies have shown that deficiency in vitamin D may be a significant risk factor for poor outcomes. This st...

    Authors: Erfan Kazemi, Ali Mansursamaei, Marzieh Rohani-Rasaf and Hossein Sheibani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:441
  20. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are essential to combat the STI epidemic in resource-limited settings. We characterized the burden of 5 curable STIs chlamydia, gonorrhe...

    Authors: Matthew M. Hamill, Annet Onzia, Tza-Huei Wang, Agnes N. Kiragga, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Ethan Gough, Peter Kyambadde, Johan H. Melendez and Yukari C. Manabe
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:440
  21. The temporal evolution of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness (VE) against infection, symptomatic, and severe COVID-19 is incompletely defined. The temporal evolution of VE could be dependent on age,...

    Authors: Paddy Ssentongo, Anna E. Ssentongo, Navya Voleti, Destin Groff, Ashley Sun, Djibril M. Ba, Jonathan Nunez, Leslie J. Parent, Vernon M. Chinchilli and Catharine I. Paules
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:439
  22. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is of great importance due to the frequency of strains becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. This review, using a public health focused approach, which ai...

    Authors: Chakib Nejjari, Youness El Achhab, Amina Benaouda and Chakib Abdelfattah
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:438
  23. Molecular mechanisms determining the transmission and prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are poorly understood. We used genomic and drug susceptibility data to explore ...

    Authors: Arnold Bainomugisa, Evelyn Lavu, Sushil Pandey, Suman Majumdar, Jennifer Banamu, Chris Coulter, Ben Marais, Lachlan Coin, Stephen M. Graham and Philipp du Cros
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:437
  24. Cellulitis is an infection most commonly caused by bacteria and successfully treated with antibiotics. However, certain patient populations, especially the immunocompromised, are at risk for fungal cellulitis,...

    Authors: Jed Paul, Mary M. Czech, Ramya Balijepally and Janice Wes Brown
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:435
  25. The management of febrile illnesses is challenging in settings where diagnostic laboratory facilities are limited, and there are few published longitudinal data on children presenting with fever in such settin...

    Authors: Techalew Shimelis, Susana Vaz Nery, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Adam W. Bartlett, Fitsum W/Gebriel Belay, Gill Schierhout, Sabine Dittrich, John A. Crump and John M. Kaldor
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:434
  26. Etiological diagnosis is a key step in the treatment of patients with rare pulmonary mycosis, and the lack of understanding of this disease and lack of specific markers for the detection of rare species, such as

    Authors: Zhengtu Li, Jianli Tang, Jinping Zhu, Mingzhou Xie, Shaoqing Huang, Shaoqiang Li, Yangqing Zhan, Weiqi Zeng, Teng Xu and Feng Ye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:433
  27. Plasmodium vivax was endemic in northern Europe until the early twentieth century. Considering climate change and the recent emergence of other vector borne diseases in Europe, historical insight into the relatio...

    Authors: Mathias Mølbak Ingholt, Tzu Tung Chen, Franziska Hildebrandt, Rasmus Kristoffer Pedersen and Lone Simonsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:432
  28. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is detected in extrahepatic tissues of individuals with HBV infection. Whether nails and hair contain HBV has been unknown.

    Authors: Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Enkhtaivan Odmaa, Yoshinori Ito, Hiroki Hoshino, Shuichiro Umetsu, Tomoyuki Tsunoda and Tomoo Fujisawa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:431
  29. Loop isothermal amplification (LAMP) has recently been proposed as a point-of-care diagnostic tool to detect acute infectious pathogens; however, this technique embeds risk of generating false-positive results...

    Authors: Ngo Tat Trung, Le Huu Phuc Son, Trinh Xuan Hien, Dao Thanh Quyen, Mai Hong Bang and Le Huu Song
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:429
  30. Efficacy and safety of long-acting cabotegravir (CAB) + rilpivirine (RPV) every 8 weeks (Q8W) versus daily oral standard of care (SoC) maintenance in treatment-experienced individuals with virologically suppre...

    Authors: Vasiliki Chounta, Sonya J. Snedecor, Sterling Wu and Nicolas Van de Velde
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:428
  31. Maintaining plasma HIV RNA suppression below the limit of quantification is the goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART). When viral loads (VL) remain in low-level viremia (LLV), or between 201 and 999 copies/mL, ...

    Authors: Pengtao Liu, Yinghui You, Lingjie Liao, Yi Feng, Yiming Shao, Hui Xing, Guanghua Lan, Jianjun Li, Yuhua Ruan and Dan Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:426
  32. Authors: Kazuo Imai, Noriomi Ishibashi, Masahiro Kodana, Norihito Tarumoto, Jun Sakai, Toru Kawamura, Shinichi Takeuchi, Yoshitada Taji, Yasuhiro Ebihara, Kenji Ikebuchi, Takashi Murakami, Takuya Maeda, Kotaro Mitsutake and Shigefumi Maesaki
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:425

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:946

  33. Atypical pathogens (AP), present in some patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are intrinsically resistant to betalactam drugs, the mainstay of empirical antibiotic treatment. Adding antibiotic cov...

    Authors: Aline Chauffard, Pierre-Olivier Bridevaux, Sebastian Carballo, Virginie Prendki, Jean-Luc Reny, Jérôme Stirnemann and Nicolas Garin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:424
  34. Only a few studies have performed comprehensive comparisons between hospitalized patients from different waves of COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and laboratory data of patient...

    Authors: Henriette Nørmølle Buttenschøn, Vibeke Lynggaard, Susanne Gundersborg Sandbøl, Eva Natalia Glassou and Annette Haagerup
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:423
  35. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and helps reduce mortality rate and economic costs associated with the pandemic. Despite these advantages, misinformation o...

    Authors: Kapil Madi Poudel, Neha Shah, Manab Prakash, Santosh Kumar Deo, Sunita Bhandari and Tika Ram Poudel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:422
  36. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have become a fundamental pillar in optimizing antimicrobial usage, improving patient care, and reducing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Herein we evaluated the impact...

    Authors: Christian Pallares, Cristhian Hernández-Gómez, Tobías Manuel Appel, Kevin Escandón, Sergio Reyes, Soraya Salcedo, Lorena Matta, Ernesto Martínez, Sara Cobo, Laura Mora, Adriana Marín, Adriana Correa, Elsa De La Cadena, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño and María Virginia Villegas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:420
  37. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) negatively impacts quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Behavioural intervention adjunct to ART may improve QoL...

    Authors: Martins Nweke, Nombeko Mshunqane, Nalini Govender, Aderonke O. Akinpelu and Adesola Ogunniyi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:419

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:545

  38. The re-emergence of yellow fever poses a serious public health risk to unimmunized communities in the tropical regions of Africa and South America and unvaccinated travelers visiting these regions. This risk i...

    Authors: Fredy Brice Simo Nemg, Ngu Njei Abanda, Martial Gide Yonga, Diane Ouapi, Ivis Ewang Samme, Marlise Dontsop Djoumetio, Marie Claire Endegue-Zanga, Maurice Demanou and Richard Njouom
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:418
  39. Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is one of the severest manifestations of TB that can be lethal when concomitant with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Bacteriological, biochemical and radiological method...

    Authors: Guirong Wang, Ruixia Liang, Qing Sun, Xinlei Liao, Chenqian Wang and Hairong Huang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:417
  40. To evaluate the diagnostic value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in immunocompromised patients for the diagnosis of suspected pneumonia in comparison wit...

    Authors: Pengcheng Lin, Yi Chen, Shanshan Su, Wengang Nan, Lingping Zhou, Ying Zhou and Yuping Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:416
  41. In Italy, the beginning of 2021 was characterized by the emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and by the availability of effective vaccines that contributed to the mitigation of non-pharmaceutical intervent...

    Authors: Chiara Antonini, Sara Calandrini and Fortunato Bianconi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:415
  42. Yemen has faced one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world since the start of the war in 2015. In 2020; 30 Vaccine Derived Polio Virus type 1 (VDPV1) isolates were detected in Saadah governorate. The ai...

    Authors: Mutahar Ahmed Al-Qassimi, Mohammed Al Amad, Labiba Anam, Khaled Almoayed, Ahmed Al-Dar and Faten Ezzadeen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:414
  43. There are limited data on risk factors for serious outcomes and death from COVID-19 among patients representative of the U.S. population. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for critical ...

    Authors: Andrea K. Chomistek, Caihua Liang, Michael C. Doherty, C. Robin Clifford, Rachel P. Ogilvie, Robert V. Gately, Jennifer N. Song, Cheryl Enger, Nancy D. Lin, Florence T. Wang and John D. Seeger
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2022 22:413

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