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  1. The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has decreased since the 1990s, reflecting worldwide efforts to identify and treat TB according to WHO recommendations. However TB remains an important ...

    Authors: Omar Kherad, François R Herrmann, Jean-Pierre Zellweger, Thierry Rochat and Jean-Paul Janssens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:217
  2. Tuberculosis is one of the most prominent health problems in the world, causing 1.75 million deaths each year. Rapid clinical diagnosis is important in patients who have co-morbidities such as Human Immunodefi...

    Authors: Luciene C Scherer, Rosa D Sperhacke, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Maria LR Rossetti, Claudia Vater, Paul Klatser and Afrânio L Kritski
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:216
  3. Infection with HIV-1 is characterized by genetic diversity such that specific viral subtypes are predominant in specific geographical areas. The genetic variation in HIV-1 pol and env genes is responsible for rap...

    Authors: Raphael W Lihana, Samoel A Khamadi, Raphael M Lwembe, Joyceline G Kinyua, Joseph K Muriuki, Nancy J Lagat, Fredrick A Okoth, Ernest P Makokha and Elijah M Songok
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:215
  4. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important form of viral encephalitis in Asia. Surveillance for the disease in many countries has been limited. To improve collection of accurate surveillance data in orde...

    Authors: Susan Hills, Alya Dabbagh, Julie Jacobson, Anthony Marfin, David Featherstone, Joachim Hombach, Pem Namgyal, Manju Rani and Tom Solomon
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:214
  5. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic sepsis marker, but has never been validated in febrile patients with prolonged ICU stay.

    Authors: Iraklis Tsangaris, Diamantis Plachouras, Dimitra Kavatha, George Michael Gourgoulis, Argirios Tsantes, Petros Kopterides, George Tsaknis, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Stylianos Orfanos, Evangelos Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Helen Giamarellou and Apostolos Armaganidis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:213
  6. Peritonitis continues to be the most frequent cause of peritoneal dialysis (PD) failure, with an important impact on patient mortality. Gram-positive cocci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, other coagulase-nega...

    Authors: Pasqual Barretti, Augusto C Montelli, Jackson EN Batalha, Jacqueline CT Caramori and Maria de Lourdes RS Cunha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:212
  7. Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the...

    Authors: Eduardo Samo Gudo, Nilesh B Bhatt, Dulce Ramalho Bila, Celina Monteiro Abreu, Amílcar Tanuri, Wilson Savino, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa and Ilesh V Jani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:211
  8. The epidemic of rabies showed a rising trend in China in recent years. To identify the potential factors involved in the emergence, we investigated and analyzed the status and characteristics of human rabies b...

    Authors: Miao Song, Qing Tang, Ding-Ming Wang, Zhao-Jun Mo, Shou-Heng Guo, Hao Li, Xiao-Yan Tao, Charles E Rupprecht, Zi-Jian Feng and Guo-Dong Liang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:210
  9. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulates the inflammatory response during sepsis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoid ...

    Authors: Takashi Miyauchi, Ryoske Tsuruta, Motoki Fujita, Tadashi Kaneko, Shunji Kasaoka and Tsuyoshi Maekawa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:209
  10. In the global eradication program for poliomyelitis, the laboratory diagnosis plays a critical role by isolating poliovirus (PV) from the stool samples of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. In this study, we...

    Authors: Minetaro Arita, Hua Ling, Dongmei Yan, Yorihiro Nishimura, Hiromu Yoshida, Takaji Wakita and Hiroyuki Shimizu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:208
  11. Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) may improve diagnostic accuracy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study compared the performance of the tuberculin skin test (TST) with that of IGRA for the diagn...

    Authors: Eun Young Kim, Ju Eun Lim, Ji Ye Jung, Ji Young Son, Kyung Jong Lee, Yoe Wun Yoon, Byung Hoon Park, Jin Wook Moon, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang and Young Ae Kang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:207
  12. A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify ...

    Authors: Kristine Mørch, Kurt Hanevik, Guri Rortveit, Knut-Arne Wensaas, Geir Egil Eide, Trygve Hausken and Nina Langeland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:206
  13. High rates of mortality and morbidity have been described in sub-Saharan African patients within the first few months of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is limited data on the caus...

    Authors: Teresa K Smith de Cherif, Jan H Schoeman, Susan Cleary, Graeme A Meintjes, Kevin Rebe and Gary Maartens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:205
  14. Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. Thi...

    Authors: Ha Vinh, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Pham Thanh Duy, James I Campbell, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Maciej F Boni, Phan Vu Tra My, Christopher Parry, Tran Thi Thu Nga, Pham Van Minh, Cao Thu Thuy, To Song Diep, Le Thi Phuong, Mai Thu Chinh, Ha Thi Loan…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:204
  15. The risk and course of serum transaminase elevations (TEs) and clinical hepatic serious adverse event (SAE) development in ritonavir-boosted tipranavir (TPV/r) 500/200 mg BID recipients, who also received addi...

    Authors: Jaromir Mikl, Mark S Sulkowski, Yves Benhamou, Douglas Dieterich, Stanislas Pol, Jürgen Rockstroh, Patrick A Robinson, Mithun Ranga and Jerry O Stern
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:203
  16. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) epidemic in Chongqing, China, is increasing rapidly with the dominant subtype of CRF07_BC over the past 3 years. Since human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms...

    Authors: Xia Huang, Hua Ling, Wei Mao, Xianbin Ding, Quanhua Zhou, Mei Han, Fang Wang, Lei Cheng and Hongyan Xiong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:201
  17. Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology o...

    Authors: Denis Malvy, Khaled Ezzedine, Maria Mamani-Matsuda, Brigitte Autran, Hugues Tolou, Marie-Catherine Receveur, Thierry Pistone, Jérome Rambert, Daniel Moynet and Djavad Mossalayi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:200
  18. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan diseases caused in Europe by Leishmania (L.) infantum. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. Among HIV infected patients t...

    Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Fabrizio Vitale, Stefano Reale, Giustina Vitale, Alessandra Casuccio, Manlio Tolomeo, Daniela Maranto, Raffaella Rubino, Paola Di Carlo and Lucina Titone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:199
  19. Combination antiretroviral (AR) therapy continues to be the mainstay for HIV treatment. However, antiretroviral drug nonadherence can lead to the development of resistance and treatment failure. We have design...

    Authors: Christopher J Destache, Todd Belgum, Keith Christensen, Annemarie Shibata, Akhilesh Sharma and Alekha Dash
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:198
  20. The overall incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Western Europe has been declining since the 19th Century. However, immigrant sub-groups from high-prevalence countries are slowing down this trend. The aim of this st...

    Authors: Judit Barniol, Stefan Niemann, Valérie R Louis, Bonita Brodhun, Caroline Dreweck, Elvira Richter, Heiko Becher, Walter Haas and Thomas Junghanss
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:197
  21. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community acquired pneumonia and bacteremia. Excess wintertime mortality related to pneumonia has been noted for over a century, but the seasonality of invasive pneu...

    Authors: Alexander NJ White, Victoria Ng, C Victor Spain, Caroline C Johnson, Laura M Kinlin and David N Fisman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:196
  22. Treatment of cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected children has proved difficult and unsatisfactory with no drugs having demonstrable efficacy in controlled trials except nitazoxanide. We hypothesised that a prolo...

    Authors: Beatrice Amadi, Mwiya Mwiya, Sandie Sianongo, Lara Payne, Angela Watuka, Max Katubulushi and Paul Kelly
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:195
  23. Infections caused by Nocardia farcinica are uncommon and show a great variety of clinical manifestations in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Because of its unspecific symptoms and tendency to disse...

    Authors: Michael Tachezy, Philipp Simon, Corina Ilchmann, Yogesh K Vashist, Jakob R Izbicki and Karim A Gawad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:194
  24. Ertapenem, a new carbapenem with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, has been approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal Infections (cIAIs), acute pelvic infections (APIs) and complicated skin ...

    Authors: Mao Mao An, Zui Zou, Hui Shen, Jun Dong Zhang, Meng Li Chen, Ping Liu, Rui Wang and Yuan Ying Jiang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:193
  25. HIV-1 penetrates the central nervous system, which is vital for HIV-associated dementia (HAD). But the role of cellular infiltration and activation together with HIV in the development of HAD is poorly underst...

    Authors: Li Zhou, Rejane Rua, Thomas Ng, Valentina Vongrad, Yung S Ho, Carolyn Geczy, Kenneth Hsu, Bruce J Brew and Nitin K Saksena
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:192
  26. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DN...

    Authors: Polat Dursun, Süheyla S Senger, Hande Arslan, Esra Kuşçu and Ali Ayhan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:191
  27. Syndromic surveillance is increasingly being evaluated for its potential for early warning of increased disease activity in the population. However, interpretation is hampered by the difficulty of attributing ...

    Authors: Suzanne K Schindeler, David J Muscatello, Mark J Ferson, Kris D Rogers, Paul Grant and Tim Churches
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:190
  28. Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to sc...

    Authors: Beatrice Lyons, Russel Stothard, David Rollinson, Simba Khamis, Khamis A Simai and Paul R Hunter
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:189
  29. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy describes a family of diseases affecting both man and animals. Current tests for the diagnosis of these diseases are based on the detection of an abnormal misfolded form...

    Authors: Janice B Barr, Michael Watson, Mark W Head, James W Ironside, Nathan Harris, Caroline Hogarth, Janet R Fraser and Rona Barron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:188
  30. Mathematical modelling of infectious disease is increasingly used to help guide public health policy. As directly transmitted infections, such as influenza and tuberculosis, require contact between individuals...

    Authors: Niel Hens, Girma Minalu Ayele, Nele Goeyvaerts, Marc Aerts, Joel Mossong, John W Edmunds and Philippe Beutels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:187
  31. Antigen specificity and IgG subclass could be significant in the natural history of Chagas' disease. The relationship between the different stages of human Chagas' disease and the profiles of total IgG and its...

    Authors: Ivonne D Flechas, Adriana Cuellar, Zulma M Cucunubá, Fernando Rosas, Víctor Velasco, Mario Steindel, María del Carmen Thomas, Manuel Carlos López, John Mario González and Concepción Judith Puerta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:186
  32. Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening an...

    Authors: Hee-Soon Juon, Kui Son Choi, Eun-Cheol Park, Min-Son Kwak and Sunmin Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:185
  33. Shigellosis causes diarrheal disease in humans from both developed and developing countries, and multi-drug resistance is an emerging problem. The objective of this study is to present a unified approach that ...

    Authors: Sawsan Al-Nimri, Woutrina A Miller, Barbara A Byrne, Gerry Guibert and Lily Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:184
  34. There is limited information in the literature on the presentation and prognosis of candidal urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    Authors: Joan L Robinson, H Dele Davies, Michelle Barton, Karel O'Brien, Kim Simpson, Elizabeth Asztalos, Anne Synnes, Earl Rubin, Nicole Le Saux, Charles Hui, Joanne M Langley, Reg Sauve, Louis de Repentigny, Lajos Kovacs, Ben Tan and Susan E Richardson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:183
  35. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) were designed to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, discrepancies were found between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRAs results that can...

    Authors: Ornella Butera, Teresa Chiacchio, Stefania Carrara, Rita Casetti, Valentina Vanini, Serena Meraviglia, Giuliana Guggino, Francesco Dieli, Marco Vecchi, Francesco N Lauria, Almerico Marruchella, Patrizia Laurenti, Mahavir Singh, Nadia Caccamo, Enrico Girardi and Delia Goletti
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:182
  36. To design an effective strategy for the control of malaria requires a map of infection and disease risks to select appropriate suites of interventions. Advances in model based geo-statistics and malaria parasi...

    Authors: Abdisalan M Noor, Peter W Gething, Victor A Alegana, Anand P Patil, Simon I Hay, Eric Muchiri, Elizabeth Juma and Robert W Snow
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:180
  37. Cryptosporidium parvum, the protozoan parasite, causes a significant enteric disease in immunocompromised hosts such as HIV patients. The present study was aimed to compare serum IgG, IgM and IgA responses to cr...

    Authors: Kirti Kaushik, Sumeeta Khurana, Ajay Wanchu and Nancy Malla
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:179
  38. Moraxella catarrhalis causes approximately 10% of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and also colonizes the lower airway in stable patients. Little is known about the effects of coloni...

    Authors: Ganapathi I Parameswaran, Catherine T Wrona, Timothy F Murphy and Sanjay Sethi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:178
  39. We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP) technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR) for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of...

    Authors: Beata Krawczyk, Justyna Leibner-Ciszak, Anna Mielech, Magdalena Nowak and Józef Kur
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:177
  40. Surgeons may improve their decision making by assessing the extent to which their initial clinical diagnosis of a surgical site infection (SSI) was supported by culture results. Aim of the present study was to...

    Authors: Marco Krukerink, Job Kievit and Perla J Marang-van de Mheen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:176
  41. In February 2005, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the new meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) for routine use among 11- to 12-year-olds (at the preadolescent health-care visi...

    Authors: Suchita A Lorick, Daniel Fishbein, Eric Weintraub, Pascale M Wortley, Grace M Lee, Fangjun Zhou and Robert Davis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:175
  42. Chemokines have been reported to play an important role in granulomatous inflammation during Schistosoma mansoni infection. However there is less information on their role in Schistosoma haematobium infection, or...

    Authors: RBL Zinyama-Gutsire, E Gomo, P Kallestrup, C Erikstrup, H Ullum, AE Butterworth, S Munyati and T Mduluza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:174
  43. In Germany, the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 occurred among wild birds on the island of Ruegen between February and April 2006. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of...

    Authors: Wei Cai, Brunhilde Schweiger, Udo Buchholz, Silke Buda, Martina Littmann, Jörg Heusler and Walter Haas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:170
  44. Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barrier...

    Authors: Janneke H van Dijk, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Bornface Munsanje, Francis Hamangaba, Philip E Thuma and William J Moss
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:169
  45. There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) was established in ...

    Authors: Sek Mardy, Sovann Ly, Seng Heng, Sirenda Vong, Chea Huch, Chea Nora, Nima Asgari, Megge Miller, Isabelle Bergeri, Sybille Rehmet, Duong Veasna, Weigong Zhou, Takeshi Kasai, Sok Touch and Philippe Buchy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:168

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