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  1. West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and a significant level of antibodies is present in the population due to natural exposure. Anecdotal cases suggested that the presence of anti-WNV antibodies in intr...

    Authors: David Ben-Nathan, Orly Gershoni-Yahalom, Itzchak Samina, Yevgeny Khinich, Israel Nur, Orgad Laub, Ahuva Gottreich, Michael Simanov, Angel Porgador, Bracha Rager-Zisman and Nadav Orr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:18
  2. Developing vaccines for the prevention of human infection by H5N1 influenza viruses is an urgent task. DNA vaccines are a novel alternative to conventional vaccines and should contribute to the prophylaxis of ...

    Authors: Liyun Zheng, Fuyan Wang, Zhongdong Yang, Jianjun Chen, Haiyan Chang and Ze Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:17
  3. High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions.

    Authors: Rosita Verteramo, Alessandra Pierangeli, Emanuela Mancini, Ettore Calzolari, Mauro Bucci, John Osborn, Rosa Nicosia, Fernanda Chiarini, Guido Antonelli and Anna Marta Degener
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:16
  4. A new generation of diagnostic tests, the interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), have been developed for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Limited data are available on their use in HIV-infe...

    Authors: Naasha J Talati, Ulrich Seybold, Bianca Humphrey, Abiola Aina, Jane Tapia, Paul Weinfurter, Rachel Albalak and Henry M Blumberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:15
  5. Little is known about the prevalence of HIV or HCV in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Serbia and Montenegro. We measured prevalence of antibodies to HIV (anti-HIV) and hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and risk fac...

    Authors: Ali Judd, Tim Rhodes, Lisa G Johnston, Lucy Platt, Violeta Andjelkovic, Danijela Simić, Boban Mugosa, Milena Simić, Sonja Žerjav, Ruth P Parry and John V Parry
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:14
  6. Monitoring the incidence of bacterial meningitis is important to plan and evaluate preventive polices. The study's aim was to estimate the incidence of bacterial meningitis by aetiological agent in the period ...

    Authors: Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Jessica Mantovani, Eliana Ferroni, Antonio Forcina, Elena Stanghellini, Filippo Curtale and Piero Borgia
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:13
  7. The identification and differentiation of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by DNA fingerprinting has provided a better understanding of the epidemiology and tracing the transmission of tuberculosis. We set o...

    Authors: Benon B Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba, Solomon Ghebremichael, Tuija Koivula, David P Kateete, Fred A Katabazi, Alexander Pennhag, Ramona Petersson and Gunilla Kallenius
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:12
  8. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases through the mandatory-reporting system is crucial in the planning and evaluation of disease control and prevention program. This study investigated the repor...

    Authors: Hsiu-Fen Tan, Chia-Yu Yeh, Hsueh-Wei Chang, Chen-Kang Chang and Hung-Fu Tseng
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:11
  9. Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial agent which is used for the treatment of skin and postoperative wound infections, and the prevention of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). H...

    Authors: Adebayo O Shittu, Edet E Udo and Johnson Lin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:10
  10. Epidemiologic studies show a strong association between Ureaplasmas and urogenital tract disease in humans. Since healthy humans can be colonized with Ureaplasmas, its role as a pathogen remains controversial. In...

    Authors: Leticia Reyes, Mary Reinhard and Mary B Brown
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:9
  11. Plasmid encoded bla CTX-M enzymes represent an important sub-group of class A β-lactamases causing the ESBL phenotype which is increasingly found in Enterobacteriaceae inclu...

    Authors: Hans-Jürg Monstein, Maria Tärnberg and Lennart E Nilsson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:7
  12. Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic i...

    Authors: Rutger Persson, Jane Hitti, Rita Verhelst, Mario Vaneechoutte, Rigmor Persson, Regula Hirschi, Marianne Weibel, Marilynn Rothen, Marleen Temmerman, Kathleen Paul and David Eschenbach
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:6
  13. Until recently, mathematical models of person to person infectious diseases transmission had to make assumptions on transmissions enabled by personal contacts by estimating the so-called WAIFW-matrix. In order...

    Authors: Niel Hens, Nele Goeyvaerts, Marc Aerts, Ziv Shkedy, Pierre Van Damme and Philippe Beutels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:5
  14. Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of c...

    Authors: Mong How Ooi, See Chang Wong, Anand Mohan, Yuwana Podin, David Perera, Daniella Clear, Sylvia del Sel, Chae Hee Chieng, Phaik Hooi Tio, Mary Jane Cardosa and Tom Solomon
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:3
  15. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a trivalent inactivated split virus influenza vaccine (TIV) against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B in adults 18 to 64 years of age during the 2005/2006 season i...

    Authors: Jiří Beran, Veronika Wertzova, Karel Honegr, Eva Kaliskova, Martina Havlickova, Jiří Havlik, Helena Jirincova, Pascale Van Belle, Varsha Jain, Bruce Innis and Jeanne-Marie Devaster
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:2
  16. The amount of CD4 T cells is used for monitoring HIV progression and improvement, and to make decisions to start antiretroviral therapy and prophylactic drugs for opportunistic infections. The aim of this stud...

    Authors: Bernard J Ngowi, Sayoki G Mfinanga, Johan N Bruun and Odd Morkve
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:1
  17. Preventing HIV transmission is a worldwide public health issue. Vertical transmission of HIV from a mother can be prevented with diagnosis and treatment, but screening incurs cost. The U.S. Virgin Islands foll...

    Authors: Belinda Udeh, Chiedozie Udeh and Nicholas Graves
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:174
  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) causes a wide range of clinical manifestations that together constitute a major burden of disease worldwide. The main route of pneumococcal transmission is through asympto...

    Authors: Tuija Leino, Fabian Hoti, Ritva Syrjänen, Antti Tanskanen and Kari Auranen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:173
  19. Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the ef...

    Authors: Jan Walter, Louise Kuhn, Chipepo Kankasa, Katherine Semrau, Moses Sinkala, Donald M Thea and Grace M Aldrovandi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:172
  20. The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 181/100,000 population. However, information about transmission and geographical prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their evolutionary genetics as we...

    Authors: Mahnaz Tanveer, Zahra Hasan, Amna R Siddiqui, Asho Ali, Akbar Kanji, Solomon Ghebremicheal and Rumina Hasan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:171
  21. The control of tuberculosis in densely populated cities is complicated by close human-to-human contacts and potential transmission of pathogens from multiple sources. We conducted a molecular epidemiologic ana...

    Authors: Horng-Yunn Dou, Fan-Chen Tseng, Chih-Wei Lin, Jia-Ru Chang, Jun-Ren Sun, Wen-Shing Tsai, Shi-Yi Lee, Ih-Jen Su and Jang-Jih Lu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:170
  22. Reported rates of Chlamydia trachomatis are on the rise contradicting the declining rates of C. trachomatis associated reproductive sequelae in Western countries. Population based evaluation of the real trend of

    Authors: Erika Lyytikäinen, Marjo Kaasila, Eija Hiltunen-Back, Matti Lehtinen, Kaisa Tasanen, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Pentti Koskela and Jorma Paavonen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:169
  23. Chandipura virus (CHPV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae was attributed to an explosive outbreak of acute encephalitis in children in Andhra Pradesh, India in 2003 and a small outbreak among tribal children from...

    Authors: Satyendra Kumar, Ramesh S Jadi, Sudeep B Anakkathil, Babasaheb V Tandale, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra and Vidya A Arankalle
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:168
  24. Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infect...

    Authors: Heng Sopheab, Guy Morineau, Joyce J Neal, Vonthanak Saphonn and Knut Fylkesnes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:167
  25. The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996–2004 to assess levels of drug resistance.

    Authors: Guang Xue He, Yan Lin Zhao, Guang Lu Jiang, Yu Hong Liu, Hui Xia, Sheng Fen Wang, Li Xia Wang, Martien W Borgdorff, Marieke J van der Werf and Susan van den Hof
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:166
  26. Human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals are prone to malnutrition due to increased energy requirements, enteropathy and increased catabolism. Trace elements such as zinc and selenium have major role ...

    Authors: H Khalili, A Soudbakhsh, M Hajiabdolbaghi, S Dashti-Khavidaki, A Poorzare, AA Saeedi and R Sharififar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:165
  27. The progression of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is influenced by host and viral factors. Distinct clinical outcomes in patients infected with different HCV genotypes...

    Authors: Aline G Vigani, Maria H Pavan, Raquel Tozzo, Eduardo SL Gonçales, Adriana Feltrin, Viviane C Fais, Maria SK Lazarini, Neiva SL Gonçales and Fernando L Gonçales Jr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:164
  28. Blood stream infections (BSI) are life-threatening infections in intensive care units (ICU), and prognosis is highly dependent on early detection. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to accurately and quickly...

    Authors: Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Sylvain Ladoire, Aurélie Snauwaert, Sébastien Prin, Serge Aho, André Pechinot, Niels-Olivier Olsson, Bernard Blettery, Jean-Marc Doise and Jean-Pierre Quenot
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:163
  29. Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poo...

    Authors: Kunda John, Rudovic Kazwala and Godfrey S Mfinanga
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:162
  30. Over the past ten years MRSA has become endemic in hospitals and is associated with increased healthcare costs. Critically ill patients are most at risk, in part because of the number of invasive therapies tha...

    Authors: Gillian Thompson, Bronagh Blackwood, Ronan McMullan, Fiona A Alderdice, T John Trinder, Gavin G Lavery and Danny F McAuley
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:161
  31. Miliary pulmonary nodules are commonly caused by various infections and cancers. We sought to identify the relative frequencies of various aetiologies and the clinical and radiographic predictors of miliary tu...

    Authors: Sang-Man Jin, Hyun Ju Lee, Eun-Ah Park, Ho Yun Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Seok-Chul Yang, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young-Soo Shim and Jae-Joon Yim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:160
  32. Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive s...

    Authors: W Urassa, C Moshiro, G Chalamilla, F Mhalu and E Sandstrom
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:159
  33. The overlapping geographical and socio-economic distribution of malaria and helminth infection has led to several studies investigating the immunological and pathological interactions of these parasites. This ...

    Authors: L Reilly, C Magkrioti, T Mduluza, DR Cavanagh and F Mutapi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:158
  34. Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007) after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the p...

    Authors: Philipp Kaysser, Erik Seibold, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Martin Pfeffer, Sandra Essbauer and Wolf D Splettstoesser
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:157
  35. Mortality in Zambian AIDS patients is high, especially in patients with diarrhoea, and there is still unacceptably high mortality in Zambian patients just starting anti-retroviral therapy. We set out to determ...

    Authors: Isaac Zulu, Ghaniah Hassan, Lungowe Njobvu RN, Winnie Dhaliwal, Sandie Sianongo and Paul Kelly
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:156
  36. The incidence and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the inciden...

    Authors: Masao Hashimoto, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Sumihito Tamura, Junichi Kaneko, Yuichi Matsui, Junichi Togashi, Kyoji Moriya, Kazuhiko Koike and Masatoshi Makuuchi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:155
  37. Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group. Clinical disease with S. intermedius is characterized by abscess formation and rarely endocarditis. Identification of Streptococcus int...

    Authors: MaryAnn P Tran, Molly Caldwell-McMillan, Walid Khalife and Vincent B Young
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:154
  38. Infectious disease (ID) is a dynamic field with new guidelines being adopted at a rapid rate. Clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have proven beneficial in selecting treatment options to improve outcomes. ...

    Authors: Hyla H Polen, Antonia Zapantis, Kevin A Clauson, Jennifer Jebrock and Mark Paris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:153
  39. In March 2007, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of Swedish individuals diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis after staying at a Norwegian hotel. In Norway, cryptosporidiosis is not reportable, ...

    Authors: Agnes Hajdu, Line Vold, Torild A Østmo, Anna Helleve, Sigrid R Helgebostad, Truls Krogh, Lucy Robertson, Birgitta de Jong and Karin Nygård
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:152
  40. There has been a marked increase in the incidence of, and concern regarding, human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections worldwide during the last decade. As the highest infectious disease control apparatus...

    Authors: Ji-Rong Yang, Ho-Sheng Wu, Chuen-Sheue Chiang and Jung-Jung Mu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:151
  41. In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 po...

    Authors: Silvio Tafuri, Rosa Prato, Domenico Martinelli, Agata Calvario, Anna Bozzi, Michele Labianca, Annamaria Patti, Pietro Luigi Lopalco and Cinzia Germinario
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:150
  42. Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples o...

    Authors: Günter Kampf, Mirja Reichel, Yvonne Feil, Sven Eggerstedt and Paul-Michael Kaulfers
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:149
  43. The identification of clinical factors associated with negative blood cultures could help to avoid unnecessary blood cultures. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established inflammation marker commonly used i...

    Authors: Boris P Ehrenstein, Vera Ehrenstein, Christine Henke, Hans-Jörg Linde, Bernd Salzberger, Jürgen Schölmerich and Thomas Glück
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:148
  44. On October 8, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 hit the Northern parts of Pakistan. In the post-earthquake scenario, overcrowding, improper sewage disposal, contamination of food and drinking water, hasty s...

    Authors: Saeed Khan, Mohammad A Rai, Adnan Khan, Amber Farooqui, Shahana U Kazmi and Syed H Ali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:147
  45. Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for host defense in rodents, but the role of NO during tuberculosis (TB) in man remains controversial. However, earlier observations that arginine supplementation facilitates ant...

    Authors: Jonna Idh, Anna Westman, Daniel Elias, Feleke Moges, Assefa Getachew, Aschalew Gelaw, Tommy Sundqvist, Tony Forslund, Addis Alemu, Belete Ayele, Ermias Diro, Endalkachew Melese, Yared Wondmikun, Sven Britton, Olle Stendahl and Thomas Schön
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:146
  46. Antibiotics are recommended for severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) could be a useful tool for selectin...

    Authors: Cédric Daubin, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Astrid Vabret, Michel Ramakers, Sabine Fradin, Nicolas Terzi, François Freymuth, Pierre Charbonneau and Damien du Cheyron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:145
  47. Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been associated with metabolic complications. There is a trend to switch to simpler therapy to improve these disturbances. We report a case-series describing the effects in metab...

    Authors: M Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jose Tomas Ramos Amador, M Jose Mellado Peña, M Luisa Navarro Gomez, Pablo Rojo Conejo and Pablo Martin Fontelos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:144
  48. The aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalisation in adults frequently remains unclear. Our objective was to study the causes and characteristics of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis i...

    Authors: Andreas Jansen, Klaus Stark, Jan Kunkel, Eckart Schreier, Ralf Ignatius, Oliver Liesenfeld, Dirk Werber, Ulf B Göbel, Martin Zeitz and Thomas Schneider
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:143

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