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  1. Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Madagascar. The capital, Antananarivo is the most seriously affected area. TB had a non-random spatial distribution ...

    Authors: Rindra V Randremanana, Vincent Richard, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Philippe Sabatier and Dominique J Bicout
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:21
  2. Persistent symptoms after treatment for neuroborreliosis are common for reasons mainly unknown. These symptoms are often unspecific and could be caused by dysfunctions in endocrine systems, an issue that has n...

    Authors: Ivar Tjernberg, Martin Carlsson, Jan Ernerudh, Ingvar Eliasson and Pia Forsberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:20
  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is...

    Authors: Stanley MF Luchters, Davy Vanden Broeck, Matthew F Chersich, Annalene Nel, Wim Delva, Kishor Mandaliya, Christophe E Depuydt, Patricia Claeys, John-Paul Bogers and Marleen Temmerman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:18
  4. Despite medical advances, mortality in infective endocarditis (IE) is still very high. Previous studies on prognosis in IE have observed conflicting results. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of...

    Authors: Juan Gálvez-Acebal, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Francisco J Martínez-Marcos, Jose M Reguera, Antonio Plata, Josefa Ruiz, Manuel Marquez, Jose M Lomas, Javier de la Torre-Lima, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio and Arístides de Alarcón
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:17
  5. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is likely a marker of underlying immune compromise. Our objective was to determine race and sex differences in extrapulmonary tuberculosis risk in order to identify the optimal popu...

    Authors: Christina T Fiske, Marie R Griffin, Holt Erin, Jon Warkentin, Kaltenbach Lisa, Patrick G Arbogast and Timothy R Sterling
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:16
  6. Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admiss...

    Authors: Emelda A Okiro, Lisa J White, Mwanajuma Ngama, Patricia A Cane, Graham F Medley and D James Nokes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:15
  7. Influenza pandemic outbreaks occurred in the US in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Historical evidence suggests that the majority of influenza-related deaths during the 1918 US pandemic were attributable to bacterial pn...

    Authors: Jaime L Rubin, Lisa J McGarry, Keith P Klugman, David R Strutton, Kristen E Gilmore and Milton C Weinstein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:14
  8. Gonorrhea is a major sexually transmitted disease (STD) in many countries worldwide. The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance has complicated efforts to control and treat this disease. We report the first s...

    Authors: Loubna Tazi, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Weiming Gu, Yang Yang, Lin Xue, Keith A Crandall and Raphael P Viscidi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:13
  9. Evidence for protection of preterm born infants from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV7) is relatively sparse. Data from randomized trials is based on rela...

    Authors: Simon Rückinger, Mark van der Linden and Rüdiger von Kries
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:12
  10. Currently available tools cannot be used to distinguish between sub-species of the M. tuberculosis complex causing latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. M. africanum causes up to half of TB in West- Africa and its ...

    Authors: Bouke C de Jong, Abdulrahman Hammond, Jacob K Otu, Martin Antonio, Richard A Adegbola and Martin O Ota
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:11
  11. It has been shown previously that administration of Francisella tularensis (Ft) Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects mice against subsequent challenge with Ft LVS and blunts the pro-inflamm...

    Authors: Saroj K Mohapatra, Leah E Cole, Clive Evans, Bruno W Sobral, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Raquel Hontecillas, Stefanie N Vogel and Oswald R Crasta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:10
  12. Few studies have assessed long term persisting immunity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children vaccinated during infancy with combined vaccines containing recombinant HBV surface antigen (HBs). We assesse...

    Authors: Michael Steiner, Gunasekaran Ramakrishnan, Britta Gartner, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Jeanne-Marie Jacquet and Volker Schuster
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:9
  13. Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection...

    Authors: Chris J Williams, Brunhilde Schweiger, Genia Diner, Frank Gerlach, Frank Haaman, Gérard Krause, Albert Nienhaus and Udo Buchholz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:8
  14. We have previously reported a HIV-1 subtype A infection in a community of injection drug users (IDUs) in Karachi, Pakistan. We now show that this infection among the IDUs may have originated from a single source.

    Authors: Mohammad A Rai, Vivek R Nerurkar, Suhail Khoja, Saeed Khan, Richard Yanagihara, Arish Rehman, Shahana U Kazmi and Syed H Ali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:7
  15. Induction-maintenance therapy is a treatment regime where patients are prescribed an intense course of treatment for a short period of time (the induction phase), followed by a simplified long-term regimen (ma...

    Authors: Rachelle E Miron and Robert J Smith
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:6
  16. A pandemic novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus has emerged. Most recently the World Health Organization has announced that in a country-dependent fashion, up to 15% of cases may require hospitalization, of...

    Authors: Tom Reichert, Gerardo Chowell, Hiroshi Nishiura, Ronald A Christensen and Jonathan A McCullers
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:5
  17. Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. In immune competent individuals, Toxoplasma gondii preferentially infects tissues of central nervous systems, which might be an adding factor of...

    Authors: Yue Xiao, Jigang Yin, Ning Jiang, Mei Xiang, Lili Hao, Huijun Lu, Hong Sang, Xianying Liu, Huiji Xu, Johan Ankarklev, Johan Lindh and Qijun Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:4
  18. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal p...

    Authors: Charisma Dilantika, Endang R Sedyaningsih, Matthew R Kasper, Magdarina Agtini, Erlin Listiyaningsih, Timothy M Uyeki, Timothy H Burgess, Patrick J Blair and Shannon D Putnam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:3
  19. Valganciclovir, the oral prodrug of ganciclovir, has been demonstrated equivalent to iv ganciclovir for CMV disease treatment in solid organ transplant recipients. Variability in ganciclovir exposure achieved ...

    Authors: Nancy Perrottet, Oriol Manuel, Frédéric Lamoth, Jean-Pierre Venetz, Roland Sahli, Laurent A Decosterd, Thierry Buclin, Manuel Pascual and Pascal Meylan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:2
  20. Bacteremia and systemic complications both play important roles in brain pathophysiological alterations and the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. Their individual contributions to the development of brain da...

    Authors: Christian Østergaard, Stephen L Leib, Ian Rowland and Christian T Brandt
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:1
  21. The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has decreased since the 1990s, reflecting worldwide efforts to identify and treat TB according to WHO recommendations. However TB remains an important ...

    Authors: Omar Kherad, François R Herrmann, Jean-Pierre Zellweger, Thierry Rochat and Jean-Paul Janssens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:217
  22. Tuberculosis is one of the most prominent health problems in the world, causing 1.75 million deaths each year. Rapid clinical diagnosis is important in patients who have co-morbidities such as Human Immunodefi...

    Authors: Luciene C Scherer, Rosa D Sperhacke, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Maria LR Rossetti, Claudia Vater, Paul Klatser and Afrânio L Kritski
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:216
  23. Infection with HIV-1 is characterized by genetic diversity such that specific viral subtypes are predominant in specific geographical areas. The genetic variation in HIV-1 pol and env genes is responsible for rap...

    Authors: Raphael W Lihana, Samoel A Khamadi, Raphael M Lwembe, Joyceline G Kinyua, Joseph K Muriuki, Nancy J Lagat, Fredrick A Okoth, Ernest P Makokha and Elijah M Songok
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:215
  24. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important form of viral encephalitis in Asia. Surveillance for the disease in many countries has been limited. To improve collection of accurate surveillance data in orde...

    Authors: Susan Hills, Alya Dabbagh, Julie Jacobson, Anthony Marfin, David Featherstone, Joachim Hombach, Pem Namgyal, Manju Rani and Tom Solomon
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:214
  25. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic sepsis marker, but has never been validated in febrile patients with prolonged ICU stay.

    Authors: Iraklis Tsangaris, Diamantis Plachouras, Dimitra Kavatha, George Michael Gourgoulis, Argirios Tsantes, Petros Kopterides, George Tsaknis, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Stylianos Orfanos, Evangelos Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Helen Giamarellou and Apostolos Armaganidis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:213
  26. Peritonitis continues to be the most frequent cause of peritoneal dialysis (PD) failure, with an important impact on patient mortality. Gram-positive cocci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, other coagulase-nega...

    Authors: Pasqual Barretti, Augusto C Montelli, Jackson EN Batalha, Jacqueline CT Caramori and Maria de Lourdes RS Cunha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:212
  27. Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the...

    Authors: Eduardo Samo Gudo, Nilesh B Bhatt, Dulce Ramalho Bila, Celina Monteiro Abreu, Amílcar Tanuri, Wilson Savino, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa and Ilesh V Jani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:211
  28. The epidemic of rabies showed a rising trend in China in recent years. To identify the potential factors involved in the emergence, we investigated and analyzed the status and characteristics of human rabies b...

    Authors: Miao Song, Qing Tang, Ding-Ming Wang, Zhao-Jun Mo, Shou-Heng Guo, Hao Li, Xiao-Yan Tao, Charles E Rupprecht, Zi-Jian Feng and Guo-Dong Liang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:210
  29. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulates the inflammatory response during sepsis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoid ...

    Authors: Takashi Miyauchi, Ryoske Tsuruta, Motoki Fujita, Tadashi Kaneko, Shunji Kasaoka and Tsuyoshi Maekawa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:209
  30. In the global eradication program for poliomyelitis, the laboratory diagnosis plays a critical role by isolating poliovirus (PV) from the stool samples of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. In this study, we...

    Authors: Minetaro Arita, Hua Ling, Dongmei Yan, Yorihiro Nishimura, Hiromu Yoshida, Takaji Wakita and Hiroyuki Shimizu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:208
  31. Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) may improve diagnostic accuracy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study compared the performance of the tuberculin skin test (TST) with that of IGRA for the diagn...

    Authors: Eun Young Kim, Ju Eun Lim, Ji Ye Jung, Ji Young Son, Kyung Jong Lee, Yoe Wun Yoon, Byung Hoon Park, Jin Wook Moon, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang and Young Ae Kang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:207
  32. A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify ...

    Authors: Kristine Mørch, Kurt Hanevik, Guri Rortveit, Knut-Arne Wensaas, Geir Egil Eide, Trygve Hausken and Nina Langeland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:206
  33. High rates of mortality and morbidity have been described in sub-Saharan African patients within the first few months of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is limited data on the caus...

    Authors: Teresa K Smith de Cherif, Jan H Schoeman, Susan Cleary, Graeme A Meintjes, Kevin Rebe and Gary Maartens
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:205
  34. Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. Thi...

    Authors: Ha Vinh, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Pham Thanh Duy, James I Campbell, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Maciej F Boni, Phan Vu Tra My, Christopher Parry, Tran Thi Thu Nga, Pham Van Minh, Cao Thu Thuy, To Song Diep, Le Thi Phuong, Mai Thu Chinh, Ha Thi Loan…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:204
  35. The risk and course of serum transaminase elevations (TEs) and clinical hepatic serious adverse event (SAE) development in ritonavir-boosted tipranavir (TPV/r) 500/200 mg BID recipients, who also received addi...

    Authors: Jaromir Mikl, Mark S Sulkowski, Yves Benhamou, Douglas Dieterich, Stanislas Pol, Jürgen Rockstroh, Patrick A Robinson, Mithun Ranga and Jerry O Stern
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:203
  36. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) epidemic in Chongqing, China, is increasing rapidly with the dominant subtype of CRF07_BC over the past 3 years. Since human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms...

    Authors: Xia Huang, Hua Ling, Wei Mao, Xianbin Ding, Quanhua Zhou, Mei Han, Fang Wang, Lei Cheng and Hongyan Xiong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:201
  37. Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology o...

    Authors: Denis Malvy, Khaled Ezzedine, Maria Mamani-Matsuda, Brigitte Autran, Hugues Tolou, Marie-Catherine Receveur, Thierry Pistone, Jérome Rambert, Daniel Moynet and Djavad Mossalayi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:200
  38. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan diseases caused in Europe by Leishmania (L.) infantum. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. Among HIV infected patients t...

    Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Fabrizio Vitale, Stefano Reale, Giustina Vitale, Alessandra Casuccio, Manlio Tolomeo, Daniela Maranto, Raffaella Rubino, Paola Di Carlo and Lucina Titone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:199
  39. Combination antiretroviral (AR) therapy continues to be the mainstay for HIV treatment. However, antiretroviral drug nonadherence can lead to the development of resistance and treatment failure. We have design...

    Authors: Christopher J Destache, Todd Belgum, Keith Christensen, Annemarie Shibata, Akhilesh Sharma and Alekha Dash
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:198
  40. The overall incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Western Europe has been declining since the 19th Century. However, immigrant sub-groups from high-prevalence countries are slowing down this trend. The aim of this st...

    Authors: Judit Barniol, Stefan Niemann, Valérie R Louis, Bonita Brodhun, Caroline Dreweck, Elvira Richter, Heiko Becher, Walter Haas and Thomas Junghanss
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:197
  41. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community acquired pneumonia and bacteremia. Excess wintertime mortality related to pneumonia has been noted for over a century, but the seasonality of invasive pneu...

    Authors: Alexander NJ White, Victoria Ng, C Victor Spain, Caroline C Johnson, Laura M Kinlin and David N Fisman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:196
  42. Treatment of cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected children has proved difficult and unsatisfactory with no drugs having demonstrable efficacy in controlled trials except nitazoxanide. We hypothesised that a prolo...

    Authors: Beatrice Amadi, Mwiya Mwiya, Sandie Sianongo, Lara Payne, Angela Watuka, Max Katubulushi and Paul Kelly
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:195
  43. Infections caused by Nocardia farcinica are uncommon and show a great variety of clinical manifestations in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Because of its unspecific symptoms and tendency to disse...

    Authors: Michael Tachezy, Philipp Simon, Corina Ilchmann, Yogesh K Vashist, Jakob R Izbicki and Karim A Gawad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:194
  44. Ertapenem, a new carbapenem with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, has been approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal Infections (cIAIs), acute pelvic infections (APIs) and complicated skin ...

    Authors: Mao Mao An, Zui Zou, Hui Shen, Jun Dong Zhang, Meng Li Chen, Ping Liu, Rui Wang and Yuan Ying Jiang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:193
  45. HIV-1 penetrates the central nervous system, which is vital for HIV-associated dementia (HAD). But the role of cellular infiltration and activation together with HIV in the development of HAD is poorly underst...

    Authors: Li Zhou, Rejane Rua, Thomas Ng, Valentina Vongrad, Yung S Ho, Carolyn Geczy, Kenneth Hsu, Bruce J Brew and Nitin K Saksena
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:192
  46. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DN...

    Authors: Polat Dursun, Süheyla S Senger, Hande Arslan, Esra Kuşçu and Ali Ayhan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:191
  47. Syndromic surveillance is increasingly being evaluated for its potential for early warning of increased disease activity in the population. However, interpretation is hampered by the difficulty of attributing ...

    Authors: Suzanne K Schindeler, David J Muscatello, Mark J Ferson, Kris D Rogers, Paul Grant and Tim Churches
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:190
  48. Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to sc...

    Authors: Beatrice Lyons, Russel Stothard, David Rollinson, Simba Khamis, Khamis A Simai and Paul R Hunter
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:189

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