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  1. Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretr...

    Authors: Sassan Sangsari, M-J Milloy, Amir Ibrahim, Thomas Kerr, Ruth Zhang, Julio Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:22
  2. Very few data are available on treatment outcomes of adolescents living with HIV infection (whether perinatally acquired or sexually acquired) in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study therefore compared the tr...

    Authors: Mweete D Nglazi, Katharina Kranzer, Pearl Holele, Richard Kaplan, Daniella Mark, Heather Jaspan, Stephen D Lawn, Robin Wood and Linda-Gail Bekker
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:21
  3. Leptospires are presumed to enter their host via small abrasions or breaches of the skin. The intraperitoneal route, although commonly used in guinea pig and hamster models of leptospirosis, does not reflect c...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Xiao-Li Lou, Hong-Liang Yang, Xiao-Kui Guo, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Ping He and Xu-Cheng Jiang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:20
  4. Leptospirosis has recently been discussed as an emerging infectious disease in many contexts, including changes in environmental drivers of disease transmission and the emergence of serovars. In this paper, we...

    Authors: Colleen L Lau, Chris Skelly, Lee D Smythe, Scott B Craig and Philip Weinstein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:19
  5. Kidney disease is an important complication in HIV infected people, and this may be related to infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our aim is to assess renal function in HIV infected paediatric patients...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Nicola Cotugno, Donato Amodio, Paola Zangari, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Stefania Baldassari, Paolo Palma and Stefania Bernardi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:18
  6. Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) is considered a rare cause of granulomatous hepatitis. Due to the fastidious growth characteristics of the bacteria, the limited sensitivity of histopathological stains, and the...

    Authors: Thomas R VanderHeyden, Sherri L Yong, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, Amanda R Mihalik, Jorge P Parada and Claus J Fimmel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:17
  7. The first-ever round of school-based mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel together with mebendazole targeting school-aged children in endemic districts was conducted in 2009 by the National Neglect...

    Authors: Mary H Hodges, Nsa Dada, Anna Warmsley, Jusufu Paye, Momodu M Bangura, Emanuel Nyorkor, Mustapha Sonnie and Yaobi Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:16
  8. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying h...

    Authors: Rodrigo M Narvaez-Rivera, Adrian Rendon, Mario C Salinas-Carmona and Adrian G Rosas-Taraco
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:15
  9. HIV-associated general immune activation is a strong predictor for HIV disease progression, suggesting that chronic immune activation may drive HIV pathogenesis. Consequently, immunomodulating agents may decel...

    Authors: Christa Kasang, Albrecht Ulmer, Norbert Donhauser, Barbara Schmidt, August Stich, Hartwig Klinker, Samuel Kalluvya, Eleni Koutsilieri, Axel Rethwilm and Carsten Scheller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:14
  10. Severe Clostridium difficile toxin-induced enteritis is characterized by exuberant intestinal tissue inflammation, epithelial disruption and diarrhea. Adenosine, through its action on the adenosine A2A receptor, ...

    Authors: Cirle Alcantara Warren, Gina M Calabrese, Yuesheng Li, Sean W Pawlowski, Robert A Figler, Jayson Rieger, Peter B Ernst, Joel Linden and Richard L Guerrant
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:13
  11. Influenza infections may result in different clinical presentations. This study aims to determine the clinical differences between circulating influenza strains in a young healthy adult population in the tropics.

    Authors: Jonathan Yap, Chi Hsien Tan, Alex R Cook, Jin Phang Loh, Paul A Tambyah, Boon Huan Tan and Vernon J Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:12
  12. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a known group at risk for hepatitis A and outbreaks among this group are frequent. In Barcelona, vaccination for MSM has been recommended since 1994. In 1998 a vaccination c...

    Authors: Cecilia Tortajada, Patricia G de Olalla, Elia Diez, Rosa M Pinto, Albert Bosch, Unai Perez, Milagros Sanz and Joan A Caylà
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:11
  13. Confirming tuberculosis (TB) disease in suspects in resource limited settings is challenging and calls for the development of more suitable diagnostic tools. Different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection ...

    Authors: Novel N Chegou, Gillian F Black, Andre G Loxton, Kim Stanley, Paulin N Essone, Michel R Klein, Shreemanta K Parida, Stefan HE Kaufmann, T Mark Doherty, Annemieke H Friggen, Kees L Franken, Tom H Ottenhoff and Gerhard Walzl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:10
  14. Only 5% of the estimated global multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB) load is currently detected. Endemic Mumbai with increasing MDR would benefit from the introduction of molecular methods to detect resistance.

    Authors: Monica Prem Tolani, Desiree Therese Blossom D'souza and Nerges Furdoon Mistry
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:9
  15. Buruli ulcer (BU), a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, has been reported in over 30 countries worldwide and is highly endemic in rural West and Central Africa. The mode of transmis...

    Authors: Dziedzom K de Souza, Charles Quaye, Lydia Mosi, Phyllis Addo and Daniel A Boakye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:8
  16. Refugees are at risk for poor outcomes from acute respiratory infections (ARI) because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. We implemented surveillance for respiratory viruses in Da...

    Authors: Jamal A Ahmed, Mark A Katz, Eric Auko, M Kariuki Njenga, Michelle Weinberg, Bryan K Kapella, Heather Burke, Raymond Nyoka, Anthony Gichangi, Lilian W Waiboci, Abdirahman Mahamud, Mohamed Qassim, Babu Swai, Burton Wagacha, David Mutonga, Margaret Nguhi…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:7
  17. Placental malaria (PM) is associated with prenatal malaise, but many PM+ infants are born without symptoms. As malaria has powerful immunomodulatory effects, we tested the hypothesis that PM predicts reduced T...

    Authors: Brigitte Walther, David JC Miles, Pauline Waight, Melba S Palmero, Olubukola Ojuola, Ebrima S Touray, Hilton Whittle, Marianne van der Sande, Sarah Crozier and Katie L Flanagan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:6
  18. Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 are important in single-stranded viral RNA recognition and may play a role in HIV infection and disease progression. We analyzed TLR7/8 expression and signaling in monocytes f...

    Authors: Hua Nian, Wen-Qing Geng, Hua-Lu Cui, Ming-jia Bao, Zi-ning Zhang, Min Zhang, Ying Pan, Qing-Hai Hu and Hong Shang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:5
  19. Leptospirosis has a varied clinical presentation with complications like myocarditis and acute renal failure. There are many predictors of severity and mortality including clinical and laboratory parameters. E...

    Authors: Dinesh LB Dassanayake, Harith Wimalaratna, Damith Nandadewa, Asanka Nugaliyadda, Champa N Ratnatunga and Suneth B Agampodi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:4
  20. In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of ...

    Authors: Blandine Rammaert, Sophie Goyet, Julien Beauté, Sopheak Hem, Vantha Te, Patrich Lorn Try, Charles Mayaud, Laurence Borand, Philippe Buchy, Bertrand Guillard and Sirenda Vong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:3
  21. The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop...

    Authors: Haoua Tall, Stéphane Hugonnet, Philippe Donnen, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Ludovic Kambou, Frank Drabo and Judith E Mueller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:2
  22. The human malaria parasite remains a burden in developing nations. It is responsible for up to one million deaths a year, a number that could rise due to increasing multi-drug resistance to all antimalarial dr...

    Authors: Serena Cervantes, Paige E Stout, Jacques Prudhomme, Sebastian Engel, Matthew Bruton, Michael Cervantes, David Carter, Young Tae-Chang, Mark E Hay, William Aalbersberg, Julia Kubanek and Karine G Le Roch
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:1
  23. Cardiac tuberculosis is rare and usually manifests as tuberculous pericarditis. Involvement of other part of the heart is unusual and descriptions in the pediatric literature are confined to few case reports r...

    Authors: Cantinotti M, De Gaudio M, de Martino M, Assanta N, Moschetti R, Veneruso G, Crocetti M, Murzi B, Chiappini E and Galli L
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:359
  24. Immunocompromised patients, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sufferers have an increased risk of mortality, following influenza infection. In the recent pandemic, influenza A H1NI virus caused 18449 ...

    Authors: Konstantinos Tselios, Ritsa Tsioka, Alexandros Sarantopoulos, Eleni Mouloudi and Panagiota Boura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:358
  25. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) is infamous for its high case-fatality proportion (CFP) and the ease with which it spreads among contacts of the diseased. We describe the course of the EHF outbreak in Masindi, ...

    Authors: Matthias Borchert, Imaam Mutyaba, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Julius Lutwama, Henry Luwaga, Geoffrey Bisoborwa, John Turyagaruka, Patricia Pirard, Nestor Ndayimirije, Paul Roddy and Patrick Van Der Stuyft
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:357
  26. A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymp...

    Authors: Magnus Gisslén, Richard W Price and Staffan Nilsson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:356
  27. During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early di...

    Authors: Corien M Swaan, Rolf Appels, Mirjam EE Kretzschmar and Jim E van Steenbergen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:355
  28. Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigat...

    Authors: Xue Wang, Olga Zoueva, Jiangqin Zhao, Zhiping Ye and Indira Hewlett
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:354
  29. A new DNA line probe assay (Speed-oligo Mycobacteria, Vircell) has been launched for rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium spp. from cultures. Compared to other line-probe assays, Speed-oligo Mycobacteria covers...

    Authors: Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Laziz Turaev, Tarig Alnour, Lore Drath, Maria Müllerova and Harald Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:353
  30. Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study t...

    Authors: Magda Maruza, Maria FP Militão Albuquerque, Isabella Coimbra, Líbia V Moura, Ulisses R Montarroyos, Demócrito B Miranda Filho, Heloísa R Lacerda, Laura C Rodrigues and Ricardo AA Ximenes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:351
  31. In temperate zones, all-cause mortality exhibits a marked seasonality, and one of the main causes of winter excess mortality is influenza. There is a tradition of using statistical models based on mortality fr...

    Authors: Jens Nielsen, Anne Mazick, Steffen Glismann and Kåre Mølbak
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:350
  32. Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin ski...

    Authors: Alberto Arnedo-Pena, José Vicente Juan-Cerdán, Angeles Romeu-Garcia, Daniel Garcia-Ferrer, Rita Holguín-Gómez, Jesús Iborra-Millet, Concepción Herrero-Carot, María Jesús Sanchis Piñana, Juan Bellido-Blasco, José Antonio Ferrero-Vega, Lourdes Safont Adsuara, Esther Silvestre Silvestre, Noemi Meseguer Ferrer and Vicenta Rodrigo Bartual
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:349
  33. Although Tim-3 & PD-L1 signaling pathways play important roles in negatively regulating immune responses, their roles in chlamydial infection have not been evaluated.

    Authors: Bo Peng, Chunxue Lu, Lingli Tang, I-Tien Yeh, Zhimin He, Yimou Wu and Guangming Zhong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:347
  34. In 2010, an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan and some patients presented with onychomadesis and desquamation following HFMD. Therefore, we performed an...

    Authors: Sung-Hsi Wei, Yuan-Pin Huang, Ming-Chih Liu, Tsung-Pei Tsou, Hui-Chen Lin, Tsuey-Li Lin, Chen-Yen Tsai, Yen-Nan Chao, Luan-Yin Chang and Chun-Ming Hsu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:346
  35. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positi...

    Authors: Wen-Kuan Liu, De-Hui Chen, Qian Liu, Huan-Xi Liang, Zi-Feng Yang, Sheng Qin and Rong Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:345
  36. Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination is the most effective measure for preventing JE disease. The live attenuated JE vaccine, which has shown good efficacy and safety, has been widely used in China.

    Authors: Na Jia, Qiu-Min Zhao, Xiao-Fang Guo, Jing-Xia Cheng, Chao Wu, Shu-Qing Zuo, Pei-Fang Dai, Jun-Ying Zhao and Jiu-Song Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:344
  37. Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R...

    Authors: Francesca Ferretti, Antonio Boschini, Cristiana Iabichino, Simonetta Gerevini, Paola De Nardi, Monica Guffanti, Giuseppe Balconi, Adriano Lazzarin and Paola Cinque
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:343
  38. Environmental factors have been associated with transmission and survival of influenza viruses but no studies have ever explored the role of environmental factors on severity of influenza infection.

    Authors: Lin Yang, Ping Yan Chen, Jian Feng He, King Pan Chan, Chun Quan Ou, Ai Ping Deng, JS Malik Peiris and Chit Ming Wong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:342
  39. The optimal therapeutic strategies for patients presenting with advanced disease at HIV-1 diagnosis are as yet incompletely defined.

    Authors: Antonella Esposito, Marco Floridia, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Daniele Pastori, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Paola Massetti, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Camilla Ajassa, Vincenzo Vullo and Ivano Mezzaroma
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:341
  40. Cryptococcus species usually affect the central nervous system and lungs in immunocompromised hosts. Although the adrenal glands can be involved in disseminated cryptococcosis, primary adrenal insufficiency caus...

    Authors: Yayoi Matsuda, Hisaya Kawate, Yuka Okishige, Ichiro Abe, Masahiro Adachi, Keizo Ohnaka, Naoichi Satoh, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Seiji Naito, Masatoshi Nomura and Ryoichi Takayanagi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:340
  41. Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML), leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has sh...

    Authors: Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Andrea Hacker, Ximena Illarramendi, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar Pinheiro, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno and Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:339
  42. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. present in the blood of patients with leptospirosis during the first week of symptoms can be detected using culture or PCR. A proportion of patients who are positive by PCR are negative...

    Authors: Siriphan Boonsilp, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Premjit Amornchai, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Wirongrong Chierakul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas P Day and Sharon J Peacock
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:338
  43. To provide a clear picture of the current hepatitis B situation, the authors performed a systematic review to estimate the age- and region-specific prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Turkey.

    Authors: Mehlika Toy, Fatih Oguz Önder, Tanja Wörmann, A Mithat Bozdayi, Solko W Schalm, Gerard J Borsboom, Joost van Rosmalen, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Cihan Yurdaydin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:337
  44. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. The research objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of polymera...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Stella Chen, Karen Cimon, Sarah McGill, Kevin Forward and Michael Gardam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:336
  45. Management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia remains a challenge. The emergence of MRSA strains with reduced vancomycin susceptibility complicates treatment.

    Authors: Hitoshi Honda, Christopher D Doern, Wm Michael-Dunne Jr and David K Warren
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:335
  46. Men having sex with men (MSM) accounts for 33.6% of all reported cases of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among MSM in gay saunas in Taiwan.

    Authors: Yen-Ju Chen, Yu-Ting Lin, Marcelo Chen, Szu-Wei Huang, Su-Fen Lai, Wing-Wai Wong, Hung-Chin Tsai, Yu-Huei Lin, Hsin-Fu Liu, Shu-Yu Lyu and Yi-Ming A Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:334
  47. The prevalence, incidence and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in sub-Saharan Africa are not well established. The objectives of the current study are to describe (predictors of) the epidemiolog...

    Authors: Nienke J Veldhuijzen, Sarah L Braunstein, Joseph Vyankandondera, Chantal Ingabire, Justin Ntirushwa, Evelyne Kestelyn, Coosje Tuijn, Ferdinand W Wit, Aline Umutoni, Mireille Uwineza, Tania Crucitti and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:333
  48. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important infectious disease caused by different species of hantaviruses. As a rodent-borne disease with a seasonal distribution, external environmental facto...

    Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Baofa Jiang, Weidong Gu and Qiyong Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:331

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