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  1. In the setting of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), plasma levels of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) rapidly decay to below the limit of detection of standard clinical assays. However, reacti...

    Authors: Ahmad R Sedaghat, Robert F Siliciano and Claus O Wilke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:2
  2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem that may lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Approximately 30% of the world's population has b...

    Authors: Zheng Zeng, Li Guan, Ping An, Shan Sun, Stephen J O'Brien and Cheryl A Winkler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:1
  3. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major world health problem. Around 2 billions of people are infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal agent of this disease. This fact accounts for a third of the total world ...

    Authors: Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, Michelle Cristina Guerreiro dos Reis, Walter Oelemann and Marcus Barreto Conde
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:148
  4. In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neur...

    Authors: Paulo P Christo, Dirceu B Greco, Agdemir W Aleixo and Jose A Livramento
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:147
  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can enter into a dormant state which has resulted in one third of the world's population being infected with latent tuberculosis making the study of latency and reactivation of utmost ...

    Authors: Sergey Biketov, Vasilii Potapov, Elena Ganina, Katrina Downing, Bavesh D Kana and Arseny Kaprelyants
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:146
  6. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputi...

    Authors: Peter Bacchetti, Phyllis C Tien, Eric C Seaberg, Thomas R O'Brien, Michael H Augenbraun, Alex H Kral, Michael P Busch and Brian R Edlin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:145
  7. The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The...

    Authors: Massimo Giuliani, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Concetta Castilletti, Aldo Di Carlo, Guido Palamara, Stefano Boros and Giovanni Rezza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:143
  8. Among the surface antigens of Mycoplasma hominis, the P120' protein was previously shown to elicit a subtle antibody response and appears to be relatively conserved. To get better insight into the evolution of th...

    Authors: Boutheina Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, Hajer Ayari, Awatef Béjaoui-Khiari, Béhija Mlik, Imed Moalla and Faten Amouna
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:142
  9. The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) has collected clinical and virological data on influenza since 1996 in an increasing number of countries. The EISS dataset was used to characterise important e...

    Authors: John Paget, Richard Marquet, Adam Meijer and Koos van der Velden
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:141
  10. The rate of development of parasite-specific immune responses can be studied by following their age profiles in exposed and infected hosts. This study determined the cytokine-age profiles of Zimbabweans reside...

    Authors: Francisca Mutapi, Georgina Winborn, Nicholas Midzi, Matthew Taylor, Takafira Mduluza and Rick M Maizels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:139
  11. Quantitative real-time PCR assays, which are more rapid and practical than pp65 antigenemia determination, are progressively becoming the preferred method for monitoring Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) reactivati...

    Authors: Elisabetta Cariani, Caterina P Pollara, Barbara Valloncini, Francesca Perandin, Carlo Bonfanti and Nino Manca
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:138
  12. Procalcitonin (PCT) is an inflammatory marker that has been used as indicator of severe bacterial infection. We evaluated the concentrations of PCT as a marker for systemic infection compared to C-reactive pro...

    Authors: Karin SR Massaro, Silvia F Costa, Claudio Leone and Dalton AF Chamone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:137
  13. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) receptors play a key role in the early host response to viruses. In this work, we determined mRNA levels of two members of the Toll-like Receptors family, (TLR3 an...

    Authors: Rafael Atencia, Francisco J Bustamante, Andrés Valdivieso, Arantza Arrieta, Marta Riñón, Alvaro Prada and Natalia Maruri
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:136
  14. This paper describes the third large outbreak of Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis reported in the Southern Italy region of Puglia.

    Authors: Caterina Rizzo, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Marilina Santantonio, Maria Francesca Coscia, Rosa Monno, Danila De Vito, Franco Maria Ruggeri and Giovanni Rizzo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:135
  15. High blood levels of soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) are associated with poor outcomes in human immunodeficiency-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals. Research on the clinical value of suPAR...

    Authors: Uffe V Schneider, Rikke L Nielsen, Court Pedersen and Jesper Eugen-Olsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:134
  16. No country is fully prepared for a 1918-like pandemic influenza. Averting a pandemic of H5N1 influenza virus depends on the successful control of its endemicity, outbreaks in poultry and occasional spillage in...

    Authors: Y Guan, H Chen, KS Li, S Riley, GM Leung, R Webster, JSM Peiris and KY Yuen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:132
  17. Infections can aggravate the course of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in the anti-oxidant enzyme Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) are associat...

    Authors: Miriam Goos, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Saju Balakrishnan, Sandra Ebert, Timothy Mitchell, Maria Teresa Carrì, Bernhard U Keller and Roland Nau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:131
  18. The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low p...

    Authors: Héctor de Arazoza, Jose Joanes, Rachid Lounes, Camille Legeai, Stéphan Clémençon, Jorge Pérez and Bertran Auvert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:130
  19. Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infec...

    Authors: Radhouane Gdoura, Wiem Kchaou, Chiraz Chaari, Abir Znazen, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai and Adnane Hammami
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:129
  20. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the etiology of which is still uncertain, increases the risk of preterm birth. Recent PCR-based studies suggested that BV is associated with complex vaginal bacterial communities, inc...

    Authors: Renuka Tamrakar, Takashi Yamada, Itsuko Furuta, Kazutoshi Cho, Mamoru Morikawa, Hideto Yamada, Noriaki Sakuragi and Hisanori Minakami
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:128
  21. Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection ...

    Authors: Arne B Brantsaeter, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Stig Jeansson, Anne K Goplen and Johan N Bruun
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:127
  22. Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem among international travellers and much of the burden falls on general practitioners. We assessed whether sentinel surveillance based in primary care cou...

    Authors: Gemma Northey, Meirion R Evans, Tinnu S Sarvotham, Daniel R Thomas and Tony J Howard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:126
  23. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis sin...

    Authors: James O Lloyd-Smith, Denise J Greig, Sharon Hietala, George S Ghneim, Lauren Palmer, Judy St Leger, Bryan T Grenfell and Frances MD Gulland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:125
  24. Human parvovirus B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum in children. It is also associated with other clinical manifestations in different target groups. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia are ...

    Authors: Faouzi Regaya, Lassad Oussaief, Mohamed Bejaoui, Mongi Karoui, Mohamed Zili and Ridha Khelifa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:123
  25. IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRAs) have been licensed for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Their performance may depend on assay format and may vary across populations and settings. ...

    Authors: Ifedayo MO Adetifa, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman Hammond, David Jeffries, Simon Donkor, Richard A Adegbola and Philip C Hill
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:122
  26. Cost-sharing schemes incorporating modest targeted subsidies have promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania, since 1996. Here we evaluate result...

    Authors: GF Killeen, A Tami, J Kihonda, FO Okumu, ME Kotas, H Grundmann, N Kasigudi, H Ngonyani, V Mayagaya, R Nathan, S Abdulla, JD Charlwood, TA Smith and C Lengeler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:121
  27. Seroconversion rates reported after Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination globally ranges from 85–90%. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring HBV and non responders' rates after HBV vaccination...

    Authors: Mohammad Zeeshan, Kauser Jabeen, Anita Nausheen Akbar Ali, Ailia Wilayat Ali, Saadia Z Farooqui, Vikram Mehraj and Afia Zafar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:120
  28. Polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for use in HIV-infected adults in Brazil but there is uncertainty about its effectiveness in this patient population.

    Authors: Maria Amelia SM Veras, Wayne TA Enanoria, Euclides A Castilho and Arthur L Reingold
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:119
  29. Maternal antibody is the major form of protection against disease in early life; however, its presence interferes with active immunization of offspring. In order to overcome the immunosuppression caused by mat...

    Authors: Jianjun Chen, Fenghua Zhang, Fang Fang, Haiyan Chang and Ze Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:118
  30. Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repea...

    Authors: Axel Kramer, Harald Below, Nora Bieber, Guenter Kampf, Cyril D Toma, Nils-Olaf Huebner and Ojan Assadian
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:117
  31. Calorimetry is a nonspecific technique which allows direct measurement of heat generated by biological processes in the living cell. We evaluated the potential of calorimetry for rapid detection of bacterial g...

    Authors: Andrej Trampuz, Andrea Steinhuber, Matthias Wittwer and Stephen L Leib
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:116
  32. Eight genotypes of Hepatitis B virus designated A-H, have been known but in Pakistan, no such data is available on the prevalent HBV genotypes. Therefore, the subject study was conducted to determine HBV genot...

    Authors: Muhammad Masroor Alam, Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Salman Akbar Malik, Shahzad Shaukat, Asif Naeem, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez and Javed Aslam Butt
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:115
  33. Young women receiving family planning services are at risk for both unintended pregnancy and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection.

    Authors: Nicholas J Moss, Cynthia C Harper, Katherine Ahrens, Katherine Scott, Susan Kao, Nancy Padian, Tina Raine and Jeffrey D Klausner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:113
  34. Sternal wound infection (SWI) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of cardiac surgery. Predisposing factors for SWI are multiple with varied frequencies in different studies. The purpos...

    Authors: Abbas Salehi Omran, Abbasali Karimi, S Hossein Ahmadi, Setareh Davoodi, Mehrab Marzban, Namvar Movahedi, Kyomars Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Saeed Davoodi and Naghmeh Moshtaghi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:112
  35. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasingly common cause of nosocomial infections, causing severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accounting in some hospitals for more than 50% of...

    Authors: Lorenzo Drago, Elena De Vecchi, Lucia Nicola and Maria Rita Gismondo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:111
  36. The tick-borne intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis after infection of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The human Sp110 gene is a ...

    Authors: José de la Fuente, Raúl Manzano-Roman, Edmour F Blouin, Victoria Naranjo and Katherine M Kocan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:110
  37. Studies show that tuberculosis notification declines with increasing altitude. This can be due to declining incidence or declining case detection. In Vietnam notification rates of new smear-positive tuberculos...

    Authors: M Vree, NB Hoa, DN Sy, NV Co, FGJ Cobelens and MW Borgdorff
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:109
  38. Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of mult...

    Authors: Kristine Marie Jessen, Sarah Bjerre Lindboe, Anncatrine Luisa Petersen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen and Thomas Benfield
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:108
  39. During and shortly after birth, newborn infants are colonized with enterococci. This study analyzes predictors for early enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit and describes ris...

    Authors: Markus Hufnagel, Cathrin Liese, Claudia Loescher, Mirjam Kunze, Heinrich Proempeler, Reinhard Berner and Marcus Krueger
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:107
  40. Nosocomial bacteremia is associated with a poor prognosis. Early adequate therapy has been shown to improve outcome. Consequently, rapid detection of a beginning sepsis is therefore of the utmost importance. T...

    Authors: Dominique M Vandijck, Eric A Hoste, Stijn I Blot, Pieter O Depuydt, Renaat A Peleman and Johan M Decruyenaere
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:106
  41. Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized t...

    Authors: Anita Bhalla, David C Aron and Curtis J Donskey
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:105
  42. Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale,...

    Authors: Klaus Reither, Ralf Ignatius, Thomas Weitzel, Andrew Seidu-Korkor, Louis Anyidoho, Eiman Saad, Andrea Djie-Maletz, Peter Ziniel, Felicia Amoo-Sakyi, Francis Danikuu, Stephen Danour, Rowland N Otchwemah, Eckart Schreier, Ulrich Bienzle, Klaus Stark and Frank P Mockenhaupt
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:104
  43. Candidemia is a major infectious complication of seriously immunocompromised patients. In the absence of specific signs and symptoms, there is a need to evolve an appropriate diagnostic approach. A number of m...

    Authors: Fasahat F Alam, Abu S Mustafa and Zia U Khan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:103
  44. Onychomycosis has a high prevalance among immunocompromised patients such as diabetics and hemodialysis patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of onychomycosis among hemodialysi...

    Authors: Güven Kuvandik, Meryem Çetin, Gultekin Genctoy, Mehmet Horoz, Mehmet Duru, Cenk Akcali, Salim Satar, Ahmet A Kiykim and Hasan Kaya
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:102

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