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  1. Miliary pulmonary nodules are commonly caused by various infections and cancers. We sought to identify the relative frequencies of various aetiologies and the clinical and radiographic predictors of miliary tu...

    Authors: Sang-Man Jin, Hyun Ju Lee, Eun-Ah Park, Ho Yun Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Seok-Chul Yang, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young-Soo Shim and Jae-Joon Yim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:160
  2. Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive s...

    Authors: W Urassa, C Moshiro, G Chalamilla, F Mhalu and E Sandstrom
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:159
  3. The overlapping geographical and socio-economic distribution of malaria and helminth infection has led to several studies investigating the immunological and pathological interactions of these parasites. This ...

    Authors: L Reilly, C Magkrioti, T Mduluza, DR Cavanagh and F Mutapi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:158
  4. Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007) after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the p...

    Authors: Philipp Kaysser, Erik Seibold, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Martin Pfeffer, Sandra Essbauer and Wolf D Splettstoesser
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:157
  5. Mortality in Zambian AIDS patients is high, especially in patients with diarrhoea, and there is still unacceptably high mortality in Zambian patients just starting anti-retroviral therapy. We set out to determ...

    Authors: Isaac Zulu, Ghaniah Hassan, Lungowe Njobvu RN, Winnie Dhaliwal, Sandie Sianongo and Paul Kelly
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:156
  6. The incidence and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the inciden...

    Authors: Masao Hashimoto, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Sumihito Tamura, Junichi Kaneko, Yuichi Matsui, Junichi Togashi, Kyoji Moriya, Kazuhiko Koike and Masatoshi Makuuchi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:155
  7. Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group. Clinical disease with S. intermedius is characterized by abscess formation and rarely endocarditis. Identification of Streptococcus int...

    Authors: MaryAnn P Tran, Molly Caldwell-McMillan, Walid Khalife and Vincent B Young
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:154
  8. Infectious disease (ID) is a dynamic field with new guidelines being adopted at a rapid rate. Clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have proven beneficial in selecting treatment options to improve outcomes. ...

    Authors: Hyla H Polen, Antonia Zapantis, Kevin A Clauson, Jennifer Jebrock and Mark Paris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:153
  9. In March 2007, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of Swedish individuals diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis after staying at a Norwegian hotel. In Norway, cryptosporidiosis is not reportable, ...

    Authors: Agnes Hajdu, Line Vold, Torild A Østmo, Anna Helleve, Sigrid R Helgebostad, Truls Krogh, Lucy Robertson, Birgitta de Jong and Karin Nygård
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:152
  10. There has been a marked increase in the incidence of, and concern regarding, human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections worldwide during the last decade. As the highest infectious disease control apparatus...

    Authors: Ji-Rong Yang, Ho-Sheng Wu, Chuen-Sheue Chiang and Jung-Jung Mu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:151
  11. In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 po...

    Authors: Silvio Tafuri, Rosa Prato, Domenico Martinelli, Agata Calvario, Anna Bozzi, Michele Labianca, Annamaria Patti, Pietro Luigi Lopalco and Cinzia Germinario
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:150
  12. Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples o...

    Authors: Günter Kampf, Mirja Reichel, Yvonne Feil, Sven Eggerstedt and Paul-Michael Kaulfers
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:149
  13. The identification of clinical factors associated with negative blood cultures could help to avoid unnecessary blood cultures. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established inflammation marker commonly used i...

    Authors: Boris P Ehrenstein, Vera Ehrenstein, Christine Henke, Hans-Jörg Linde, Bernd Salzberger, Jürgen Schölmerich and Thomas Glück
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:148
  14. On October 8, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 hit the Northern parts of Pakistan. In the post-earthquake scenario, overcrowding, improper sewage disposal, contamination of food and drinking water, hasty s...

    Authors: Saeed Khan, Mohammad A Rai, Adnan Khan, Amber Farooqui, Shahana U Kazmi and Syed H Ali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:147
  15. Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for host defense in rodents, but the role of NO during tuberculosis (TB) in man remains controversial. However, earlier observations that arginine supplementation facilitates ant...

    Authors: Jonna Idh, Anna Westman, Daniel Elias, Feleke Moges, Assefa Getachew, Aschalew Gelaw, Tommy Sundqvist, Tony Forslund, Addis Alemu, Belete Ayele, Ermias Diro, Endalkachew Melese, Yared Wondmikun, Sven Britton, Olle Stendahl and Thomas Schön
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:146
  16. Antibiotics are recommended for severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) could be a useful tool for selectin...

    Authors: Cédric Daubin, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Astrid Vabret, Michel Ramakers, Sabine Fradin, Nicolas Terzi, François Freymuth, Pierre Charbonneau and Damien du Cheyron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:145
  17. Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been associated with metabolic complications. There is a trend to switch to simpler therapy to improve these disturbances. We report a case-series describing the effects in metab...

    Authors: M Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jose Tomas Ramos Amador, M Jose Mellado Peña, M Luisa Navarro Gomez, Pablo Rojo Conejo and Pablo Martin Fontelos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:144
  18. The aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalisation in adults frequently remains unclear. Our objective was to study the causes and characteristics of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis i...

    Authors: Andreas Jansen, Klaus Stark, Jan Kunkel, Eckart Schreier, Ralf Ignatius, Oliver Liesenfeld, Dirk Werber, Ulf B Göbel, Martin Zeitz and Thomas Schneider
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:143
  19. The risk for occupational exposure to HIV has been well characterized in the developed world, but limited information is available about this transmission risk in resource-constrained settings facing the large...

    Authors: Amita Gupta, Shuchi Anand, Jayagowri Sastry, Anandini Krisagar, Anita Basavaraj, Shreepad M Bhat, Nikhil Gupte, Robert C Bollinger and Arjun L Kakrani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:142
  20. The pathophysiology of sepsis is due in part to early systemic inflammation. Here we describe molecular and cellular responses, as well as survival, in A2A adenosine receptor (AR) agonist treated and untreated an...

    Authors: Christopher C Moore, Edward N Martin, Grace H Lee, Tom Obrig, Joel Linden and W Michael Scheld
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:141
  21. In Norway, screening for tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test (TST) has been offered for several decades to all children in 9th grade of school, prior to BCG-vaccination. The incidence of tuberculosi...

    Authors: Brita Askeland Winje, Fredrik Oftung, Gro Ellen Korsvold, Turid Mannsåker, Ingvild Nesthus Ly, Ingunn Harstad, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise and Einar Heldal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:140
  22. Differences in degree of environmental exposure to antigens in early life have been hypothesized to lead to differences in immune status in individuals from different populations, which may have implications f...

    Authors: Anne Ben-Smith, Patricia Gorak-Stolinska, Sian Floyd, Rosemary E Weir, Maeve K Lalor, Hazzie Mvula, Amelia C Crampin, Diana Wallace, Peter CL Beverley, Paul EM Fine and Hazel M Dockrell
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:139
  23. Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this re...

    Authors: Goutam Chandra, Samir K Mandal, Arup K Ghosh, Dipanwita Das, Siddhartha S Banerjee and Sumanta Chakraborty
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:138
  24. Blood culture surveillance will be used for assessing the public health effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed blood culture outcome and performance in ad...

    Authors: Neema Mtunthama, Stephen B Gordon, Temwa Kusimbwe, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux and Neil French
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:137
  25. To date, data on the durability of a regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine are very limited, particularly from the resource-limited settings.

    Authors: Weerawat Manosuthi, Preecha Tantanathip, Wisit Prasithisirikul, Sirirat Likanonsakul and Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:136
  26. The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation o...

    Authors: Marcello M D'Errico, Pamela Barbadoro, Sonia Bacelli, Elisabetta Esposto, Vania Moroni, Federica Scaccia, Luana Tantucci and Emilia Prospero
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:135
  27. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial innate immune molecule degrading peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall. Lysozyme shows the ubiquitous expression in wide varieties of species and tissues including the tubotympa...

    Authors: Jun Shimada, Sung K Moon, Haa-Yung Lee, Tamotsu Takeshita, Huiqi Pan, Jeong-Im Woo, Robert Gellibolian, Noboru Yamanaka and David J Lim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:134
  28. Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocom...

    Authors: Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Dorit Sohr, Juliane Bruderek and Petra Gastmeier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:133
  29. HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study ...

    Authors: Judy E Mill, Randy C Jackson, Catherine A Worthington, Chris P Archibald, Tom Wong, Ted Myers, Tracey Prentice and Susan Sommerfeldt
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:132
  30. The level of intra-species genetic variation in Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii populations in a localized geographic area, like Puducherry, India, remains unknown.

    Authors: Subhash Chandra Parija and Krishna Khairnar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:131
  31. The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacilla...

    Authors: Desheng Huang, Peng Guan, Junqiao Guo, Ping Wang and Baosen Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:130
  32. Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewe...

    Authors: Joanne M Langley, James D Kellner, Nataly Solomon, Joan L Robinson, Nicole Le Saux, Jane McDonald, Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Ben Tan, Upton Allen, Simon Dobson and Heather Joudrey
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:129
  33. On 7 May 2007 the medical officer in Røros (population 5600) reported 15 patients with gastroenteritis. Three days later he estimated hundreds being ill. Untreated tap water from a groundwater source was suspe...

    Authors: Irena Jakopanec, Katrine Borgen, Line Vold, Helge Lund, Tore Forseth, Raisa Hannula and Karin Nygård
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:128
  34. Mortality among HIV-infected children in developing countries remains high after serious bacterial infections despite the use of antibiotics. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an adjuvant ther...

    Authors: Lyen C Huang, Landon Myer and Heather B Jaspan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:127
  35. An uneven spatial distribution of leprosy can be caused by the influence of geography on the distribution of risk factors over the area, or by population characteristics that are heterogeneously distributed ov...

    Authors: EAJ Fischer, D Pahan, SK Chowdhury and JH Richardus
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:126
  36. There is a higher case-detection rate for leprosy among spatially proximate contacts such as household members and neighbors. Spatial information regarding the clustering of leprosy can be used to improve inte...

    Authors: EAJ Fischer, D Pahan, SK Chowdhury, L Oskam and JH Richardus
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:125
  37. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis that produce two exotoxins, lethal toxin and edema toxin. The lethal toxin is composed of the lethal factor (LF) complexed with the cell binding protective antigen (PA83, 8...

    Authors: Rasha Hammamieh, Wilson J Ribot, Terry G Abshire, Marti Jett and John Ezzell
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:124
  38. To investigate dynamic fluctuations of serum viral load and peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations of chronic hepatitis B patients and their correlation during entecavir therapy.

    Authors: Jing You, Hutcha Sriplung, Alan Geater, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Lin Zhuang, Yun-Li Li, Hua Lei, Jun Liu, Hong-Ying Chen, Bao-Zhang Tang and Jun-Hua Huang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:123
  39. Adenovirus are the important pathogen of pediatric severe pneumonia. The aim of this study is to analyze the infection, subtype and distribution of adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue of fatal pneumonia i...

    Authors: Zhi-Ying Ou, Qi-Yi Zeng, Feng-Hua Wang, Hui-Min Xia, Jun-Peng Lu, Jian-Qing Xia, Si-Tang Gong, Li Deng, Jian-Tao Zhang and Rong Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:122
  40. Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are the only group of cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory pathogens that may cause death by an invasive infection known as cepacia syndrome. Their large genome (>...

    Authors: Pavel Drevinek, Matthew TG Holden, Zhaoping Ge, Andrew M Jones, Ian Ketchell, Ryan T Gill and Eshwar Mahenthiralingam
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:121
  41. Injection site infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) have been associated with serious morbidity and health service costs in North America. This study explores the frequency, factors and costs associate...

    Authors: Vivian Hope, Jo Kimber, Peter Vickerman, Matthew Hickman and Fortune Ncube
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:120
  42. Little current information is available for prevalence of vertically-transmitted infections among the Afghan population. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and correlates of human immunodefic...

    Authors: Catherine S Todd, Malalay Ahmadzai, Faridullah Atiqzai, Suellen Miller, Jeffrey M Smith, Syed Alef Shah Ghazanfar and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:119
  43. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Epidemiology of PCP in the recent era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not well known an...

    Authors: Saba Radhi, Travis Alexander, Michelle Ukwu, Samer Saleh and Alison Morris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:118
  44. Baseline data is necessary for monitoring how a population perceives the threat of pandemic influenza, and perceives how it would behave in the event of pandemic influenza. Our aim was to develop a module of q...

    Authors: Margo Barr, Beverley Raphael, Melanie Taylor, Garry Stevens, Louisa Jorm, Michael Giffin and Sanja Lujic
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:117
  45. It is unclear whether appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy improves outcomes in patients with bacteremia due to Escherichia coli or Klebsiella. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of appropri...

    Authors: Kerri A Thom, Marin L Schweizer, Regina B Osih, Jessina C McGregor, Jon P Furuno, Eli N Perencevich and Anthony D Harris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:116
  46. Infestation with the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) occurs worldwide. Existing treatment options are limited, and reports of resistance to commonly used pediculicides have been increasing. In this t...

    Authors: Jorg Heukelbach, Daniel Pilger, Fabíola A Oliveira, Adak Khakban, Liana Ariza and Hermann Feldmeier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:115
  47. Hand hygiene is generally considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Continuous emphasis on this intervention has lead to th...

    Authors: Clive B Beggs, Simon J Shepherd and Kevin G Kerr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:114
  48. Rabies is a major public-health problem in developing countries such as China. Although the recent re-emergence of human rabies in China was noted in several epidemiological studies, little attention was paid ...

    Authors: Han Si, Zhong-Min Guo, Yuan-Tao Hao, Yu-Ge Liu, Ding-Mei Zhang, Shao-Qi Rao and Jia-Hai Lu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:113
  49. Neonatal tetanus (NT) is still considered as one of the major causes of neonatal death in many developing countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the characteristics of sixty-seven infants with t...

    Authors: Bunyamin Dikici, Hakan Uzun, Ebru Yilmaz-Keskin, Taskin Tas, Ali Gunes, Halil Kocamaz, Capan Konca and Mehmet A Tas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:112
  50. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent in Africa, but less common elsewhere and the modes of transmission are still subject to debate. Generally, they rar...

    Authors: Andrew A Adjei, Henry B Armah, Foster Gbagbo, Isaac Boamah, Clement Adu-Gyamfi and Isaac Asare
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:111

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