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  1. Superinfection with drug resistant HIV strains could potentially contribute to compromised therapy in patients initially infected with drug-sensitive virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy. To investigate ...

    Authors: István Bartha, Matthias Assel, Peter MA Sloot, Maurizio Zazzi, Carlo Torti, Eugen Schülter, Andrea De Luca, Anders Sönnerborg, Ana B Abecasis, Kristel Van Laethem, Andrea Rosi, Jenny Svärd, Roger Paredes, David AMC van de Vijver, Anne-Mieke Vandamme and Viktor Müller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:537
  2. In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes.

    Authors: Alfred B Tiono, Moussa W Guelbeogo, N Falé Sagnon, Issa Nébié, Sodiomon B Sirima, Amitava Mukhopadhyay and Kamal Hamed
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:535
  3. The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and...

    Authors: Patrick W Dielissen, Doreth AM Teunissen and Antoine LM Lagro-Janssen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:534
  4. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) drugs are very effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but may increase the risk of serious bacterial infections. We assessed the association between the...

    Authors: Ngoc J Wasson, Cara D Varley, Pascal Schwab, Rongwei Fu and Kevin L Winthrop
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:533
  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a serious problem worldwide and the case fatality rate remains high. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumoc...

    Authors: Viktor Molander, Camilla Elisson, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Erik Backhaus, James John, Rosemol Vargheese, Ranjith Jayaraman and Rune Andersson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:532
  6. The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous ...

    Authors: Laura Mendoza, Pamela Mongelos, Malvina Paez, Amalia Castro, Isabel Rodriguez-Riveros, Graciela Gimenez, Patricia Araujo, Gloria Echagüe, Valentina Diaz, Florentina Laspina, Wilberto Castro, Rosa Jimenez, Ramón Marecos, Santiago Ever, Gerardo Deluca and María Alejandra Picconi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:531
  7. External quality assurance (EQA) programmes, which are routinely used in laboratories, have not been widely implemented for point-of- care tests (POCTs). A study was performed in ten health centres in Tanzania...

    Authors: Pieter W Smit, David Mabey, Thomas van der Vlis, Hans Korporaal, Julius Mngara, John Changalucha, Jim Todd and Rosanna W Peeling
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:530
  8. The main clinical forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). L.braziliensis infection is characterized by an exaggerated production of IFN-gamma and TNF-al...

    Authors: Augusto M Carvalho, Andréa Magalhães, Lucas P Carvalho, Olívia Bacellar, Phillip Scott and Edgar M Carvalho
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:529
  9. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections. The maternal immune status plays a major role in the likelihood of congenital infection. The aim of this study is to shed light o...

    Authors: Tahani Neirukh, Ayda Qaisi, Niveen Saleh, Areej Abu Rmaileh, Eman Abu Zahriyeh, Lina Qurei, Firas Dajani, Taghreed Nusseibeh, Hatem Khamash, Sabri Baraghithi and Maysa Azzeh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:528
  10. Infections due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and non-typhoidal Salmonella cause significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. These intracellular pathogens share some common...

    Authors: Helmi Sulaiman, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Kein Seong Mun and Claire M Italiano
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:527
  11. Preliminary results suggest that pertussis infection might be considered in infants during a seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreak.

    Authors: Ambra Nicolai, Raffaella Nenna, Paola Stefanelli, Anna Carannante, Concetta Schiavariello, Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Corrado Moretti, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Marianna Ferrara, Stefano Papasso and Fabio Midulla
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:526
  12. Pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) is a rare disease whose clinical characteristics have not been clarified. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of patients with PVO.

    Authors: Hiromichi Suzuki, Daisuke Shichi, Yasuharu Tokuda, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro Maeno and Hidenori Nakamura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:525
  13. Neither HBV DNA nor HBsAg positivity at birth is an accurate marker for HBV infection of infants. No data is available for continuous changes of HBV markers in newborns to HBsAg(+) mothers. This prospective, m...

    Authors: Tianyan Chen, Jing Wang, Yuling Feng, Zhi Yan, Tieying Zhang, Minghui Liu, Yun Bai, Hongxia Song, Hongli Liu, Yuan Yang, Jinfeng Liu, Yingli He, Yunru Chen, Shulin Zhang, Guihua Zhuang, Xiaofeng Liang…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:524
  14. Ertapenem (preferred choice for ESBL-producing organisms) use exhibited an increasing trend from 2006 to 2008. As extensive use of ertapenem might induce the mutation of resistant bacteria strains to ertapenem...

    Authors: Cheryl Li-Ling Lim, Winnie Lee, Amanda Ling-Chiu Lee, Lisa Ting-Ting Liew, Szu Chin Nah, Choon Nam Wan, Maciej Piotr Chlebicki and Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:523
  15. Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, espec...

    Authors: Benn KD Sartorius, Matthew F Chersich, Mary Mwaura, Nicolas Meda, Marleen Temmerman, Marie Louise Newell, Timothy MM Farley and Stanley Luchters
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:522
  16. In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has remained stable in HIV+ women but the prevalence and multiplicity of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, appears ...

    Authors: Sally N Akarolo-Anthony, Maryam Al-Mujtaba, Ayotunde O Famooto, Eileen O Dareng, Olayinka B Olaniyan, Richard Offiong, Cosette M Wheeler and Clement A Adebamowo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:521
  17. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at an increased risk of exposure to and transmission of infectious diseases. Vaccination lowers morbidity and mortality of HCWs and their patients. To assess vaccination coverage ...

    Authors: Rok Civljak, Neven Papic, Valerija Stamenic, Smilja Kalenic, Ilija Kuzman and Josip Car
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:520
  18. Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in femal...

    Authors: Kimberley Kavanagh, Katy Sinka, Kate Cuschieri, John Love, Alison Potts, Kevin GJ Pollock, Heather Cubie, Martin Donaghy and Chris Robertson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:519
  19. Cholera poses a substantial health burden to developing countries such as Bangladesh. In this study, the objective is to estimate the economic burden of cholera treatments incurred by households. The study was...

    Authors: Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Ziaul Islam, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Amit Saha, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Firdausi Qadri and Jahangir AM Khan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:518
  20. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 560,000 people had access to ART by the end of 2011. This scaling up of ART has raised challenges to the Kenya...

    Authors: Michael Kiptoo, James Brooks, Raphael W Lihana, Paul Sandstrom, Zipporah Ng’ang’a, Joyceline Kinyua, Nancy Lagat, Fredrick Okoth and Elijah M Songok
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:517
  21. Most illnesses caused by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (A/H1N1) infection are acute and self-limiting among children. However, in some children, disease progression is rapid and may require hospitali...

    Authors: Takanori Funaki, Kensuke Shoji, Nobuyuki Yotani, Tomohiro Katsuta, Osamu Miyazaki, Shunsuke Nosaka, Hidekazu Masaki and Akihiko Saitoh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:516
  22. Blood stream infections (BSI) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lead to poor clinical outcomes. The worldwide emergence and spread of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing, often multidrug-resistant organisms may further...

    Authors: Matthias Willmann, Ines Kuebart, Matthias Marschal, Klaus Schröppel, Wichard Vogel, Ingo Flesch, Uwe Markert, Ingo B Autenrieth, Florian Hölzl and Silke Peter
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:515
  23. Human brucellosis incidence in China was divided into 3 stages, high incidence (1950-1960s), decline (1970-1980s) and re-emergence (1990-2000s). Human brucellosis has been reported in all the 32 provinces, of ...

    Authors: Yanfen Chen, Yuehua Ke, Yufei Wang, Xitong Yuan, Xiaoyan Zhou, Hai Jiang, Zhoujia Wang, Qing Zhen, Yaqin Yu, Liuyu Huang, Buyun Cui and Zeliang Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:514
  24. Improved tests to diagnose latent TB infection (LTBI) are needed. We sought to evaluate the performance of two commercially available interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) compared to the tuberculin skin tes...

    Authors: Nikoloz Chkhartishvili, Russell R Kempker, Natia Dvali, Lela Abashidze, Lali Sharavdze, Pati Gabunia, Henry M Blumberg, Carlos del Rio and Tengiz Tsertsvadze
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:513
  25. Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blood animals including human beings. The plant-like calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) harbored by T. gondii are involved in gliding motility, cell invasion, ...

    Authors: Nian-Zhang Zhang, Si-Yang Huang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Jia Chen, Ying Xu, Wei-Peng Tian, Jing Lu and Xing-Quan Zhu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:512
  26. Association studies have been employed to investigate the relationships between host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). However, such candidate genetic m...

    Authors: Yu Yang, Xiangwei Li, Wei Cui, Ling Guan, Fei Shen, Jinsheng Xu, Feng Zhou, Mufei Li, Cong Gao, Qi Jin, Jianmin Liu and Lei Gao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:511
  27. The introduction of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers has had a positive influence on compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended guidelines for hand hygiene. However, establishing the best location ...

    Authors: Matthijs C Boog, Vicki Erasmus, Jitske M de Graaf, Elise (A) HE van Beeck, Marijke Melles and Ed F van Beeck
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:510
  28. HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) surveillance is usually conducted by sampling from a large population. However, overall TDR prevalence results may be inaccurate for many individual clinical setting. We a...

    Authors: James I Brooks, Harrison Niznick, Marianna Ofner, Harriet Merks and Jonathan B Angel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:509
  29. Maraviroc is an HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist that has shown good efficacy and tolerability in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients harboring CCR5-tropic virus. The use of Maraviroc in treatment si...

    Authors: Genny Meini, Angelo Materazzi, Francesco Saladini, Andrea Rosi, Ilaria Vicenti, Michele Mancini, Antonella Pirazzoli, Cinzia Caudai and Maurizio Zazzi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:508
  30. Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SN-PTB), which is common in HIV-infected patients, is difficult to diagnose using smear microscopy alone. In 2007, the WHO developed an algorithm to improve the diagnosis...

    Authors: Simon Walusimbi, Freddie Bwanga, Ayesha De Costa, Melles Haile, Moses Joloba and Sven Hoffner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:507
  31. Noninvasive and convenient biomarkers for early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remain an urgent need. The aim of this study was to discover and identify potential biomarkers specific for TB.

    Authors: Jiyan Liu, Tingting Jiang, Liliang Wei, Xiuyun Yang, Chong Wang, Xing Zhang, Dandan Xu, Zhongliang Chen, Fuquan Yang and Ji-Cheng Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:506
  32. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious challenge for antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections, as it possesses several mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. In Central Greece, a sudden in...

    Authors: Apostolos Liakopoulos, Angeliki Mavroidi, Efstathios A Katsifas, Alexandros Theodosiou, Amalia D Karagouni, Vivi Miriagou and Efthymia Petinaki
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:505
  33. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) is generally associated with the delayed administration of adequate antibiotics. The identification of risk factors and outcomes of VRE BSI is n...

    Authors: Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Su-Mi Choi, Jae-Cheol Kwon, Si-Hyun Kim, Jae-Ki Choi, Sun Hee Park, Yeon-Joon Park, Jung-Hyun Choi and Jin-Hong Yoo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:504
  34. The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitor...

    Authors: Juan Picazo, Joaquin Dueñas, Antonio Ramirez, Andres-Ricardo Perez, Emma Padilla, Susana Herrero, Carmen Gallegos, Esther Culebras, Cesar Balseiro and Cristina Mendez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:503
  35. Hantavirus infections cause potentially life-threatening disease in humans world-wide. Infections with American hantaviruses may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome characterised by severe cardiopulmonary di...

    Authors: Johan Rasmuson, Per Lindqvist, Karen Sörensen, Magnus Hedström, Anders Blomberg and Clas Ahlm
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:501
  36. Evidence for the impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on bacteremia is mainly from studies in medical centers. We investigated the impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on bacteremia in a comm...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Yang, Yu-Chieh Chung, Tun-Chieh Chen, Hsu-Liang Chang, Ying-Ming Tsai, Ming-Shyan Huang, Yen-Hsu Chen and Po-Liang Lu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:500
  37. Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). DNA testing of such high-risk types of HPV could improve cervical screening.The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivities and...

    Authors: Philippe Halfon, Maria Teresa Sandri, Audrey Raimondo, Sophie Ravet, Hacène Khiri, Mario Sideri, Guillaume Penaranda, Claire Camus and Maria Luisa Mateos Lindemann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:499
  38. The recommendation from the 2009 World Health Organization guidelines for managing dengue suggests that patients with any warning sign can be hospitalized for observation and management. We evaluated the utili...

    Authors: Yee-Sin Leo, Victor C Gan, Ee-Ling Ng, Ying Hao, Lee-Ching Ng, Kwoon-Yong Pok, Frederico Dimatatac, Chi-Jong Go and David C Lye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:498
  39. Despite efforts to eliminate leprosy as public health problem, delayed diagnosis and disabilities still occur in many countries. Leprosy diagnosis remains based on clinical manifestations and the number of cli...

    Authors: Ludimila Paula Vaz Cardoso, Ronaldo Ferreira Dias, Aline Araújo Freitas, Emerith Mayra Hungria, Regiane Morillas Oliveira, Marco Collovati, Steven G Reed, Malcolm S Duthie and Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:497
  40. Following the recent transfer of all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces (including Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei), Penicillium species are becoming incr...

    Authors: Min Chen, Jos Houbraken, Weihua Pan, Chao Zhang, Hao Peng, Lihui Wu, Deqiang Xu, Yiping Xiao, Zhilong Wang and Wanqing Liao
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:496
  41. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To ob...

    Authors: Lilian G de Carvalho, Renato S Marchevsky, Debora RL dos Santos, Jaqueline M de Oliveira, Vanessa S de Paula, Leilane M Lopes, Wilhelmus HM Van der Poel, Jorge E González, Maria S Munné, Julio Moran, Ana Carolina R A Cajaraville, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado, Oswaldo G Cruz and Marcelo A Pinto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:495
  42. Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular parasite, which infects most vertebrate animal hosts and causes zoonotic infection in humans. Vaccine strategy remains a promising method for the prevention and co...

    Authors: Min Meng, Aihua Zhou, Gang Lu, Lin Wang, Guanghui Zhao, Yali Han, Huaiyu Zhou, Hua Cong, Qunli Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu and Shenyi He
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:494
  43. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. They are also increasingly recognized as pathogens in immuno-competent individuals. Globally, an increase in NTM i...

    Authors: Imran Ahmed, Kauser Jabeen and Rumina Hasan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:493
  44. More than 90 immunologically distinct serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae exist, and it is not fully elucidated whether the serotype is a risk factor for severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Our hyp...

    Authors: Jonas Ahl, Nils Littorin, Arne Forsgren, Inga Odenholt, Fredrik Resman and Kristian Riesbeck
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:492
  45. Patients newly colonised with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are at higher risk of clinical MRSA infection. At present, there are limited data on the duration or magnitude of this risk in a ho...

    Authors: Michelle ND Balm, Andrew A Lover, Sharon Salmon, Paul A Tambyah and Dale A Fisher
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:491
  46. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution, and penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children ≤6 years of age in Ghana.

    Authors: Nicholas TKD Dayie, Reuben E Arhin, Mercy J Newman, Anders Dalsgaard, Magne Bisgaard, Niels Frimodt-Møller and Hans-Christian Slotved
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:490
  47. A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71) an...

    Authors: Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Huaqing Zhong, Niuniu Dong and Jin Xu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:489
  48. The recent outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2009 is the largest recorded Q fever outbreak. Exposure to Coxiella burnetii may cause Q fever but the size of the population exposed during t...

    Authors: Russell John Brooke, Mirjam EE Kretzschmar, Nico T Mutters and Peter F Teunis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:488
  49. Enterovirus and herpes simplex viruses are common causes of lymphocytic meningitis. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of the use molecular testing for Enteroviruses and Herpes simplex viruses...

    Authors: Eduardo Casaroto, Alexandre R Marra, Fernando Morgadinho S Coelho, Joao Renato Rebello Pinho, Roberta Sitnik, Fernando Colombari, Elivane Silva Victor, Nair Hideko Muto, Carlos Senne, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos Santos and Michael B Edmond
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:487

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