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  1. Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacter...

    Authors: Edgar Abadía, Monica Sequera, Dagmarys Ortega, María Victoria Méndez, Arnelly Escalona, Omaira Da Mata, Elix Izarra, Yeimy Rojas, Rossana Jaspe, Alifiya S Motiwala, David Alland, Jacobus de Waard and Howard E Takiff
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:122
  2. In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV) given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococ...

    Authors: Amanda J Leach, Peter S Morris, Gabrielle B McCallum, Cate A Wilson, Liz Stubbs, Jemima Beissbarth, Susan Jacups, Kim Hare and Heidi C Smith-Vaughan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:121
  3. A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage o...

    Authors: Ioannis Katsarolis, Garyphallia Poulakou, Antonios Analitis, Irini Matthaiopoulou, Emmanuel Roilides, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Dimitrios A Kafetzis, Georgios L Daikos, Regina Vorou, Christina Koubaniou, Ioannis Pneumatikos, Georgios Samonis, Vasiliki Syriopoulou, Helen Giamarellou and Kyriaki Kanellakopoulou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:120
  4. Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogeni...

    Authors: Ralph P Insinga, Erik J Dasbach and Elamin H Elbasha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:119
  5. The WHO suggested that governments stockpile, as part of preparations for the next influenza pandemic, sufficient influenza antiviral drugs to treat approximately 25% of their populations. Our aim is two-fold:...

    Authors: Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli and Caterina Rizzo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:117
  6. Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recom...

    Authors: Zelma B Costa, Gustavo C Machado, Mariza M Avelino, Clidenor Gomes Filho, Jose V Macedo Filho, Ana L Minuzzi, Marilia D Turchi, Mariane MA Stefani, Wayner Vieira de Souza and Celina MT Martelli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:116
  7. Nosocomial infections are a major threat to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Limited data exist on the epidemiology of ICU-acquired infections in China. This retrospective study was carried out to de...

    Authors: Ji-Guang Ding, Qing-Feng Sun, Ke-Cheng Li, Ming-Hua Zheng, Xiao-Hui Miao, Wu Ni, Liang Hong, Jin-Xian Yang, Zhan-Wei Ruan, Rui-Wei Zhou, Hai-Jiao Zhou and Wen-Fei He
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:115
  8. Comparative genomic analysis of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis BCG have shown that 16 RDs (Regions of Differences) are deleted in BCG and have shown six deletion regions in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. RD1, is pres...

    Authors: Balaraman Sekar, Kamalanathan Arunagiri, Nagamiah Selvakumar, Kaluvuri Serena Preethi and Kandhaswami Menaka
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:114
  9. Epidemiology of HCV infection among drug users (DUs) has been widely studied. Prevalence and sociobehavioural data among DUs are therefore available in most countries but no study has taken into account in the...

    Authors: Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Yann Le Strat, Elisabeth Couturier, Damien Thierry, Marc Rondy, Martine Quaglia, Nicolas Razafandratsima, Julien Emmanuelli, Gaelle Guibert, Francis Barin and Jean-Claude Desenclos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:113
  10. The nation-wide concern over methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has prompted many clinicians to use vancomycin when approaching patients with suspected staphylococcal infections. We sought to char...

    Authors: Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Jean C Aldag, Peggy Mankin and Barry M Gray
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:112
  11. The transmission of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains in drug naive patients may seriously compromise the efficacy of a first-line antiretroviral treatment. To better define this problem, a study in a cohort of new...

    Authors: Claudia Alteri, Valentina Svicher, Caterina Gori, Roberta D'Arrigo, Massimo Ciccozzi, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Marina Selleri, Stefano Aviani Bardacci, Massimo Giuliani, Paola Elia, Paola Scognamiglio, Roberta Balzano, Nicoletta Orchi, Enrico Girardi and Carlo Federico Perno
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:111
  12. The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has risen dramatically in the U.S., particularly among children. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization has been in...

    Authors: Grace M Lee, Susan S Huang, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Virginia L Hinrichsen, Stephen I Pelton, Ken Kleinman, William P Hanage, Marc Lipsitch, Alexander J McAdam and Jonathan A Finkelstein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:110
  13. HFRS is a serious public health problem in China and the study on HFRS is important in China for its large population. The present study aimed to explore the impact of climatic variables and reservoir on the i...

    Authors: Peng Guan, Desheng Huang, Miao He, Tiefeng Shen, Junqiao Guo and Baosen Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:109
  14. Virological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly described. We examined virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults receiving first-line ART for up to 4 year...

    Authors: Asgeir Johannessen, Ezra Naman, Sokoine L Kivuyo, Mabula J Kasubi, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Mecky I Matee, Svein G Gundersen and Johan N Bruun
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:108
  15. Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, m...

    Authors: Thomas Magulski, Dajana Paulmann, Birte Bischoff, Britta Becker, Eike Steinmann, Jörg Steinmann, Peter Goroncy-Bermes and Jochen Steinmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:107
  16. The primary objective of this meta-analytic study was to determine the impact of RSV-IGIV and palivizumab on risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalization. Secondary objectives were to dete...

    Authors: Shaun K Morris, Biljana Dzolganovski, Joseph Beyene and Lillian Sung
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:106
  17. In settings with low background prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) could be useful for diagnosing active TB. This study aims to evaluate the performance of QuantiFERON®-...

    Authors: Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman, Ann Norén and Håkan Miörner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:105
  18. Post-operative pulmonary infection often appears to result from aspiration of pathogens colonizing the oral cavity. It was hypothesized that impaired periodontal status and pathogenic oral bacteria significant...

    Authors: Kinga Bágyi, Angela Haczku, Ildikó Márton, Judit Szabó, Attila Gáspár, Melinda Andrási, Imre Varga, Judit Tóth and Almos Klekner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:104
  19. The increased severity of disease associated with the NAP1 strain of Clostridium difficile has been attributed to mutations to the tcdC gene which codes for a negative regulator of toxin production. To assess the...

    Authors: Ruth Murray, Dave Boyd, Paul N Levett, Michael R Mulvey and Michelle J Alfa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:103
  20. Day care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. Exposure within families and within DCCs are the main risk factors ...

    Authors: Fabian Hoti, Panu Erästö, Tuija Leino and Kari Auranen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:102
  21. Both BALB/c mice and common voles (Microtus arvalis) are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. However, the common vole is reported to harbour Francisella tularensis in European habitats as well as to survi...

    Authors: Hana Bandouchova, Jana Sedlackova, Miroslav Pohanka, Ladislav Novotny, Martin Hubalek, Frantisek Treml, Frantisek Vitula and Jiri Pikula
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:101
  22. It is still a matter of debate whether there is an association between infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and allergy. Previously, we have shown higher levels of specific IgE to different...

    Authors: Linda K Ellertsen, Dag G Storla, Lien M Diep, Karl A Brokstad, Harald G Wiker and Geir Hetland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:100
  23. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens, in order to provide new insight into host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis (TB), and to...

    Authors: Valeria Sargentini, Sabrina Mariotti, Stefania Carrara, Maria Cristina Gagliardi, Raffaela Teloni, Delia Goletti and Roberto Nisini
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:99
  24. In order to attain a better understanding of the interactions between opportunist fungi and their hosts, we investigated the cytokine profile associated with the inflammatory response to Candida albicans infectio...

    Authors: Marcela R Camargo, James Venturini, Fátima R Vilani-Moreno and Maria Sueli P Arruda
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:98
  25. Multi-drug-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, constitute an emerging public-health concern. Little data on the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing Escherichia coli ...

    Authors: Stephen E Mshana, Can Imirzalioglu, Hamid Hossain, Torsten Hain, Eugen Domann and Trinad Chakraborty
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:97
  26. Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in Laos (289 per 100,000). We evaluated the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among children (0–15 years) living with tuberculosis patients in rural northern Laos.

    Authors: Tuan H Nguyen, Peter Odermatt, Gunther Slesak and Hubert Barennes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:96
  27. Information about the risk factors associated with death caused by tuberculosis (TB) or death with TB would allow improvements in the clinical care of TB patients and save lives. The present study sought to id...

    Authors: Xin Shen, Kathryn DeRiemer, Zheng'an Yuan, Mei Shen, Zhen Xia, Xiaohong Gui, Lili Wang and Jian Mei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:95
  28. There is limited information about the effect of diabetes on the prognosis of patients with bacterial infections. We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate possible correlations between diabetes...

    Authors: Galo Peralta, M Blanca Sánchez, M Pía Roiz, J Carlos Garrido, Ramón Teira and Fátima Mateos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:94
  29. Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat...

    Authors: Fen Huang, Wen Zhang, Ga Gong, Congli Yuan, Yijia Yan, Shixing Yang, Li Cui, Jianguo Zhu, Zhibiao Yang and Xiuguo Hua
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:93
  30. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health...

    Authors: Clare Huppatz, Corinne Capuano, Kevin Palmer, Paul M Kelly and David N Durrheim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:92
  31. Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis results in increasing severity, mortality and transmission. Various investigators have reported about delays in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We aimed at summarizing t...

    Authors: Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Kishore V Panduru, Joris Menten and J Van den Ende
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:91
  32. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a fatal infection, but no clinical case due to AP92 strain was reported. We described the first clinical case due to AP92 like CCHFV.

    Authors: Kenan Midilli, Ayşen Gargılı, Onder Ergonul, Murat Elevli, Sevgi Ergin, Nesrin Turan, Gönül Şengöz, Recep Ozturk and Mehmet Bakar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:90
  33. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with preterm birth and acquisition of complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include several fastidious species. Treatment of BV in pregn...

    Authors: Caroline M Mitchell, Jane E Hitti, Kathy J Agnew and David N Fredricks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:89
  34. Persistent diarrhoea in children is a common problem in low and middle income countries. To help target appropriate treatment for specific pathogens in the absence of diagnostic tests, we systematically review...

    Authors: Katharine Abba, Rebecca Sinfield, C Anthony Hart and Paul Garner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:88
  35. A mathematical model was designed to explore the impact of three strategies for better tuberculosis case finding. Strategies included: (1) reducing the number of tuberculosis patients who do not seek care; (2)...

    Authors: Riris A Ahmad, Yodi Mahendradhata, Jane Cunningham, Adi Utarini and Sake J de Vlas
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:87
  36. In Italy, HBV vaccination is recommended and offered free of charge through the National Health Service to selected population groups – e.g., family members of an HBsAg carrier, healthcare workers, newborns an...

    Authors: Paola Scognamiglio, Enrico Girardi, Mario Fusco, Pierluca Piselli, Silvana Russo Spena, Carmela Maione, Francesco Aurelio Pisanti and Diego Serraino
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:86
  37. The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has...

    Authors: Pham Thi Lan, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Ingrid Mogren, Ho Dang Phuc and Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:85
  38. A high rate of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Egypt has been previously reported. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanism (s) to extended spect...

    Authors: Noha G Khalaf, Mona M Eletreby and Nancy D Hanson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:84
  39. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a major cause of nosocomial blood stream infection, especially in critically ill and haematology patients. CoNS are usually multidrug-resistant and glycopeptide anti...

    Authors: Silvia Natoli, Carla Fontana, Marco Favaro, Alberto Bergamini, Gian Piero Testore, Silvia Minelli, Maria Cristina Bossa, Mauro Casapulla, Giorgia Broglio, Angela Beltrame, Laura Cudillo, Raffaella Cerretti and Francesca Leonardis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:83
  40. Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of sc...

    Authors: Yun-Xi Liu, Dan Feng, Ji-Jiang Suo, Yu-Bin Xing, Gang Liu, Li-Hua Liu, Hong-Ju Xiao, Ning Jia, Yan Gao, Hong Yang, Shu-Qing Zuo, Pan-He Zhang, Zhong-Tang Zhao, Jing-Si Min, Pei-Tian Feng, Shu-Bin Ma…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:82
  41. Little is known about immunovirological treatment outcomes and adherence in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated using a simplified management approach in rural areas of developing countri...

    Authors: Laurence Ahoua, Gunar Guenther, Loretxu Pinoges, Paul Anguzu, Marie-Laure Chaix, Clotilde Le Tiec, Suna Balkan, David Olson, Charles Olaro and Mar Pujades-Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:81
  42. Acute kidney injury frequently accompanies sepsis. Endotoxin is known to reduce tissue levels of cAMP and low levels of cAMP have been associated with renal injury. We, therefore, hypothesized that endotoxin i...

    Authors: Won-Il Choi, Kun Young Kwon, Jeong Wook Seo, John Beagle, Deborah A Quinn and Charles A Hales
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:80
  43. Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne infection in North America, is increasingly reported. When the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is not recognized and treated, delayed manifestations of dissemi...

    Authors: John Aucott, Candis Morrison, Beatriz Munoz, Peter C Rowe, Alison Schwarzwalder and Sheila K West
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:79
  44. Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are repor...

    Authors: Afia Zafar, Faiza Habib, Roshan Hadwani, Muslima Ejaz, Khurshid Khowaja, Rozina Khowaja and Seema Irfan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:78
  45. Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, has a complex life cycle. In humans, the parasite may be acquired either through ingestion of contaminated meat or through oocysts present in the environment. The i...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Gilot Fromont, Benjamin Riche and Muriel Rabilloud
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:76
  46. The clinical management of leprosy Type 1 (T1R) and Type 2 (T2R) reactions pose challenges mainly because they can cause severe nerve injury and disability. No laboratory test or marker is available for the di...

    Authors: Mariane M Stefani, Jackeline G Guerra, Ana Lucia M Sousa, Mauricio B Costa, Maria Leide W Oliveira, Celina T Martelli and David M Scollard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:75
  47. Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results.

    Authors: Xavier Castellsagué, Teresa Drudis, Maria Paz Cañadas, Anna Goncé, Ramón Ros, José M Pérez, M Jesús Quintana, Jesús Muñoz, Ginesa Albero, Silvia de Sanjosé and F Xavier Bosch
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:74
  48. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and c...

    Authors: Fabian YS Kong, Jane S Hocking, Chris K Link, Marcus Y Chen and Margaret E Hellard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:73

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