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  1. The cause of the high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood, with heterosexual penile-vaginal transmission proposed as the main mechanism. Heterosexual HIV transmission has been estim...

    Authors: Diego F Cuadros, Philip H Crowley, Ben Augustine, Sarah L Stewart and Gisela García-Ramos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:216
  2. Bell's palsy and Lyme neuroborreliosis are the two most common diagnoses in patients with peripheral facial palsy in areas endemic for Borrelia burgdorferi. Bell's palsy is treated with corticosteroids, while Lym...

    Authors: Daniel Bremell and Lars Hagberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:215
  3. Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a life-threatening disease, often related with serious complications and sequelae. Infants and children who survive bacterial meningitis often suffer neurological and other sequelae.

    Authors: Vasiliki A Vasilopoulou, Maria Karanika, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Antonios T Katsioulis, Maria N Theodoridou and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:214
  4. Anemia is a common clinical finding in HIV-infected patients and iron deficiency or redistribution may contribute to the development of low hemoglobin levels. Iron overload is associated with a poor prognosis ...

    Authors: Rudi Wisaksana, Rachmat Sumantri, Agnes R Indrati, Aleta Zwitser, Hadi Jusuf, Quirijn de Mast, Reinout van Crevel and Andre van der Ven
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:213
  5. Worldwide there is a need to develop simple effective predictors that can distinguish whether a patient will progress from dengue fever (DF) to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic (DHF) or dengue shock syndrom...

    Authors: Farhad F Vasanwala, Rukshini Puvanendran, Stephanie Fook-Chong, Joo-Ming Ng, Sufi M Suhail and Kheng-Hock Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:212
  6. As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for incre...

    Authors: Rebecca J Guy, Hammad Ali, Bette Liu, Simone Poznanski, James Ward, Basil Donovan, John Kaldor and Jane Hocking
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:211
  7. Late onset sepsis is a frequent complication of prematurity associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract play a key role in the development of healthy...

    Authors: Suzanne M Garland, Jacinta M Tobin, Marie Pirotta, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gillian Opie, Susan Donath, Mimi LK Tang, Colin J Morley, Leah Hickey, Linh Ung and Susan E Jacobs
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:210
  8. While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult a...

    Authors: Thomas Tolfvenstam, Anna Lindblom, Mark J Schreiber, Ling Ling, Angelia Chow, Eng Eong Ooi and Martin L Hibberd
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:209
  9. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S.) HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting G...

    Authors: Paulo Telles Dias, Judith A Hahn, Eric Delwart, Brian R Edlin, Jeff Martin, Paula Lum, Jennifer Evans, Alex Kral, Steve Deeks, Michael P Busch and Kimberly Page
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:208
  10. Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccination remains a powerful tool for preventing or mitigating influenza outbreaks. Yet, vaccine supplies and daily administration ca...

    Authors: Maytee Cruz-Aponte, Erin C McKiernan and Marco A Herrera-Valdez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:207
  11. Conventional serological tests, using total soluble proteins or a cocktail of recombinant proteins from T. cruzi as antigens, are highly sensitive for Chagas disease diagnosis. This type of tests, however, does n...

    Authors: Ana Fernández-Villegas, María Jesús Pinazo, Concepción Marañón, M Carmen Thomas, Elizabeth Posada, Bartolomé Carrilero, Manuel Segovia, Joaquim Gascon and Manuel C López
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:206
  12. There was a low adherence to influenza A (H1N1) vaccination program among university students and health care workers during the pandemic influenza in many parts of the world. Vaccination of high risk individu...

    Authors: Padmanaban S Suresh, Venkatesh Thejaswini and Thangarasu Rajan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:205
  13. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ha...

    Authors: Remco PH Peters, Stephan P Verweij, Noëmi Nijsten, Sander Ouburg, Johan Mutsaers, Casper L Jansen, A Petra van Leeuwen and Servaas A Morré
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:203
  14. Identification of the causative agents of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. Cultures remain negative in a substantial number of IFI cases. Accordingly, species identi...

    Authors: Volker Rickerts, Prasanna D Khot, David Myerson, Daisy L Ko, Evelyn Lambrecht and David N Fredricks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:202
  15. Influenza virus is a major cause of respiratory disease worldwide and Streptococcus pneumoniae infection associated with influenza often leads to severe complications. Dendritic cells are key antigen presenting c...

    Authors: Yuet Wu, Huawei Mao, Man-To Ling, Kin-Hung Chow, Pak-Leung Ho, Wenwei Tu and Yu-Lung Lau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:201
  16. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by vaginal lactobacilli is generally believed to protect against bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and strains of lactobacilli that can produce H2O2 are being de...

    Authors: Deirdre E O'Hanlon, Thomas R Moench and Richard A Cone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:200
  17. Schistosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world in terms of people infected and those at risk. Infection occurs through contact with water contaminated with larval forms of the parasite, wh...

    Authors: Seydou Sow, Sake J de Vlas, Foekje Stelma, Kim Vereecken, Bruno Gryseels and Katja Polman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:198
  18. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) is very common in China. It is difficult to distinguish between EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infections in clinical HFMD patients. Ro...

    Authors: Weifeng Shi, Kun Li, Yun Ji, Qingbo Jiang, Mei Shi and Zuhuang Mi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:197
  19. During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, adjuvanted influenza vaccines were used for the first time on a large scale. Results on the effectiveness of the vaccines in preventing 2009 influenza A/H1N1-related ...

    Authors: Anneke Steens, Eleonora G Wijnans, Jeanne P Dieleman, Miriam CJM Sturkenboom, Marianne AB van der Sande and Wim van der Hoek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:196
  20. The P27-P55 (lprG-Rv1410c) operon is crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, during infection in mice. P55 encodes an efflux pump that has been shown to ...

    Authors: María V Bianco, Federico C Blanco, Belén Imperiale, Marina A Forrellad, Roxana V Rocha, Laura I Klepp, Angel A Cataldi, Nora Morcillo and Fabiana Bigi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:195
  21. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in the United States. However, recent reports have documented that C. difficile infections (CDIs) are occurring among patients wit...

    Authors: Jennifer L Kuntz, Elizabeth A Chrischilles, Jane F Pendergast, Loreen A Herwaldt and Philip M Polgreen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:194
  22. HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet,...

    Authors: Harjot K Singh, Nikhil Gupte, Aarti Kinikar, Renu Bharadwaj, Jayagowri Sastry, Nishi Suryavanshi, Uma Nayak, Srikanth Tripathy, Ramesh Paranjape, Arun Jamkar, Robert C Bollinger and Amita Gupta
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:193
  23. During the April-July 2009 outbreak of H1N1/2009 in scotland the West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre (WoSSVC) in Glasgow tested > 16 000 clinical samples for H1N1/2009. Most were from patients clinical...

    Authors: Rory N Gunson and William F Carman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:192
  24. Over 1 billion of the world's poorest inhabitants are afflicted by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Integrated control programmes aimed at tackling these debilitating NTDs have been recently initiated, main...

    Authors: Artemis Koukounari, Seydou Touré, Christl A Donnelly, Amadou Ouedraogo, Bernadette Yoda, Cesaire Ky, Martin Kaboré, Elisa Bosqué-Oliva, María-Gloria Basáñez, Alan Fenwick and Joanne P Webster
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:191
  25. In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information o...

    Authors: Abebe Alemu, Asmamaw Atnafu, Zelalem Addis, Yitayal Shiferaw, Takele Teklu, Biniam Mathewos, Wubet Birhan, Simon Gebretsadik and Baye Gelaw
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:189
  26. Six hospitals instituted a voluntary, system-wide, pathway for community acquired pneumonia (CAP). We proposed this study to determine the impact of pathway antibiotics on patient survival, hospital length of ...

    Authors: Christopher R Frei, Allison M Bell, Kristi A Traugott, Terry C Jaso, Kelly R Daniels, Eric M Mortensen, Marcos I Restrepo, Christine U Oramasionwu, Andres D Ruiz, William R Mylchreest, Vanja Sikirica, Monika R Raut, Alan Fisher and Jeff R Schein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:188
  27. Fluoroquinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antimicrobials and are an important risk factor for colonization and infection with fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli and for Clostridium diff...

    Authors: Nicole L Werner, Michelle T Hecker, Ajay K Sethi and Curtis J Donskey
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:187
  28. The lungs are involved in up to 70% of cases of leptospirosis. In the more severe forms-bleeding from the lungs and acute respiratory distress syndrome-the lethality is high. The treatment proposed for leptosp...

    Authors: Ana Flávia C Azevedo, Demócrito de B Miranda-Filho, Gustavo T Henriques-Filho, Alfredo Leite and Ricardo AA Ximenes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:186
  29. A screening programme for pregnant women has been in place since the 1950s in the Netherlands. In 2004 universal HIV screening according to opting out was implemented. Here, we describe the evaluation of the e...

    Authors: Eline LM Op de Coul, Susan Hahné, Yolanda WM van Weert, Petra Oomen, Colette Smit, Kitty PB van der Ploeg, Daan W Notermans, Kees Boer and Marianne AB van der Sande
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:185
  30. Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. T...

    Authors: Philip J Cooper, Martha E Chico, Irene Guadalupe, Carlos A Sandoval, Edward Mitre, Thomas AE Platts-Mills, Mauricio L Barreto, Laura C Rodrigues, David P Strachan and George E Griffin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:184
  31. The chemotherapy used to treat lung cancer causes febrile neutropenia in 10 to 40% of patients. Although most episodes are of undetermined origin, an infectious etiology can be suspected in 30% of cases. In vi...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Lanoix, Emilie Pluquet, Francois Xavier Lescure, Houcine Bentayeb, Emmanuelle Lecuyer, Marie Boutemy, Patrick Dumont, Vincent Jounieaux, Jean Luc Schmit, Charles Dayen and Youcef Douadi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:183
  32. Clinical evolution of HIV-infected children who have not yet initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) is poorly understood in Africa. We describe severe morbidity and mortality of untreated HIV-infected children.

    Authors: Sophie Desmonde, Patrick Coffie, Edmond Aka, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Eugène Messou, François Dabis, Ahmadou Alioum, Andrea Ciaranello and Valériane Leroy
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:182
  33. The emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram-negatives (MDRGNs) coupled with an alarming scarcity of new antibiotics has forced the optimization of the therapeutic potential of available antibiotics. To exploit ...

    Authors: Pranita D Tamma, Nirupama Putcha, Yong D Suh, Kyle J Van Arendonk and Michael L Rinke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:181
  34. The knowledge on type specificity and factors that increase or decrease the risk of incident HPV-infections is important to better understand the dynamics of HPV-infections.

    Authors: Karolina Louvanto, Marjut A Rintala, Kari J Syrjänen, Seija E Grénman and Stina M Syrjänen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:179
  35. Complex mutants can be selected under sequential selective pressure by HBV therapy. To determine hepatitis B virus genomic evolution during antiviral therapy we characterized the HBV quasi-species in a patient...

    Authors: Lucila Cassino, Silvina Benetti, Fabian Fay, Hugo Tanno and Jorge Quarleri
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:178
  36. The effect of peginterferon and ribavirin treatment on chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been established in several controlled clinical studies. However, the effectiveness of treatment and predict...

    Authors: Nanna Hansen, Niels Obel, Peer B Christensen, Mette Kjær, Alex L Laursen, Henrik B Krarup, Axel Møller, Poul Schlichting, Jens Bukh and Nina Weis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:177
  37. Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the Pakistani population and is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. High prevalence of HBV infections ha...

    Authors: Fawad Khan, Haji Akbar, Muhammad Idrees, Hayat Khan, Khuram Shahzad and Mahmood A Kayani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:176
  38. Although Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis are important causes of invasive and mucosal bacterial disease among children, co-carriage with Streptococcus pneumoni...

    Authors: Brenda A Kwambana, Michael R Barer, Christian Bottomley, Richard A Adegbola and Martin Antonio
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:175
  39. Immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. However, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs ...

    Authors: Sun-Young Kim, Steven Sweet, Joshua Chang and Sue J Goldie
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:174
  40. Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Vaccines have been licensed or are under development that can protect against ...

    Authors: Bernhard Ultsch, Anette Siedler, Thorsten Rieck, Thomas Reinhold, Gérard Krause and Ole Wichmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:173
  41. Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, causes localised infections in the absence of histological digestive involvement. Our objective is to describe T. whipplei encephalitis.

    Authors: Florence Fenollar, François Nicoli, Claire Paquet, Hubert Lepidi, Patrick Cozzone, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jean Pouget and Didier Raoult
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:171
  42. Antigenic variation of influenza virus necessitates annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines, which contain two type A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and one type B strain. We used a test negative case con...

    Authors: James E Fielding, Kristina A Grant, Georgina Papadakis and Heath A Kelly
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:170
  43. Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) ...

    Authors: Nicholas Midzi, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Munyaradzi P Mapingure, Noah H Paul, Davison Sangweme, Gibson Hlerema, Masceline J Mutsaka, Farisai Tongogara, Godfrey Makware, Vivian Chadukura, Kimberly C Brouwer, Francisca Mutapi, Nirbhay Kumar and Takafira Mduluza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:169
  44. Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is no...

    Authors: Asako Fujitsuka, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Mika Arakawa, Kazuko Goto-Sugai, Akihide Ryo, Yoshimichi Okayama, Katsumi Mizuta, Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masakazu Yoshizumi, Yoichi Kaburagi, Masahiro Noda, Masato Tashiro, Nobuhiko Okabe, Masaaki Mori, Shumpei Yokota and Hirokazu Kimura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:168
  45. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was first described in 1997 in a patient in France. The causative agent, Rickettsia slovaca, is transmitted by Dermacentor ticks.

    Authors: Siegbert Rieg, Sabine Schmoldt, Christian Theilacker, Katja de With, Silke Wölfel, Winfried V Kern and Gerhard Dobler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:167

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