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  1. In many GAVI-eligible countries, effectiveness of new vaccines will be evaluated by case-control methodology. To inform the design and assess selection bias of a future case-control study of rotavirus vaccine ...

    Authors: Sammy Khagayi, Jacqueline E Tate, Reuben Onkoba, Umesh Parashar, Frank Odhiambo, Deron Burton, Kayla Laserson and Daniel R Feikin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:77
  2. Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent.

    Authors: Ginesa Albero, Xavier Castellsagué, Hui-Yi Lin, William Fulp, Luisa L Villa, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Mary Papenfuss, Martha Abrahamsen, Jorge Salmerón, Manuel Quiterio, Alan G Nyitray, Beibei Lu, F Xavier Bosch and Anna R Giuliano
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:75
  3. In an attempt to curtail the rising morbidity and mortality from undiagnosed HCV (hepatitis C virus) in the United States, screening guidelines have been expanded to high-risk individuals and persons born 1945...

    Authors: Brianna L Norton, Corrine I Voils, Sarah H Timberlake, Emily J Hecker, Neela D Goswami, Kim M Huffman, Anneka Landgraf, Susanna Naggie and Jason E Stout
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:74
  4. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Age, sex, prolonged duration of illness, and infection with an antimicrobial resistant organism have been proposed ...

    Authors: Christopher M Parry, Corinne Thompson, Ha Vinh, Nguyen Tran Chinh, Le Thi Phuong, Vo Anh Ho, Tran Tinh Hien, John Wain, Jeremy J Farrar and Stephen Baker
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:73
  5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mainly transmitted by parenteral route, being blood transfusion and intravenous drug use the most frequent risk factors. However, it has been suggested that there are other routes of...

    Authors: Francisca Sosa-Jurado, Verónica L Hernández-Galindo, Daniel Meléndez-Mena, Miguel A Mendoza-Torres, Fernando J Martínez-Arroniz, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva and Gerardo Santos-López
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:72
  6. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) neuropathic symptoms may develop within weeks of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This timing coincides with the occurrence o...

    Authors: Johan J Van der Watt, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson and Jeannine M Heckmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:71
  7. Based on their essential role in concerting immunological and inflammatory responses we hypothesized that the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 may play a pathogenic role in rickettsiae infection.

    Authors: Elisabeth Astrup, Trine Ranheim, Jan K Damås, Giovanni Davì, Francesca Santilli, Mogens Jensenius, Giustina Vitale, Pål Aukrust, Juan P Olano and Kari Otterdal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:70
  8. LLIN distribution, every three years, is a key intervention of Benin’s malaria control strategy. However, data from the field indicate that LLIN lifespan appears to vary based on both intrinsic (to the LLIN) a...

    Authors: Virgile Gnanguenon, Roseric Azondekon, Frederic Oke-Agbo, Raymond Beach and Martin Akogbeto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:69
  9. The Northern part of Serbia is hyperendemic-endemic for canine dirofilarioses. Considering this fact, many human dirofilarial infections could be expected, however only about 30 cases in Serbia have been descr...

    Authors: Suzana A Tasić-Otašević, Simona V Gabrielli, Aleksandar V Tasić, Nataša L MiladinovićTasić, Jovana T Kostić, Aleksandra M Ignjatović, Lidija D Popović Dragonjić, Zoran G Milošević, Valentina S Arsić-Arsenijević and Gabriella A Cancrini
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:68
  10. The editors of BMC Infectious Diseases would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 13 (2013).

    Authors: Philippa K Harris
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:20
  11. The use of prototypic strains is common among laboratories studying infectious agents as it promotes consistency for data comparability among and between laboratories. Schu S4 is the prototypic virulent strain of...

    Authors: Claudia R Molins, Mark J Delorey, Brook M Yockey, John W Young, John T Belisle, Martin E Schriefer and Jeannine M Petersen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:67
  12. As a result of extensive use of fluroquinlones and cephalosporins, urinary tract pathogens producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) pose a considerable clinical challenge in the treatment of UTIs. In ...

    Authors: Bei Lai, Bo Zheng, Yun Li, Sainan Zhu and Zhaohui Tong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:66
  13. In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been in...

    Authors: Beata Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Agnieszka Beata Serwin, Daniel Golparian, Szymon Walter de Walthoffen, Slawomir Majewski, Marta Koper, Magdalena Malejczyk, Marius Domeika and Magnus Unemo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:65
  14. In the context of decreasing tuberculosis prevalence in China, we examined the effectiveness of screening household contacts of tuberculosis patients.

    Authors: Zhongwei Jia, Shiming Cheng, Yan Ma, Tianhao Zhang, Liqiong Bai, Weiguo Xu, Xiaoxin He, Peiru Zhang, Jinkou Zhao and David C Christiani
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:64
  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. After primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory gangl...

    Authors: Lars Haarr, Arvid Nilsen, Per M Knappskog and Nina Langeland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:63
  16. Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is not notifiable in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the epidemiological situation of the >150 NTM species is largely unkno...

    Authors: Marieke J van der Werf, Csaba Ködmön, Vera Katalinić-Janković, Tiina Kummik, Hanna Soini, Elvira Richter, Dimitrios Papaventsis, Enrico Tortoli, Monique Perrin, Dick van Soolingen, Manca Žolnir-Dovč and Vibeke Østergaard Thomsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:62
  17. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). Increasingly, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been identified as causative pathogens in p...

    Authors: Scott T Micek, Adam Lang, Brian M Fuller, Nicholas B Hampton and Marin H Kollef
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:61
  18. Since 2010 Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy) planned a special integrated surveillance of summer fevers to promptly identify cases of West Nile Fever (WNF), dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). The objecti...

    Authors: Federico Gobbi, Gioia Capelli, Andrea Angheben, Mario Giobbia, Mario Conforto, Marzia Franzetti, Anna Maria Cattelan, Enzo Raise, Pierangelo Rovere, Paolo Mulatti, Fabrizio Montarsi, Andrea Drago, Luisa Barzon, Giuseppina Napoletano, Francesca Zanella, Francesca Pozza…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:60
  19. With Fluorotype MTB (FT MTB, HAIN Lifesciences, Germany) a new semi-automated assay for detection of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens has been introduced. In a prospective study, we evaluated ...

    Authors: Sabine Hofmann-Thiel and Harald Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:59
  20. Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of f...

    Authors: Tiejun Zhang, Ying Yang, Feng Yu, Yanping Zhao, Feifei Lin, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood and Na He
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:58
  21. As the population ages, the burden on the healthcare system might increase and require changed public health priorities. As infections are often more severe at older age, we rank notifiable infectious diseases...

    Authors: Anneke Steens, Hanne-Merete Eriksen and Hans Blystad
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:57
  22. Drug-resistant Providencia rettgeri producing metallo-β-lactamase and 16S rRNA methylase has been reported in several countries. We analyzed P. rettgeri clinical isolates with resistance to carbapenems and aminog...

    Authors: Tatsuya Tada, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Rajan K Dahal, Manoj K Sah, Hiroshi Ohara, Kayo Shimada, Teruo Kirikae and Bharat M Pokhrel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:56
  23. IFN-α has been used to treat patients with chronic active hepatitis B (CAHB). Recent studies have implicated the IL-23/Th-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of CAHB. In this study, we investigated whether IFN-α co...

    Authors: Fang Cui, Jiangping Meng, Peng Luo and Pu Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:55
  24. The rapid identification of acid-fast bacilli recovered from patient specimens as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is critically important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. A thin-layer immunochromato...

    Authors: Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Akio Aono, Hiroyuki Yamada, Tetsuhiro Sugamoto, Tomoko Kato, Yuko Kazumi, Kiyoko Tamai, Hideji Yanagisawa and Satoshi Mitarai
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:54
  25. The successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) requires long-term multidrug chemotherapy. Clinical trials to evaluate new drugs and regimens for TB treatment are protracted due to the slow clearance of Mycobacteri...

    Authors: Sebabrata Mahapatra, Ann M Hess, John L Johnson, Kathleen D Eisenach, Mary A DeGroote, Phineas Gitta, Moses L Joloba, Gilla Kaplan, Gerhard Walzl, W Henry Boom and John T Belisle
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:53
  26. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can activate the immune system, leading to characteristic pathological changes such as inflammatory granuloma, caseous necrosis, and cavity formation.

    Authors: Chong Wang, Yan-Yuan Li, Xiang Li, Li-Liang Wei, Xiu-Yun Yang, Dan-Dan Xu, Ting-Ting Jiang, Zhong-Jie Li, Zhong-Liang Chen, Xing Zhang, Ji-Yan Liu, Ze-Peng Ping and Ji-Cheng Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:52
  27. Persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR-HPV viral load are associated with the development of cancer. This study investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus ...

    Authors: Zizipho ZA Mbulawa, Leigh F Johnson, Dianne J Marais, Inger Gustavsson, Jennifer R Moodley, David Coetzee, Ulf Gyllensten and Anna-Lise Williamson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:51
  28. Human adenoviruses of species B, C, and E (HAdV-B, –C, -E) are frequent causative agents of acute respiratory infections worldwide. As part of a surveillance program aimed at identifying the etiology of influe...

    Authors: Pola N Demian, Katherine C Horton, Adriana Kajon, Rania Siam, Amel Mohamed Nageib Hasanin, Amany Elgohary Sheta, Claire Cornelius and Anne M Gaynor
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:50
  29. Immunoassays for Plasmodium detection are, presently, most frequently based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), which are cheaper to develop and manufacture, are much less frequently...

    Authors: Luciana Pereira Sousa, Luis André Morais Mariuba, Rudson Jesus Holanda, João Paulo Pimentel, Maria Edilene Martins Almeida, Yury Oliveira Chaves, Davi Borges, Emerson Lima, James Lee Crainey, Patricia Puccinelli Orlandi, Marcus Vinicius Lacerda and Paulo Afonso Nogueira
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:49
  30. ProvLab Alberta provides all laboratory testing for Bordetella pertussis including sporadic cases and outbreak investigations through collaborations with provincial public health partners. We describe B. pertussi...

    Authors: Sumana Fathima, Christina Ferrato, Bonita E Lee, Kimberley Simmonds, Lin Yan, Shamir N Mukhi, Vincent Li, Linda Chui and Steven J Drews
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:48
  31. Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) expressing hypermucoviscosity phenotype (HV-KP) has abundant capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and is capable of causing invasive syndrome. Sodium salicylate (SAL) reduces the production o...

    Authors: Chen-Hsiang Lee, Lin-Hui Su, Jien-Wei Liu, Chia-Chi Chang, Rong-Fu Chen and Kuender-D Yang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:47
  32. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants, can be transmitted vertically from mother to infant during passage through the birth canal. Detection o...

    Authors: Toyohisa Morita, Dongyun Feng, Yoko Kamio, Isao Kanno, Teruo Somaya, Kazuhito Imai, Misaki Inoue, Mutsunori Fujiwara and Akihito Miyauchi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:46
  33. Global efforts to eradicate wild polioviruses (WPVs) continue to face challenges due to uninterrupted endemic WPV transmission in three countries and importation-related outbreaks into previously polio-free co...

    Authors: Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Dominika A Kalkowska, Steven GF Wassilak, Mark A Pallansch, Stephen L Cochi and Kimberly M Thompson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:45
  34. The immunoneuroendocrine axis plays a major role in the regulation of the host’s response to infection, but its role in severe H7N9 pneumonia is still unknown. Therefore, this study is carried out to explore t...

    Authors: Jin Yao, Linhua Liu, Gang Chen and Leng Lin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:44
  35. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmissi...

    Authors: Kazufumi Nakashima, Kazuyoshi Shigehara, Shohei Kawaguchi, Akira Wakatsuki, Yoshitomo Kobori, Kazuyoshi Nakashima, Yasunori Ishii, Masayoshi Shimamura, Toshiyuki Sasagawa, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Atsushi Mizokami and Mikio Namiki
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:43
  36. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis generally infects the gastrointestinal tract and causes enteropathy symptoms suggesting infection. Y. pseudotuberculosis infections are often complicated with intraceliac lymphoadenop...

    Authors: Osamu Imataki, Makiko Uemura, Kensuke Matsumoto and Naoko Ishibashi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:42
  37. Many cancer patients receive a central venous catheter or port system prior to therapy to assure correct drug administration. Even appropriate hygienic intervention maintenance carries the risk of contaminatin...

    Authors: Fabian Pohl, Werner Hartmann, Thomas Holzmann, Sandra Gensicke, Oliver Kölbl and Matthias G Hautmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:41
  38. Routine annual influenza vaccination is primarily recommended for all persons aged 60 and above and for people with underlying chronic conditions in Germany. Other countries have already adopted additional chi...

    Authors: Markus A Rose, Oliver Damm, Wolfgang Greiner, Markus Knuf, Peter Wutzler, Johannes G Liese, Hagen Krüger, Ulrich Wahn, Tom Schaberg, Markus Schwehm, Thomas F Kochmann and Martin Eichner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:40
  39. For patients hospitalised due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), mortality risk is usually estimated with prognostic scores such as CRB-65 or CURB-65. For elderly patients, a new score referred to as CURSI...

    Authors: Harald Nüllmann, Marc Andre Pflug, Thomas Wesemann, Hans-Jürgen Heppner, Ludger Pientka and Ulrich Thiem
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:39
  40. Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector contr...

    Authors: Juliana Quintero, Helena Brochero, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Mario Barrera-Pérez, César Basso, Sonnia Romero, Andrea Caprara, Jane Cris De Lima Cunha, Efraín Beltrán - Ayala, Kendra Mitchell-Foster, Axel Kroeger, Johannnes Sommerfeld and Max Petzold
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:38
  41. Reusable surface disinfectant tissue dispensers are used in hospitals in many countries because they allow immediate access to pre-soaked tissues for targeted surface decontamination. On the other hand disinfe...

    Authors: Günter Kampf, Stina Degenhardt, Sibylle Lackner, Katrin Jesse, Heike von Baum and Christiane Ostermeyer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:37
  42. Dengue fever and leptospirosis have partially overlapping geographic distributions, similar clinical presentations and potentially life-threatening complications but require different treatments. Distinguishin...

    Authors: Andrea L Conroy, Margarita Gélvez, Michael Hawkes, Nimerta Rajwans, W Conrad Liles, Luis Angel Villar-Centeno and Kevin C Kain
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:35
  43. Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evalu...

    Authors: Mariza M Avelino, Waldemar N Amaral, Isolina MX Rodrigues, Alan R Rassi, Maria BF Gomes, Tatiane L Costa and Ana M Castro
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:33
  44. Reliable assessment for the severity of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza is critical for evaluation of vaccination strategies for future pandemics. This study aims to estimate the age-specific hospitalization ...

    Authors: Xi-Ling Wang, Chit-Ming Wong, Kwok-Hung Chan, King-Pan Chan, Pei-Hua Cao, JS Malik Peiris and Lin Yang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:32
  45. Previous studies may have overestimated morbidity and mortality due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae infections because of difficulties in modeling patient comorbiditie...

    Authors: Milena M McLaughlin, M Renee Advincula, Michael Malczynski, Grace Barajas, Chao Qi and Marc H Scheetz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:31
  46. Sporulation of Clostridium difficile during infection and persistence of spores within the gut could partly explain treatment failures and recurrence. However, the influence of antibiotics on sporulation is uncle...

    Authors: Julian R Garneau, Louis Valiquette and Louis-Charles Fortier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:29
  47. Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is emerging worldwide among Enterobacteriaceae. To prevent hospital transmission due to unnoticed carriage of carbapenemase producing micro-organisms in newly admitted pati...

    Authors: Anneke van der Zee, Lieuwe Roorda, Gerda Bosman, Ad C Fluit, Mirjam Hermans, Paul HM Smits, Adri GM van der Zanden, René te Witt, Lesla ES Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, James Cohen Stuart and Jacobus M Ossewaarde
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:27

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