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  1. Inflammasomes are multi-protein intracellular signaling complexes that have recently been hypothesized to play a role in the regulation of the inflammation response. We studied associations between inflammasom...

    Authors: Madelijn Geldhoff, Barry B Mook-Kanamori, Matthijs C Brouwer, Dirk Troost, Jaklien C Leemans, Richard A Flavell, Arie Van der Ende, Tom Van der Poll and Diederik Van de Beek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:358
  2. The objective of this study was to describe aetiology and case fatality of fever among inpatients in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    Authors: Siri Kratter Abrahamsen, Cathrine Nødtvedt Haugen, Priscilla Rupali, Dilip Mathai, Nina Langeland, Geir Egil Eide and Kristine Mørch
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:355
  3. Shigellosis is rare in Taiwan, with an average annual incidence rate of 1.68 cases per 100,000 persons in 2000–2007. However, the incidence rate for a mountainous township in eastern Taiwan, Zhuoxi, is 60.2 ti...

    Authors: Ching-Fen Ko, Nien-Tsung Lin, Chien-Shun Chiou, Li-Yu Wang, Ming-Ching Liu, Chiou-Ying Yang and Yeong-Sheng Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:354
  4. Invasive candidiasis is an important nosocomial infection associated with high mortality among immunosuppressive or critically ill patients. We described the incidence of invasive candidiasis in our hospital o...

    Authors: Fang Li, Lin Wu, Bin Cao, Yuyu Zhang, Xiaoli Li and Yingmei Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:353
  5. The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay a...

    Authors: Maunank Shah, Violet Chihota, Gerrit Coetzee, Gavin Churchyard and Susan E Dorman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:352
  6. To control tuberculosis (TB), it is critical to identify at risk populations. Schizophrenia is recognized as an important risk factor for TB. However, previous studies have been confounded by comorbidities, an...

    Authors: Shu-Chen Kuo, Yung-Tai Chen, Szu-Yuan Li, Yi-Tzu Lee, Albert C Yang, Te-Li Chen, Chia-Jen Liu, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Ih-Jen Su and Chang-Phone Fung
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:351
  7. Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently d...

    Authors: Fernanda A Orsi, Rodrigo N Angerami, Bruna M Mazetto, Susan KP Quaino, Fernanda Santiago-Bassora, Vagner Castro, Erich V de Paula and Joyce M Annichino-Bizzacchi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:350
  8. The world health organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency, mainly affecting people in sub-Saharan Africa. However there is little data about the burden of TB among adolescents. We estim...

    Authors: James Waako, Suzanne Verver, Anne Wajja, Willy Ssengooba, Moses L Joloba, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Musoke and Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:349
  9. Improved influenza vaccines are needed to reduce influenza-associated complications in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal formulation of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine for u...

    Authors: Hans C Rümke, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Lars Rombo, Karlis Pauksens, Georg Plaßmann, Christelle Durand, Jeanne-Marie Devaster, Walthère Dewé and Lidia Oostvogels
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:348
  10. Syphilis has been referred to as “the great imitator” due to its ability to imitate other diseases. Untreated syphilis becomes a systemic infection that can involve almost every organ systems. Treponema pallidum ...

    Authors: Thilde Fabricius, Charlotte Winther, Caroline Ewertsen, Michael Kemp and Susanne Dam Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:347
  11. Elderly patients are at particular risk for bacteremia and sepsis. Atypicalpresentation may complicate the diagnosis. We studied patients withbacteremia, in order to assess possible age-related effects on the ...

    Authors: Astrid L Wester, Oona Dunlop, Kjetil K Melby, Ulf R Dahle and Torgeir Bruun Wyller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:346
  12. Sepsis has several clinical stages, and mortality rates are different for each stage. Our goal was to establish the evolution and the determinants of the progression of clinical stages, from infection to septi...

    Authors: Alba Luz León, Natalia Andrea Hoyos, Lena Isabel Barrera, Gisela De La Rosa, Rodolfo Dennis, Carmelo Dueñas, Marcela Granados, Dario Londoño, Ferney Alexander Rodríguez, Francisco José Molina, Guillermo Ortiz and Fabián Alberto Jaimes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:345
  13. Healthcare-associated (HCA) bloodstream infections (BSI) have been associated with worse outcomes, in terms of higher frequencies of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and inappropriate therapy than strict co...

    Authors: Pilar Retamar, María Dolores López-Prieto, Clara Nátera, Marina de Cueto, Enrique Nuño, Marta Herrero, Fernando Fernández-Sánchez, Angel Muñoz, Francisco Téllez, Berta Becerril, Ana García-Tapia, Inmaculada Carazo, Raquel Moya, Juan E Corzo, Laura León, Leopoldo Muñoz…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:344
  14. Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have co-circulated since the 1980s, yet inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) include strains of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and only one influenza B fro...

    Authors: Dorothee Kieninger, Eric Sheldon, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chong-Jen Yu, Jose M Bayas, Julian J Gabor, Meral Esen, Jose Luis Fernandez Roure, Silvia Narejos Perez, Carmen Alvarez Sanchez, Yang Feng, Carine Claeys, Mathieu Peeters, Bruce L Innis and Varsha Jain
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:343
  15. Research has indicated that the environment may play an important role in the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile in healthcare facilities. Despite the sign...

    Authors: Meredith C Faires, David L Pearl, Olaf Berke, Richard J Reid-Smith and J Scott Weese
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:342
  16. Several studies have shown that serum IL-10, IFNγ and MIF are elevated in patients in severe dengue (SD) and could be used as potential biomarkers. We proceeded to determine if these cytokines could be used as...

    Authors: Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Laksiri Gomes, Lukmall Alles, Thashi Chang, Maryam Salimi, Sachie Fernando, Kushan DL Nanayakkara, SD Jayaratne and Graham S Ogg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:341
  17. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sequela in survivors of bacterial meningitis (BM). In the past we developed a validated prediction model to identify children at risk for post-meningitis hearing l...

    Authors: Marieke S Sanders, Rogier CJ de Jonge, Caroline B Terwee, Martijn W Heymans, Irene Koomen, Sander Ouburg, Lodewijk Spanjaard, Servaas A Morré and A Marceline van Furth
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:340
  18. spa typing is a common genotyping tool for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Europe. Given the high prevalence of dominant clones, spa-typing is proving to be limited in its ability to distin...

    Authors: David M Engelthaler, Erin Kelley, Elizabeth M Driebe, Jolene Bowers, Carl F Eberhard, Jesse Trujillo, Frederic Decruyenaere, James M Schupp, Joel Mossong, Paul Keim and Jos Even
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:339
  19. The human norovirus (NV) circulates worldwide and is a major cause of epidemics, which have increased in Taiwan since 2002. NV in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and non-acute gastroenteritis (asymptomatic) patien...

    Authors: Meng-Bin Tang, Chien-Hsien Chen, Shou-Chien Chen, Yu-Ching Chou and Chia-Peng Yu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:338
  20. Bloodstream infections due to Candida species cause significant morbidity and mortality, and the epidemiology of Candida infection is changing. Surveillance for candidemia is necessary to detect trends in species...

    Authors: Chun-fang Ma, Fang-qiu Li, Li-ning Shi, Yu-an Hu, Ying Wang, Mei Huang and Qian-qian Kong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:337
  21. Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei is a widespread but a neglected tropical zoonosis. In this study, we characterised a S. scabiei thioredoxin peroxidase (SsTPx) and evaluated a recombinant SsTPx as a diagnostic...

    Authors: Runhui Zhang, Wanpeng Zheng, Xuhang Wu, Quwu Jise, Yongjun Ren, Xiang Nong, Xiaobin Gu, Shuxian Wang, Xuerong Peng, Songjia Lai and Guangyou Yang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:336
  22. Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmissi...

    Authors: Paul E Simonsen, Yahya A Derua, William N Kisinza, Stephen M Magesa, Mwele N Malecela and Erling M Pedersen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:335
  23. Palivizumab has been shown to decrease the incidence of hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants at risk of severe RSV disease. We examined the association between compliance with pa...

    Authors: Dan L Stewart, Kellie J Ryan, Jerry G Seare, Brett Pinsky, Laura Becker and Michael Frogel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:334
  24. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania siamensis, is an emerging disease in Thailand. Although reported cases have been increasing, epidemiological information of the disease including host and vector aspects is not...

    Authors: Kobkan Kanjanopas, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Ubolrat Ninsaeng, Atitaya Hitakarun, Somnat Jitkaew, Preecha Kaewtaphaya, Peerapan Tan-ariya, Mathirut Mungthin, Chetsuda Charoenwong and Saovanee Leelayoova
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:333
  25. This study was performed to detect risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Authors: Ji Hwan Bang, Younghee Jung, Shinhye Cheon, Chung Jong Kim, Kyung Ho Song, Pyeong Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-don Oh, Hyo-Suk Lee and Nam Joong Kim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:332
  26. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) are inflammation markers and have been poorly described in infectious disease. In this prospective study, we describe the sera kinetics of th...

    Authors: Fabrícia Alvisi de Oliveira, Carla Vanessa Oliveira Silva, Nayra Prata Damascena, Rodrigo Oliveira Passos, Malcolm S Duthie, Jeffrey A Guderian, Ajay Bhatia, Tatiana Rodrigues de Moura, Steven G Reed, Roque Pacheco de Almeida and Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:331
  27. Human cytomegalovirus infections are still significant causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The use of antiviral agents is limited by toxicity and evolving resistance in immunocompromise...

    Authors: Axel Schubert, Karoline Ehlert, Susanne Schuler-Luettmann, Eva Gentner, Thomas Mertens and Detlef Michel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:330
  28. Hepatitis B virus is hyperendemic in Sudan. Our aim was to molecularly characterize hepatitis B virus from Sudanese individuals, with and without liver disease, because genotypes play an important role in clin...

    Authors: Mukhlid Yousif, Hatim Mudawi, Sahar Bakhiet, Dieter Glebe and Anna Kramvis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:328
  29. Understanding about who acquires new HIV infection and the determinants of why some persons get infected and others do not is fundamental to controlling HIV in the population. We assess HIV incidence and its a...

    Authors: Lalit Dandona, G Anil Kumar, Vemu Lakshmi, G Md Mushtaq Ahmed, Mohammed Akbar, Sri P Ramgopal, Talasila Sudha, Michel Alary and Rakhi Dandona
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:327
  30. Bacterial meningitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction contributing to neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to obtain a comparative analysis of cytokines and chemokines in patients wit...

    Authors: Leonam G Coutinho, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L Leib and Lucymara F Agnez-Lima
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:326
  31. Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individ...

    Authors: Todd J Vento, Tatjana P Calvano, David W Cole, Katrin Mende, Elizabeth A Rini, Charla C Tully, Michael L Landrum, Wendy Zera, Charles H Guymon, Xin Yu, Miriam L Beckius, Kristelle A Cheatle and Clinton K Murray
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:325
  32. C. difficile (CD) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxin B gene (tcdB) is more sensitive, and reduces turnaround time when compared to toxin immunoassay. We noted typical amplification curves with h...

    Authors: Jerome A Leis, Wayne L Gold, John Ng, Zahir Hirji, Dylan R Pillai, George Broukhanski, Paula Raggiunti, Susy Hota, Allison McGeer and Susan M Poutanen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:324
  33. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public h...

    Authors: Wei Li, Lina Yi, Juan Su, Jing Lu, Hanri Zeng, Dawei Guan, Cong Ma, Wanly Zhang, Hong xiao, Hui Li, Yonghui Zhang, Jinyan Lin and Changwen Ke
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:322
  34. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) continues to have a high mortality rate and often results in severe sequelae among survivors. Lately, an increased effort has been focused on describing the neuro...

    Authors: Jacob Bodilsen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder and Henrik Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:321

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:553

  35. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide including Bangladesh. Unlike what was seen in high-income countries, the licensed rotavirus vaccines did not show high ...

    Authors: Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Zahid Hassan, Saiada Farjana, Sayra Moni, Subarna Barua, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Tasnim Azim and Mustafizur Rahman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:320
  36. The systemic surveillance of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) from multicenters in Taiwan revealed the emergence of isolates with bla OXA-72. This study described their genetic makeup, mechanism ...

    Authors: Shu-Chen Kuo, Su-Pen Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Han-Chuan Chuang, Chien-Pei Chen, Chi-Ling Chang, Te-Li Chen, Po-Liang Lu, Po-Ren Hsueh and Chang-Phone Fung
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:319
  37. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nasopharyngeal colonization plays an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases, an...

    Authors: Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto, Mariane Alves Corrêa, Roberta dos Anjos Barreto, Laís de Souza Gouveia Moreira, Havana Gomes Rodrigues, Claudete Araújo Cardoso, Rosana Rocha Barros and Lúcia Martins Teixeira
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:318
  38. Rituximab (R) is a chimeric human-murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used to treat B-cell lymphomas. Despite R remarkable activity against malignant cells, there are concerns that R may facilitate the occurr...

    Authors: Simone Lanini, Aoife C Molloy, Archibald G Prentice, Giuseppe Ippolito and Christopher C Kibbler
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:317
  39. Clostridium difficile infection poses a significant healthcare burden. However, the derivation of a simple, evidence based prediction rule to assist patient management has not yet been described.

    Authors: Emma Butt, Jane AH Foster, Edward Keedwell, Julia EA Bell, Richard W Titball, Aneel Bhangu, Stephen L Michell and Ray Sheridan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:316
  40. There is a lack of information on the clinical characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB in the Jiangxi Province of China; furthermore, data have no...

    Authors: Xiaoliang Yuan, Tiantuo Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Jiaxin Zhu, Wenzheng Zheng, Hongtao Li, Guofang Deng, Shaohua Tu and Weiyou Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:315
  41. To determine if tropism for CXCR4 or CCR5 correlates with cellular HIV DNA load, residual viraemia and CD4 count in 219 successfully treated naive subjects with HIV infection enrolled in five infectious diseas...

    Authors: Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Renzo Scaggiante, Mario Cruciani, Roberto Ferretto, Vinicio Manfrin, Sandro Panese, Monica Basso, Caterina Boldrin, Stefania Bressan, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni and Giorgio Palù
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:314
  42. Clinically, recurrence and life-threatening complications are challenging problems for chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the jaw (CSOJ), but there is no quantitative analysis or report about the causes of o...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Tangxin Li, Wei Jing, Wei Tang, Weidong Tian, Cai Li and Lei Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:313
  43. Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are ...

    Authors: Eileen M Dunne, Julia L Marshall, Ciara A Baker, Jayne Manning, Gena Gonis, Margaret H Danchin, Pierre R Smeesters, Catherine Satzke and Andrew C Steer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:312
  44. It is unknown whether there are differences between bacteremia caused by carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (CRAN). This study aims to investig...

    Authors: Ya-Sung Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Wen-Chiuan Tsai, Shu-Chen Kuo, Jun-Ren Sun, Chin-Hsuan Yang, Te-Li Chen, Jung-Chung Lin, Chang-Phone Fung and Feng-Yee Chang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:311
  45. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes glycoprotein B (gB), human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be classified into four gB genotypes. Previous studies have suggested an association between CMV gB g...

    Authors: Débora C Dieamant, Sandra HA Bonon, Renata MB Peres, Claudia RC Costa, Dúlcinéia M Albuquerque, Eliana CM Miranda, Francisco JP Aranha, Gislaine Oliveira-Duarte, Virginio CA Fernandes, Carmino A De Souza, Sandra CB Costa and Afonso C Vigorito
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:310
  46. Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and identifying pathogens based on patient clinical features is especially a challenge. CAP-associated m...

    Authors: Ya-Fen Liu, Yan Gao, Mei-Fang Chen, Bin Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang and Lai Wei
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:309
  47. High risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are known to be extremely common, sexually transmitted infections, but more information is needed regarding the absolute risks of type-specific HR-HPV infections in th...

    Authors: Megan Clarke, Mark Schiffman, Sholom Wacholder, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Allan Hildesheim and Wim Quint
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:308
  48. A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) is often defined by skin induration of ≥10 mm in people who are HIV-seronegative. However, to increase sensitivity for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in th...

    Authors: Andrew D Kerkhoff, Ankur Gupta, Taraz Samandari and Stephen D Lawn
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:307

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