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  1. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs) account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has n...

    Authors: Carlos RV Kiffer and Antonio CC Pignatari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:286
  2. Young people are disproportionately affected by sexually transmissible infections in Australia but face barriers to accessing sexual health services, including concerns over confidentiality and, for some, geog...

    Authors: Cameryn C Garrett, Jane Hocking, Marcus Y Chen, Christopher K Fairley and Maggie Kirkman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:285
  3. Evaluating experiences of volunteers in an HIV vaccine trial will be useful for the conduct of future trials. The purpose of this study among volunteers who participated in a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial in Da...

    Authors: Edith AM Tarimo, Anna Thorson, Thecla W Kohi, Muhammad Bakari, Eric Sandstrom, Fred Mhalu and Asli Kulane
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:283
  4. Recently, one genome-wide association study identified a susceptibility locus of rs4331426 on chromosome 18q11.2 for tuberculosis in the African population. To validate the significance of this susceptibility ...

    Authors: Yaoyao Dai, Xia Zhang, Hongqiu Pan, Shaowen Tang, Hongbing Shen and Jianming Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:282
  5. The role of Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus in central nervous system (CNS) infections is not fully resolved. It is clearly associated with lymphoproliferative disease of immunosuppressed persons, and may cause encep...

    Authors: Timi Martelius, Maija Lappalainen, Maarit Palomäki and Veli-Jukka Anttila
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:281
  6. Pleural infection is a common clinical problem. Its successful treatment depends on rapid diagnosis and early initiation of antibiotics. The measurement of soluble triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cell...

    Authors: Hanssa Summah, Li-Li Tao, Ying-Gang Zhu, Hong-Ni Jiang and Jie-Ming Qu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:280
  7. The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has led clinicians to select antibiotics that have coverage against MRSA, usually vancomycin, for empiric therapy for suspected staphylococcal infecti...

    Authors: Marin L Schweizer, Jon P Furuno, Anthony D Harris, J Kristie Johnson, Michelle D Shardell, Jessina C McGregor, Kerri A Thom, Sara E Cosgrove, George Sakoulas and Eli N Perencevich
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:279
  8. Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatme...

    Authors: Josep R Marsal, Ines Cruz, Concepcio Teixido, Olga Diez, Mireia Martinez, Gisela Galindo, Jordi Real, Joan A Schoenenberger and Helena Pera
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:278
  9. Information is sparse regarding the association between international travel and hospitalization with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion, risk factors and o...

    Authors: Kristoffer Koch, Brian Kristensen, Hanne M Holt, Steen Ethelberg, Kåre Mølbak and Henrik C Schønheyder
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:277
  10. Tuberculosis remains a serious public health threat and economic burden in Russia with escalating rates of drug resistance against a background of growing HIV-epidemic. Samara Oblast is one of the regions of t...

    Authors: Yanina Balabanova, Vladimir Tchernyshev, Igor Tsigankov, Svetlana Maximova, Natalya Mikheeva, Ljudmila Fedyukovitch, Sergey Kuznetsov, Ivan Fedorin and Francis Drobniewski
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:276
  11. Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) is the cause of severe gastrointestinal infection especially among infants. Between 10 and 20 cases are reported annually to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) in Finland...

    Authors: Katri Jalava, Jukka Ollgren, Marjut Eklund, Anja Siitonen and Markku Kuusi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:275
  12. The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In So...

    Authors: Zilungile L Mkhize-Kwitshana, Myra Taylor, Pieter Jooste, Musawenkosi LH Mabaso and Gerhard Walzl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:273
  13. Studies of recent hospital outbreaks caused by multiresistant P.aeruginosa (MRPA) have often failed to identify a specific environmental reservoir. We describe an outbreak due to a single clone of multiresistant ...

    Authors: Cristina Suarez, Carmen Peña, Olga Arch, M Angeles Dominguez, Fe Tubau, Carlos Juan, Laura Gavaldá, Mercedes Sora, Antonio Oliver, Miquel Pujol and Javier Ariza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:272
  14. There are few and debated data regarding possible differences in the clinical presentations of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B viruses in children. This study evaluates the clinical presentation and socio-econo...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Claudio Giuseppe Molteni, Cristina Daleno, Antonia Valzano, Emilio Fossali, Liviana Da Dalt, Valerio Cecinati, Eugenia Bruzzese, Raffaella Giacchino, Carlo Giaquinto, Angie Lackenby and Nicola Principi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:271
  15. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused recurrent epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease among children in Singapore. Between August 2008 and July 2010, we conducted a survey to estimate the seroprevalence of EV71...

    Authors: Li-Wei Ang, Meng-Chee Phoon, Yan Wu, Jeffery Cutter, Lyn James and Vincent T Chow
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:270
  16. Bleach-sedimentation may improve microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis by sterilising sputum and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We studied gravity bleach-sedimentation effects on safety, sensitivity, ...

    Authors: Rusheng Chew, Carmen Calderón, Samuel G Schumacher, Jonathan M Sherman, Luz Caviedes, Patricia Fuentes, Jorge Coronel, Teresa Valencia, Beatriz Hererra, Mirko Zimic, Lucy Huaroto, Ivan Sabogal, A Rod Escombe, Robert H Gilman and Carlton A Evans
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:269
  17. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of abacavir on levels of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk.

    Authors: Thomas A Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Jesper Melchjorsen, Christian A Frederiksen, Ulla S Nielsen, Bente L Langdahl, Lars Østergaard and Alex L Laursen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:267
  18. Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. In developing countries, approximately 1440 children die from rotavirus infections each day, with ...

    Authors: Mouna Hassine-Zaafrane, Khira Sdiri-Loulizi, Imen Ben Salem, Jérôme Kaplon, Siwar Ayouni, Katia Ambert-Balay, Nabil Sakly, Pierre Pothier and Mahjoub Aouni
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:266
  19. Relationship of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. We evaluated endothelial function and subclinical athero...

    Authors: Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Catalina Robledano, José M Ramos and Félix Gutiérrez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:265
  20. There is limited data on the effect of HIV status and CD4 counts on performance of Interferon-g Release assays (IGRAs) for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).

    Authors: Naasha J Talati, Esteban Gonzalez-Diaz, Charles Mutemba, Joyanna Wendt, William Kilembe, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Elwyn Chomba, Susan Allen, Carlos del Rio and Henry M Blumberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:264
  21. Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal i...

    Authors: Jan Walter, Linda Fraga, Melanie J Orin, William D Decker, Theresa Gipps, Alice Stek and Grace M Aldrovandi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:263
  22. The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes with clinical characteristics is increasingly recognized. However, the virologic and clinical features of HBV genotypes/subgenotypes in pediatr...

    Authors: Yan-Wei Zhong, Jin Li, Hong-Bin Song, Zhong-Ping Duan, Yi Dong, Xiao-Yan Xing, Xiao-Dong Li, Mei-Lei Gu, Yu-Kun Han, Shi-Shu Zhu and Hong-Fei Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:262
  23. Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Systemic infections due to C. albicans exhibit good susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins. However, the ...

    Authors: Annette C Reboli, Andrew F Shorr, Coleman Rotstein, Peter G Pappas, Daniel H Kett, Haran T Schlamm, Arlene L Reisman, Pinaki Biswas and Thomas J Walsh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:261
  24. Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Complications of BCG therapy include local infections and disseminated BCG infection wi...

    Authors: Cindy Q Gao, Rozina Mithani, Jack Leya, Lesley Dawravoo, Arvin Bhatia, John Antoine, Felipe De Alba, Peter A Russo and Claus J Fimmel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:260
  25. In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children.

    Authors: Nyawira Githinji, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Moses Nderitu, Dalton C Wamalwa and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:259
  26. Delays in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) are associated with increased mortality risk. We examined the timing of ART among patients receiving c...

    Authors: Stephen D Lawn, Lucy Campbell, Richard Kaplan, Francesca Little, Carl Morrow and Robin Wood
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:258
  27. Localized reactive school and classroom closures were implemented as part of a suite of pandemic containment measures during the initial response to influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Melbourne, Australia. Infected in...

    Authors: Jodie McVernon, Kate Mason, Sylvia Petrony, Paula Nathan, Anthony D LaMontagne, Rebecca Bentley, James Fielding, David M Studdert and Anne Kavanagh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:257
  28. In Tanzania, malaria is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for about 30% of all hospital admissions and around 15% of all hospital deaths. Severe anaemia and cerebral malaria are the two ma...

    Authors: Hamisi A Msangeni, Mathias L Kamugisha, Samuel H Sembuche, Ezekiel K Malecela, Juma A Akida, Filbert F Temba, Bruno P Mmbando and Martha M Lemnge
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:256
  29. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) remains an important concern for implementing treatment of MDR tuberculosis patients. Implementation of molecular tests for drug resistance identification would facilitate DST...

    Authors: Corinne Surcouf, Seiha Heng, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Véronique Cadet-Daniel, Amine Namouchi, Alan Murray, Brigitte Gicquel and Bertrand Guillard
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:255
  30. Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have shown that a patient's antibody reaction in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO...

    Authors: Jörg Schüpbach, Leslie R Bisset, Stephan Regenass, Philippe Bürgisser, Meri Gorgievski, Ingrid Steffen, Corinne Andreutti, Gladys Martinetti, Cyril Shah, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Martin Gebhardt, Franziska Schöni-Affolter and Martin Rickenbach
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:254
  31. To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about adult male circumcision (AMC), assess the association of AMC with HIV incidence and prevalence, and estimate AMC uptake in a Southern African community.

    Authors: Pascale Lissouba, Dirk Taljaard, Dino Rech, Veerle Dermaux-Msimang, Camille Legeai, David Lewis, Beverley Singh, Adrian Puren and Bertran Auvert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:253
  32. High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer ...

    Authors: Delf C Schmidt-Grimminger, Maria C Bell, Clemma J Muller, Diane M Maher, Subhash C Chauhan and Dedra S Buchwald
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:252
  33. Project Accept is a community randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of community mobilization, mobile testing, same-day results, and post-test support for the prevention of HIV infection in Tha...

    Authors: Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Agnes Fiamma, Oliver Laeyendecker, Michal Kulich, Deborah Donnell, Greg Szekeres, Laura Robins-Morris, Caroline E Mullis,, Ana Vallari, John Hackett Jr, Timothy D Mastro, Glenda Gray, Linda Richter, Michel W Alexandre, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Alfred Chingono,…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:251
  34. Risk factors and outcomes in hematological patients who acquire invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) are infrequently reported in the modern medical era.

    Authors: Chien-Yuan Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Aristine Cheng, Yee-Chun Chen, Woei Tsay, Jih-Luh Tang, Shang-Yi Huang, Shan-Chwen Chang and Hwei-Fang Tien
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:250
  35. The region around Chandigarh in India has witnessed a resurgence of cholera. However, isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the environment is infrequent. Therefore, to study whether environmental nonO1-nonO139 isolat...

    Authors: Arti Mishra, Neelam Taneja, Ram K Sharma, Rahul Kumar, Naresh C Sharma and Meera Sharma
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:249
  36. Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority f...

    Authors: Syed Aljunid, Gulifeiya Abuduxike, Zafar Ahmed, Saperi Sulong, Amrizal Muhd Nur and Adrian Goh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:248
  37. HBV-HIV co-infection is associated with an increased liver-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the natural history of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected individuals under highly ac...

    Authors: Maria Cassia Mendes-Correa, João RR Pinho, Michele S Gomes-Gouvea, Adriana C da Silva, Cristina F Guastini, Luiz G Martins, Andréa G Leite, Mariliza H Silva, Reinaldo J Gianini and David E Uip
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:247
  38. In HIV-infected patients, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with clinical lipodystrophy (CL) and metabolic abnormalities (MA). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic...

    Authors: Paula Freitas, Davide Carvalho, Selma Souto, Ana Cristina Santos, Sandra Xerinda, Rui Marques, Esteban Martinez, António Sarmento and José Luís Medina
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:246
  39. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) are used for tuberculosis (TB) screening in healthcare workers (HCWs). However, data on specificity of IGRA in serial testing of HCWs is sparse. Therefore the specificity...

    Authors: Anja Schablon, Roland Diel, Genia Diner, Ute Anske, Wulf Pankow, Felix C Ringshausen and Albert Nienhaus
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:245
  40. There has been major improvement in the survival of HIV-1 infected individuals since the South African Government introduced highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the public sector in 2004. This has...

    Authors: Colin N Menezes, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Nigel J Crowther and Frederick J Raal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:244
  41. Computer Tomography (CT) is considered the gold standard for assessing the morphological changes of lung parenchyma. Although novel CT techniques have substantially decreased the radiation dose, radiation expo...

    Authors: Elisa Busi Rizzi, Vincenzo Schinina', Massimo Cristofaro, Delia Goletti, Fabrizio Palmieri, Nazario Bevilacqua, Francesco N Lauria, Enrico Girardi and Corrado Bibbolino
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:243
  42. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China has rapidly increased in recent years. It is suggested that MSM could be a potential bridge of HIV transmission to the general female population. W...

    Authors: Eric PF Chow, David P Wilson and Lei Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:242
  43. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever, and remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Its pathogenesis is complex and host r...

    Authors: Sok Kean Khoo, David Petillo, Mrutyunjaya Parida, Aik Choon Tan, James H Resau and Stephen K Obaro
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:241
  44. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line drug in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) treatment. However, the unreliable results obtained from traditional susceptibility testing limits its usefulness ...

    Authors: Yu-Chi Chiu, Shiang-Fen Huang, Kwok-Woon Yu, Yu-Chin Lee, Jia-Yih Feng and Wei-Juin Su
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:240
  45. Conjugate vaccines, such as the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7), alter serotype nasopharyngeal carriage, potentially increasing cases of otitis media by non-vaccine serotypes.

    Authors: Asunción Fenoll, Lorenzo Aguilar, Maria-Dolores Vicioso, Maria-Jose Gimenez, Olga Robledo and Juan-Jose Granizo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:239
  46. On October 29th 2009 the health authorities in the city of Trondheim, Norway were alerted about a case of Shiga toxin-positive E. coli (STEC) O145 in a child with bloody diarrhoea attending a day-care centre. Sym...

    Authors: Erik Wahl, Line Vold, Bjørn A Lindstedt, Torkjel Bruheim and Jan E Afset
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:238

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