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  1. Ethiopia, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, reports one of the highest incidence rates of extra-pulmonary TB dominated by cervical lymphadenitis (TBLN). Infection with Mycobacterium bovis has previously be...

    Authors: Stefan Berg, Esther Schelling, Elena Hailu, Rebuma Firdessa, Balako Gumi, Girume Erenso, Endalamaw Gadisa, Araya Mengistu, Meseret Habtamu, Jemal Hussein, Teklu Kiros, Shiferaw Bekele, Wondale Mekonnen, Yohannes Derese, Jakob Zinsstag, Gobena Ameni…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:112
  2. Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, d...

    Authors: Mengistu Endris, Tekalign Deressa, Yeshambel Belyhun and Feleke Moges
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:111
  3. Early warning and robust estimation of influenza burden are critical to inform hospital preparedness and operational, treatment, and vaccination policies. Methods to enhance influenza-like illness (ILI) survei...

    Authors: Lydia N Drumright, Simon DW Frost, Alex J Elliot, Mike Catchpole, Richard G Pebody, Mark Atkins, John Harrison, Penny Parker and Alison H Holmes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:110
  4. Influenza H7N9 has become an endemic pathogen in China where circulating virus is found extensively in wild birds and domestic poultry. Two epidemic waves of Human H7N9 infections have taken place in Eastern a...

    Authors: Amber Farooqui, Alberto J Leon, Linxi Huang, Suwu Wu, Yingmu Cai, Pengzhou Lin, Weihong Chen, Xibin Fang, Tiansheng Zeng, Yisu Liu, Li Zhang, Ting Su, Weibin Chen, Elodie Ghedin, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:109
  5. Candida albicans remains as the first cause of nosocomial fungal infections in hospitals worldwide and its susceptibility pattern should be better described in our tertiary care hospitals.

    Authors: Giovanni Rodríguez-Leguizamón, Alessandro Fiori, Katrien Lagrou, María Antonia Gaona, Milciades Ibáñez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Patrick Van Dijck and Arley Gómez-López
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:108
  6. While enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobials are spreading in hospitals worldwide, causing urinary tract, wound and bloodstream infections, there is little published data on these infections from Afr...

    Authors: Håvard Aamodt, Stein Christian Mohn, Samuel Maselle, Karim P Manji, Rob Willems, Roland Jureen, Nina Langeland and Bjørn Blomberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:107
  7. Literature on the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) in cancer patients is sparse and does not include the elderly. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of HZ and related complications ...

    Authors: Mihran A Yenikomshian, Adrienne P Guignard, François Haguinet, Ann S LaCasce, Arthur T Skarin, Alex Trahey, Paul Karner and Mei Sheng Duh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:106
  8. Predictive models to identify unknown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage on admission may optimise targeted MRSA screening and efficient use of resources. However, common approaches to mo...

    Authors: Andie S Lee, Angelo Pan, Stephan Harbarth, Andrea Patroni, Annie Chalfine, George L Daikos, Silvia Garilli, José Antonio Martínez and Ben S Cooper
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:105
  9. Cholera, an infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is a major public health problem and is a particularly burden in developing countries including Nepal. Although the recent worldwide outbreaks of cholera ...

    Authors: Upendra Thapa Shrestha, Nabaraj Adhikari, Rojina Maharjan, Megha R Banjara, Komal R Rijal, Shital R Basnyat and Vishwanath P Agrawal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:104
  10. Close contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) have a substantial risk of developing the disease, particularly during the first year after exposure. Household contact investigation has recently been recomme...

    Authors: Gregory James Fox, Le Phuong Loan, Nguyen Viet Nhung, Nguyen Thi Loi, Dinh Ngoc Sy, Warwick John Britton and Guy Barrington Marks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:103
  11. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) may develop as a clinical manifestation of nosocomial pneumonia by means of either reactivation of resident P. jirovecii or de novo infection. However, there have been no studies desc...

    Authors: Tark Kim, Sang-Oh Lee, Hyo-Lim Hong, Ju Young Lee, Sung-Han Kim, Sang-Ho Choi, Mi-Na Kim, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo and Heungsup Sung
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:102
  12. H1N1 influenza viruses mutate rapidly, rendering vaccines developed in any given year relatively ineffective in subsequent years. Thus it is necessary to generate new vaccines every year, but this is time-cons...

    Authors: Owen Proudfoot, Sandra Esparon, Choon-Kit Tang, Karen Laurie, Ian Barr and Geoffrey Pietersz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:101
  13. The rate of vertical HIV transmission has decreased in Brazil, but regional inequalities suggest problems in implementing control measures during pregnancy and delivery. The aims of this study were to ascertai...

    Authors: Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Celia Landmann Szwarcwald, Paulo Roberto Borges Souza Jr and Maria do Carmo Leal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:100
  14. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar cases in seasonal labour migrants from highland areas are addressed to travel history to the Metema–Humera lowlands, northwestern Ethiopia. Factors that affect the inci...

    Authors: Wossenseged Lemma, Habte Tekie, Solomon Yared, Meshesha Balkew, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Alon Warburg and Asrat Hailu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:99
  15. Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) are important for the recognition of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Negative regulation of...

    Authors: Dana C Blok, Liesbeth M Kager, Arie J Hoogendijk, Ivar O Lede, Wahid Rahman, Rumana Afroz, Paul Bresser, Jaring S van der Zee, Aniruddha Ghose, Caroline E Visser, Menno D de Jong, Abu Shahed Md Zahed, Md Anwar Husain, Khan Mashrequl Alam, Pravat Chandra Barua, Mahtabuddin Hassan…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:98
  16. The present study aims to investigate the potential mechanism of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus capitis (LRSC) isolates collected from our hospital.

    Authors: Wanqing Zhou, Dongmei Niu, Xiaoli Cao, Mingzhe Ning, Zhifeng Zhang, Han Shen and Kui Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:97
  17. Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania sp. and is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis (sand fly). In renal transplant recipients, visceral leishmaniasis causes severe damage to th...

    Authors: Avelar Alves de Silva, Álvaro Pacheco E Silva Filho, Ricardio de Castro Cinta Sesso, Ronaldo de Matos Esmeraldo, Cláudia Maria Costa de Oliveira, Paula Frassinetti Castelo Branco Camurca Fernandes, Rodrigo Alves de Oliveira, Leila Silveira Veira de Silva, Valencio Pereira de Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa, Jesusmar Ximenes Andrade, Diana Marisa Barros da Silva and Roosevelt Valente Chaves
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:96
  18. Reducing acute respiratory infection burden in children in Africa remains a major priority and challenge. We analyzed data from population-based infectious disease surveillance for severe acute respiratory ill...

    Authors: Robert F Breiman, Leonard Cosmas, M Kariuki Njenga, John Williamson, Joshua A Mott, Mark A Katz, Dean D Erdman, Eileen Schneider, M Steven Oberste, John C Neatherlin, Henry Njuguna, Daniel M Ondari, Kennedy Odero, George O Okoth, Beatrice Olack, Newton Wamola…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:95
  19. Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal disease of humans and other mammals, known to be caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, which comprises four species of clinical importance: S. b...

    Authors: Emma Camacho, Isabel León-Navarro, Sabrina Rodríguez-Brito, Mireya Mendoza and Gustavo A Niño-Vega
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:94
  20. A cost-effective, accurate and rapid simultaneous multiplex assay is required for testing and diagnoses of conventional and emerging viruses in clinical virology laboratories. We developed and optimized a dual...

    Authors: Xuezheng Ma, Huanzhou Xu, Lei Shi, Pengfei Yang, Liping Zhang, Xiaohong Sun, Wei Zhen and Kongxin Hu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:93
  21. Although rotavirus vaccines have been licensed in Spain for over 8 years, they are not funded by its public health systems. The analysis of their effectiveness in the Valencia Region could better inform decisi...

    Authors: Silvia Pérez-Vilar, Javier Díez-Domingo, Mónica López-Lacort, Sergio Martínez-Úbeda and Miguel A Martinez-Beneito
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:92
  22. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of diarrhoea in health care settings with symptoms ranging from mild and self-limiting to life threatening. SMT19969 is a novel, non-absorbable antibiotic ...

    Authors: Richard Vickers, Neil Robinson, Emma Best, Roger Echols, Glenn Tillotson and Mark Wilcox
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:91
  23. Dose-response assessment is one step in quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Four infectious microbes capable of causing respiratory diseases important to public health, and for which dose-response f...

    Authors: Rachael M Jones and Yu-Min Su
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:90
  24. Better knowledge of distribution of respiratory viruses (RVs) in adolescents and adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is needed.

    Authors: Jiu-Xin Qu, Li Gu, Zeng-Hui Pu, Xiao-Min Yu, Ying-Mei Liu, Ran Li, Yi-Min Wang, Bin Cao and Chen Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:89
  25. During weeks 32–33, 2013, 24 cases of cryptosporidiosis were notified in the city of Halle (annual mean 2008–2012: 9 cases). We investigated the outbreak to identify the source and recommend control measures, ...

    Authors: Maximilian Gertler, Matthias Dürr, Peter Renner, Sven Poppert, Mona Askar, Janina Breidenbach, Christina Frank, Karina Preußel, Anika Schielke, Dirk Werber, Rachel Chalmers, Guy Robinson, Irmgard Feuerpfeil, Egbert Tannich, Christine Gröger, Klaus Stark…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:88
  26. While it is known that acute respiratory illness (ARI) is caused by an array of viruses, less is known about co-detections and the resultant comparative symptoms and illness burden. This study examined the co-...

    Authors: Richard K Zimmerman, Charles R Rinaldo, Mary Patricia Nowalk, GK Balasubramani, Krissy K Moehling, Arlene Bullotta, Heather F Eng, Jonathan M Raviotta, Theresa M Sax and Stephen Wisniewski
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:87
  27. Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli ma...

    Authors: Raju Gautam, Hanneke Borgdorff, Vicky Jespers, Suzanna C Francis, Rita Verhelst, Mary Mwaura, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Gilles Ndayisaba, Jordan K Kyongo, Liselotte Hardy, Joris Menten, Tania Crucitti, Evgeni Tsivtsivadze, Frank Schuren and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:86
  28. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended life expectancy and enhanced the well-being of HIV-positive individuals. Since there are concerns regarding HAART-mediated onset of cardio-metabolic di...

    Authors: Theodore A Nell, Maritza J Kruger, Dillan C Beukes, Esme Calitz, Rehana Essop and M Faadiel Essop
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:85
  29. People who inject drugs (PWID) are an important group at risk of blood borne infections in Poland. However, robust evidence regarding the magnitude of the problem and geographical variation is lacking, while c...

    Authors: Magdalena Rosińska, Janusz Sierosławski and Lucas Wiessing
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:83
  30. Recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) is one of the most common viral infections worldwide. The available treatments have limited efficacy in preventing the recurrence of ulcerative lesions and reducing the duration...

    Authors: Nasira Arain, Sharath CV Paravastu and Mubashir A Arain
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:82
  31. In 2009, Brazil was the sole high-burden country to use three drugs [rifampin (R), isoniazid (H) and pyrazinamide (Z)] as the standard treatment for sensitive tuberculosis, with RH in fixed-dose combination (F...

    Authors: José Ueleres Braga and Anete Trajman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:81
  32. The use of systemic antifungal agents has increased in most tertiary care centers. However, antifungal stewardship has deserved very little attention. Our objective was to assess the knowledge of European pres...

    Authors: Maricela Valerio, Antonio Vena, Emilio Bouza, Nanna Reiter, Pierluigi Viale, Marcel Hochreiter, Maddalena Giannella and Patricia Muñoz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:80
  33. Bacterial and viral enteric pathogens are the leading cause of diarrhea in infants and children. We aimed to identify and characterize the main human diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) in stool samples obtained from chi...

    Authors: Joshua Tobias, Eias Kassem, Uri Rubinstein, Anya Bialik, Sreekanth-Reddy Vutukuru, Armando Navaro, Assaf Rokney, Lea Valinsky, Moshe Ephros, Dani Cohen and Khitam Muhsen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:79
  34. The treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI) is challenging and many patients do not receive adequate first-line therapy. REACH (REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Pa...

    Authors: Javier Garau, Francesco Blasi, Jesús Medina, Kyle McBride and Helmut Ostermann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:78
  35. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this observation, there have only been a few studies analyzing clinical characteris...

    Authors: Hui Zheng, Mingyue Li, Yingting Luo, Dongmei Wang, Jialing Yang, Qiong Chen, Junying Lao, Ningfen Chen, Man Yang and Qun Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:77
  36. Outcomes of antibiotic treatment for lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are unsatisfactory. The role of adjunctive surgery in the treatment of NTM lung disease is still unclear.

    Authors: Hyung Koo Kang, Hye Yun Park, Dohun Kim, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Kyeongman Jeon, Jong Ho Cho, Hong Kwan Kim, Yong Soo Choi, Jhingook Kim and Won-Jung Koh
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:76
  37. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring pertussis and transmitting the infection to high-risk susceptible patients and colleagues. In this paper, the return on investment (ROI) of prevent...

    Authors: Luqman Tariq, Marie-Josée J Mangen, Anke Hövels, Gerard Frijstein and Hero de Boer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:75
  38. Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease affecting millions worldwide. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where is caused by Leishmania braziliensis. The adaptive immu...

    Authors: Raquel Ferraz, Clarissa F Cunha, Adriano Gomes-Silva, Armando O Schubach, Maria Inês F Pimentel, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Sergio CF Mendonça, Cláudia M Valete-Rosalino, Alda Maria Da-Cruz and Álvaro Luiz Bertho
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:74
  39. Influenza remains a major health problem due to the seasonal epidemics that occur every year caused by the emergence of new influenza virus strains. Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are ...

    Authors: Thelma Fátima de Mattos Silva Oliveira, Jonny Yokosawa, Fernando Couto Motta, Marilda Mendonça Siqueira, Hélio Lopes da Silveira and Divina Aparecida Oliveira Queiróz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:71
  40. The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is now recommended by WHO for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children but evaluation data is limited.

    Authors: Do Chau Giang, Tran Ngoc Duong, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Ho Thi Nhan, Marcel Wolbers, Nguyen Thi Quynh Nhu, Dorothee Heemskerk, Nguyen Dang Quang, Doan Thanh Phuong, Pham Thu Hang, Tran Huu Loc, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Huy Dung, Jeremy Farrar and Maxine Caws
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:70
  41. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of S. maltophilia bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematologic maligna...

    Authors: Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Su-Mi Choi, Chulmin Park, Hye-Sun Chun, Yeon-Joon Park, Jae-Ki Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, Sun Hee Park, Jung-Hyun Choi and Jin-Hong Yoo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:69
  42. The success of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV-7) introduced to the US childhood immunization schedule in 2000 was partially offset by increases in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneu...

    Authors: Qiuzhi Chang, Abbie E Stevenson, Nicholas J Croucher, Grace M Lee, Stephen I Pelton, Marc Lipsitch, Jonathan A Finkelstein and William P Hanage
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:68
  43. The appearance of smear-positivity but culture-negativity (SPCN) for acid-fast bacilli among sputum specimen is frequently found in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients during treatment. This study aimed to in...

    Authors: Wen-Cheng Chao, Yi-Wen Huang, Ming-Chih Yu, Wen-Ta Yang, Chou-Jui Lin, Jen-Jyh Lee, Ruay-Ming Huang, Chi-Chang Shieh, Shun-Tien Chien and Jung-Yien Chien
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:67
  44. Most poliovirus infections occur with no symptoms and this leads to the possibility of silent circulation, which complicates the confirmation of global goals to permanently end poliovirus transmission. Previou...

    Authors: Dominika A Kalkowska, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A Pallansch, Stephen L Cochi, Steven G F Wassilak and Kimberly M Thompson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:66
  45. The HIV-1 epidemic in Slovenia, a small Central European country, has some characteristics that make it an ideal model to study HIV-1 transmission. The epidemic is predominantly affecting men who have sex with...

    Authors: Maja M Lunar, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Janez Tomažič, Primož Karner, Tomaž D Vovko, Blaž Pečavar, Gabriele Volčanšek, Mario Poljak and Ana B Abecasis
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:65
  46. Despite recent advances in microbiological techniques, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still not well described. We applied polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to des...

    Authors: Jan C Holter, Fredrik Müller, Ola Bjørang, Helvi H Samdal, Jon B Marthinsen, Pål A Jenum, Thor Ueland, Stig S Frøland, Pål Aukrust, Einar Husebye and Lars Heggelund
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:64
  47. Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be mi...

    Authors: Lydia Nakiyingi, Willy Ssengooba, Damalie Nakanjako, Derek Armstrong, Molly Holshouser, Bruce J Kirenga, Maunank Shah, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses L Joloba, Jerrold J Ellner, Susan E Dorman and Yukari C Manabe
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:62

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