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  1. Content type: Research article

    Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples o...

    Authors: Günter Kampf, Mirja Reichel, Yvonne Feil, Sven Eggerstedt and Paul-Michael Kaulfers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:149

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The identification of clinical factors associated with negative blood cultures could help to avoid unnecessary blood cultures. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established inflammation marker commonly used i...

    Authors: Boris P Ehrenstein, Vera Ehrenstein, Christine Henke, Hans-Jörg Linde, Bernd Salzberger, Jürgen Schölmerich and Thomas Glück

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:148

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  3. Content type: Research article

    On October 8, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 hit the Northern parts of Pakistan. In the post-earthquake scenario, overcrowding, improper sewage disposal, contamination of food and drinking water, hasty s...

    Authors: Saeed Khan, Mohammad A Rai, Adnan Khan, Amber Farooqui, Shahana U Kazmi and Syed H Ali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:147

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for host defense in rodents, but the role of NO during tuberculosis (TB) in man remains controversial. However, earlier observations that arginine supplementation facilitates ant...

    Authors: Jonna Idh, Anna Westman, Daniel Elias, Feleke Moges, Assefa Getachew, Aschalew Gelaw, Tommy Sundqvist, Tony Forslund, Addis Alemu, Belete Ayele, Ermias Diro, Endalkachew Melese, Yared Wondmikun, Sven Britton, Olle Stendahl and Thomas Schön

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:146

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Antibiotics are recommended for severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) could be a useful tool for selectin...

    Authors: Cédric Daubin, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Astrid Vabret, Michel Ramakers, Sabine Fradin, Nicolas Terzi, François Freymuth, Pierre Charbonneau and Damien du Cheyron

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:145

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been associated with metabolic complications. There is a trend to switch to simpler therapy to improve these disturbances. We report a case-series describing the effects in metab...

    Authors: M Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jose Tomas Ramos Amador, M Jose Mellado Peña, M Luisa Navarro Gomez, Pablo Rojo Conejo and Pablo Martin Fontelos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:144

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalisation in adults frequently remains unclear. Our objective was to study the causes and characteristics of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis i...

    Authors: Andreas Jansen, Klaus Stark, Jan Kunkel, Eckart Schreier, Ralf Ignatius, Oliver Liesenfeld, Dirk Werber, Ulf B Göbel, Martin Zeitz and Thomas Schneider

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:143

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The risk for occupational exposure to HIV has been well characterized in the developed world, but limited information is available about this transmission risk in resource-constrained settings facing the large...

    Authors: Amita Gupta, Shuchi Anand, Jayagowri Sastry, Anandini Krisagar, Anita Basavaraj, Shreepad M Bhat, Nikhil Gupte, Robert C Bollinger and Arjun L Kakrani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:142

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The pathophysiology of sepsis is due in part to early systemic inflammation. Here we describe molecular and cellular responses, as well as survival, in A2A adenosine receptor (AR) agonist treated and untreated an...

    Authors: Christopher C Moore, Edward N Martin, Grace H Lee, Tom Obrig, Joel Linden and W Michael Scheld

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:141

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  10. Content type: Research article

    In Norway, screening for tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test (TST) has been offered for several decades to all children in 9th grade of school, prior to BCG-vaccination. The incidence of tuberculosi...

    Authors: Brita Askeland Winje, Fredrik Oftung, Gro Ellen Korsvold, Turid Mannsåker, Ingvild Nesthus Ly, Ingunn Harstad, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise and Einar Heldal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:140

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Differences in degree of environmental exposure to antigens in early life have been hypothesized to lead to differences in immune status in individuals from different populations, which may have implications f...

    Authors: Anne Ben-Smith, Patricia Gorak-Stolinska, Sian Floyd, Rosemary E Weir, Maeve K Lalor, Hazzie Mvula, Amelia C Crampin, Diana Wallace, Peter CL Beverley, Paul EM Fine and Hazel M Dockrell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:139

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this re...

    Authors: Goutam Chandra, Samir K Mandal, Arup K Ghosh, Dipanwita Das, Siddhartha S Banerjee and Sumanta Chakraborty

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:138

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Blood culture surveillance will be used for assessing the public health effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed blood culture outcome and performance in ad...

    Authors: Neema Mtunthama, Stephen B Gordon, Temwa Kusimbwe, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux and Neil French

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:137

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  14. Content type: Research article

    To date, data on the durability of a regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine are very limited, particularly from the resource-limited settings.

    Authors: Weerawat Manosuthi, Preecha Tantanathip, Wisit Prasithisirikul, Sirirat Likanonsakul and Somnuek Sungkanuparph

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:136

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation o...

    Authors: Marcello M D'Errico, Pamela Barbadoro, Sonia Bacelli, Elisabetta Esposto, Vania Moroni, Federica Scaccia, Luana Tantucci and Emilia Prospero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:135

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Lysozyme is an antimicrobial innate immune molecule degrading peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall. Lysozyme shows the ubiquitous expression in wide varieties of species and tissues including the tubotympa...

    Authors: Jun Shimada, Sung K Moon, Haa-Yung Lee, Tamotsu Takeshita, Huiqi Pan, Jeong-Im Woo, Robert Gellibolian, Noboru Yamanaka and David J Lim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:134

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocom...

    Authors: Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Dorit Sohr, Juliane Bruderek and Petra Gastmeier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:133

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  18. Content type: Research article

    HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study ...

    Authors: Judy E Mill, Randy C Jackson, Catherine A Worthington, Chris P Archibald, Tom Wong, Ted Myers, Tracey Prentice and Susan Sommerfeldt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:132

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The level of intra-species genetic variation in Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii populations in a localized geographic area, like Puducherry, India, remains unknown.

    Authors: Subhash Chandra Parija and Krishna Khairnar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:131

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacilla...

    Authors: Desheng Huang, Peng Guan, Junqiao Guo, Ping Wang and Baosen Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:130

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewe...

    Authors: Joanne M Langley, James D Kellner, Nataly Solomon, Joan L Robinson, Nicole Le Saux, Jane McDonald, Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Ben Tan, Upton Allen, Simon Dobson and Heather Joudrey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:129

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  22. Content type: Research article

    On 7 May 2007 the medical officer in Røros (population 5600) reported 15 patients with gastroenteritis. Three days later he estimated hundreds being ill. Untreated tap water from a groundwater source was suspe...

    Authors: Irena Jakopanec, Katrine Borgen, Line Vold, Helge Lund, Tore Forseth, Raisa Hannula and Karin Nygård

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:128

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Mortality among HIV-infected children in developing countries remains high after serious bacterial infections despite the use of antibiotics. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an adjuvant ther...

    Authors: Lyen C Huang, Landon Myer and Heather B Jaspan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:127

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  24. Content type: Research article

    An uneven spatial distribution of leprosy can be caused by the influence of geography on the distribution of risk factors over the area, or by population characteristics that are heterogeneously distributed ov...

    Authors: EAJ Fischer, D Pahan, SK Chowdhury and JH Richardus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:126

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  25. Content type: Research article

    There is a higher case-detection rate for leprosy among spatially proximate contacts such as household members and neighbors. Spatial information regarding the clustering of leprosy can be used to improve inte...

    Authors: EAJ Fischer, D Pahan, SK Chowdhury, L Oskam and JH Richardus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:125

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis that produce two exotoxins, lethal toxin and edema toxin. The lethal toxin is composed of the lethal factor (LF) complexed with the cell binding protective antigen (PA83, 8...

    Authors: Rasha Hammamieh, Wilson J Ribot, Terry G Abshire, Marti Jett and John Ezzell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:124

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  27. Content type: Research article

    To investigate dynamic fluctuations of serum viral load and peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations of chronic hepatitis B patients and their correlation during entecavir therapy.

    Authors: Jing You, Hutcha Sriplung, Alan Geater, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Lin Zhuang, Yun-Li Li, Hua Lei, Jun Liu, Hong-Ying Chen, Bao-Zhang Tang and Jun-Hua Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:123

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Adenovirus are the important pathogen of pediatric severe pneumonia. The aim of this study is to analyze the infection, subtype and distribution of adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue of fatal pneumonia i...

    Authors: Zhi-Ying Ou, Qi-Yi Zeng, Feng-Hua Wang, Hui-Min Xia, Jun-Peng Lu, Jian-Qing Xia, Si-Tang Gong, Li Deng, Jian-Tao Zhang and Rong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:122

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are the only group of cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory pathogens that may cause death by an invasive infection known as cepacia syndrome. Their large genome (>...

    Authors: Pavel Drevinek, Matthew TG Holden, Zhaoping Ge, Andrew M Jones, Ian Ketchell, Ryan T Gill and Eshwar Mahenthiralingam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:121

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Injection site infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) have been associated with serious morbidity and health service costs in North America. This study explores the frequency, factors and costs associate...

    Authors: Vivian Hope, Jo Kimber, Peter Vickerman, Matthew Hickman and Fortune Ncube

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:120

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Little current information is available for prevalence of vertically-transmitted infections among the Afghan population. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and correlates of human immunodefic...

    Authors: Catherine S Todd, Malalay Ahmadzai, Faridullah Atiqzai, Suellen Miller, Jeffrey M Smith, Syed Alef Shah Ghazanfar and Steffanie A Strathdee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:119

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Epidemiology of PCP in the recent era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not well known an...

    Authors: Saba Radhi, Travis Alexander, Michelle Ukwu, Samer Saleh and Alison Morris

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:118

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Baseline data is necessary for monitoring how a population perceives the threat of pandemic influenza, and perceives how it would behave in the event of pandemic influenza. Our aim was to develop a module of q...

    Authors: Margo Barr, Beverley Raphael, Melanie Taylor, Garry Stevens, Louisa Jorm, Michael Giffin and Sanja Lujic

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:117

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  34. Content type: Research article

    It is unclear whether appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy improves outcomes in patients with bacteremia due to Escherichia coli or Klebsiella. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of appropri...

    Authors: Kerri A Thom, Marin L Schweizer, Regina B Osih, Jessina C McGregor, Jon P Furuno, Eli N Perencevich and Anthony D Harris

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:116

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Infestation with the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) occurs worldwide. Existing treatment options are limited, and reports of resistance to commonly used pediculicides have been increasing. In this t...

    Authors: Jorg Heukelbach, Daniel Pilger, Fabíola A Oliveira, Adak Khakban, Liana Ariza and Hermann Feldmeier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:115

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Hand hygiene is generally considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Continuous emphasis on this intervention has lead to th...

    Authors: Clive B Beggs, Simon J Shepherd and Kevin G Kerr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:114

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Rabies is a major public-health problem in developing countries such as China. Although the recent re-emergence of human rabies in China was noted in several epidemiological studies, little attention was paid ...

    Authors: Han Si, Zhong-Min Guo, Yuan-Tao Hao, Yu-Ge Liu, Ding-Mei Zhang, Shao-Qi Rao and Jia-Hai Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:113

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Neonatal tetanus (NT) is still considered as one of the major causes of neonatal death in many developing countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the characteristics of sixty-seven infants with t...

    Authors: Bunyamin Dikici, Hakan Uzun, Ebru Yilmaz-Keskin, Taskin Tas, Ali Gunes, Halil Kocamaz, Capan Konca and Mehmet A Tas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:112

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent in Africa, but less common elsewhere and the modes of transmission are still subject to debate. Generally, they rar...

    Authors: Andrew A Adjei, Henry B Armah, Foster Gbagbo, Isaac Boamah, Clement Adu-Gyamfi and Isaac Asare

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:111

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Relapse of tuberculosis (TB) may develop as the result of reactivation of the endogenous primary infection, or as a result of a exogenous reinfection. This survey evaluated the rate of reactivation versus rece...

    Authors: Parissa-Farnia, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Mohammad Varahram, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Mehdi Khazampour, Payam Tabarsi, Parvaneh Baghei, Mojtaba Marjane, Muslam Bahadori, Abolhasan Zia Zarifi and Ali Akbar Velayati

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:109

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Drug use and in particular injecting drug use has been at the forefront of the explosive spread of HIV in general populations in many countries in Asia. There is concern that also in China increased HIV incide...

    Authors: Mirjam Kretzschmar, Weidong Zhang, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Lan Wang, Xinhua Sun, Alexander Kraemer and Fan Lv

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:108

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children.

    Authors: Isca R Wilms, Al M Best and Stuart P Adler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:107

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  43. Content type: Research article

    In Malawi and other high HIV prevalence countries, studies suggest that more than 30% of all severely malnourished children admitted to inpatient nutrition rehabilitation units are HIV-infected. However, clini...

    Authors: Paluku Bahwere, Ellen Piwoz, Marthias C Joshua, Kate Sadler, Caroline H Grobler-Tanner, Saul Guerrero and Steve Collins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:106

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Since the late 1980s a series of malaria epidemics has occurred in western Kenya highlands. Among the possible factors that may contribute to the highland malaria epidemics, parasite resistance to antimalarial...

    Authors: Daibin Zhong, Yaw Afrane, Andrew Githeko, Liwang Cui, David M Menge and Guiyun Yan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:105

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Effective prophylaxis and treatment for infections caused by biological threat agents (BTA) rely upon early diagnosis and rapid initiation of therapy. Most methods for identifying pathogens in body fluids and ...

    Authors: Rina Das, Rasha Hammamieh, Roger Neill, George V Ludwig, Steven Eker, Patrick Lincoln, Preveen Ramamoorthy, Apsara Dhokalia, Sachin Mani, Chanaka Mendis, Christiano Cummings, Brian Kearney, Atabak Royaee, Xiao-Zhe Huang, Chrysanthi Paranavitana, Leonard Smith…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:104

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  46. Content type: Research article

    In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-i...

    Authors: Atanacio Valencia-Mendoza, Stefano M Bertozzi, Juan-Pablo Gutierrez and Robbin Itzler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:103

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicill...

    Authors: Arne Simon, Roland A Ammann, Gertrud Wiszniewsky, Udo Bode, Gudrun Fleischhack and Mette M Besuden

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:102

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  48. Content type: Research article

    In 2001, two hexavalent vaccines were licensed in Italy (Hexavac®, Infanrix Hexa®), and since 2002 were extensively used for primary immunization in the first year of life (at 3, 5, 11/12 months of age). In 2005,...

    Authors: Cristina Giambi, Antonino Bella, Antonella Barale, Domenico Montù, Maria Marchisio, Maurizio Oddone, Salvatore Zito, Maria Rapicetta, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna and Marta L Ciofi degli Atti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:100

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused a major two-wave seventeen-month-long outbreak in La Réunion Island in 2005–2006. The aim of this study was to refine clinical estimates provided by a regional surveillance-sys...

    Authors: Patrick Gérardin, Vanina Guernier, Joëlle Perrau, Adrian Fianu, Karin Le Roux, Philippe Grivard, Alain Michault, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Flahault and François Favier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 8:99

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