Skip to main content

Comparing the broth enrichment-multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay with real time quantitative PCR for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms in rectal swabs

Abstract

Background

Rapid and accurate identification of carbapenemase-producing organism (CPO) intestinal carriers is essential for infection prevention and control. Molecular diagnostic methods can produce results in as little as 1 h, but require special instrumentation and are expensive. Therefore, it is urgent to find an alternative method. The broth enrichment-multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay was recently reported, but using it to directly detect CPO intestinal carriers in rectal swabs still requires the evaluation of many samples. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of these two methods, and to explore the control measures of CPO infection.

Methods

Through CPO selective culture, PCR and DNA sequencing, 100 rectal swabs confirmed to be CPO-positive and 100 rectal swabs with negative results were collected continuously. After eluting the rectal swabs with saline, three aliquots were used: one for counting, one for detection by Xpert Carba-R, and one for culture in broth for 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h, followed by NG-Test CARBA 5 assessment. The sensitivity and specificity of the NG-Test CARBA 5 method after different incubation times were calculated. The limit of detection (LoD) of this assay after 4 h broth incubation was estimated by examining the bacterial suspensions and simulated faecal suspensions prepared with CPOs producing different types of carbapenemases.

Results

Xpert Carba-R demonstrated a combined sensitivity of 99.0% and specificity of 98.0%. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 90.0% for the different enzyme types. The specificities of five common carbapenemases detected by the broth enrichment NG-Test CARBA 5 combined method after different incubation times were 100%. The sensitivities increased with increasing incubation time. At 4 h, the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM), and oxacillinase (OXA) -48 detection sensitivities were 93.0%, 96.3%, 100%, 100% and 85.7%, respectively. The LoDs were between 102 and 104 CFU/mL for all five enzymes after 4 h of incubation.

Conclusions

This investigation highlighted that the broth enrichment-multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay can be used as a new method for screening CPOs in rectal swabs.

Peer Review reports

Background

Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) are a group of bacteria with reduced sensitivity to carbapenems due to their production of carbapenemase. In an outbreak situation or endemic setting, information regarding CPO colonization status can potentially have important beneficial effects on empiric antibiotic treatment plans and infection prevention and control strategies [1]. Most CPOs contain one or more of the following five most prevalent carbapenemase families: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM), and oxacillinase (OXA) -48-like [2]. The identification of CPOs can be accelerated by rapid carbapenemase phenotype and gene detection methods [3,4,5,6,7,8]. However, most of these methods are used to detect bacterial colonies rather than specimens, so overnight culture is needed. Available molecular methods, such as Cepheid Xpert Carba-R and BD MAX Check-Points CPO assays, detect carbapenemase genes directly from clinical specimens and provide highly reliable results in a few hours [9, 10], but they are usually expensive and require special instrumentation. In addition, the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is so sensitive that traces of DNA with antimicrobial resistance genes can be detected, even if they are devoid of a living CPO [11]. Therefore, it is urgent to find a rapid and cost-effective alternative for the large-scale screening of intestinal CPO carriers. NG-Test CARBA 5 (NG Biotech, Guipry, France) is a rapid, monoclonal antibody recognition visual redout multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay method for use in vitro. It can simultaneously detect whether one or more of the above five carbapenemases are present in a single detection strip [12]. This assay has been proven to be effective in detecting bacterial colonies and positive blood cultures [13,14,15]. When using rectal swabs for direct detection, its detection sensitivity can be improved by incubation in broth for a few hours [16]. However, the methodological performance of the aforementioned two methods for CPO screening has not yet been compared. Therefore, a more comprehensive methodological evaluation with a larger sample size was designed and implemented in this study. This study aims to provide cost-effective solutions for CPO screening for infection prevention and control.

Methods

Collection of rectal swabs

This prospective study was conducted from September 2021 to December 2021 in the intensive care unit (52 beds) and haematology (215 beds) departments of a general teaching hospital in Wuhan, China. Anonymized samples that consisted of leftover rectal swabs from hospitalized patients taken for routine surveillance CPO screening were tested. A swab transport system (Copan Italia, Brescia, Italy) was used. CPO screening was performed by inoculating samples on CHROMagar KPC (CHROMagar, Paris, France). All coloured colonies obtained on the plate that appeared suspicious according to the manufacturer’s recommendations were subcultured for purity and then subjected to identification using an Autof ms1000 automatic microbial mass spectrometry detection system and to susceptibility testing for meropenem and imipenem using the Kirby-Bauer method. The interpretive criteria used followed the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100 Ed30 document [17]. Strains with inhibition zone diameters of less than 23 mm after treatment with meropenem or imipenem were collected. The carbapenemase production of these strains was phenotypically detected by a carbapenemase inhibition test using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) [18]. A ≥ 5 mm difference in the inhibition zone between the imipenem disks without and with inhibitors (PBA, EDTA or both) was considered positive for KPC, metallo-β-lactamase or both carbapenemases. The presence of five common carbapenemase-encoding genes, blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM and blaOXA-48, were genetically confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing [19]. The final study sample consisted of 100 rectal swabs confirmed to be CPO-positive, and 100 rectal swabs with negative results were collected continuously.

CPO Count of the Test Sample

The selected rectal swabs were eluted with 1 mL of normal saline. After vortex mixing, 100 µL of each sample was inoculated on CHROMagar KPC. Following incubation for 18 h at 37 ℃, the number of colonies was counted, and the number of bacteria recovered was expressed as colony forming units per millilitre (CFU/mL) [20].

Xpert Carba-R Assay

Additionally, 100 µL of the above suspension was examined by Xpert Carba-R (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) according to the instructions. The CPO test results (negative or positive) and enzyme type were recorded. When the result of the Xpert Carba-R test was inconsistent with the expected result, the mixture from the original area on Columbia blood agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom) was evaluated by Xpert Carba-R to confirm whether a CPO had been missed by the selective culture. Once a missed inspection of the CPO was confirmed, the result was modified to be CPO-positive and the relevant enzyme type was recorded.

Broth enrichment and immunochromatographic assay

100 µL aliquots of the above suspension were added into five Eppendorf tubes, each containing 1 mL of lysogeny broth (LB) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). The tubes were incubated with shaking at 200 rpm and 37 ℃ for 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h respectively, and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 2 min, then the supernatant was discarded. The pellet was resuspended in the lysis buffer provided in the NG-Test CARBA 5 kit (four drops, 150 µL) and the sample was processed following the manufacturer’s instructions. When false-negative results were found, the CPO colonies that had been confirmed by PCR were directly evaluated with NG-Test CARBA 5 to exclude the negatives caused by the rare carbapenem enzyme type that cannot be detected by the NG-Test CARBA 5 test.

Estimation of the limit of detection (LoD)

The LoD of NG-Test CARBA 5 after 4 h of broth incubation was estimated from 24 clinical CPO isolates (producing one or two of the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, IMP, VIM and OXA-48). A 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard suspension of each isolate was prepared and diluted to different concentrations by performing tenfold gradient dilutions with sterile normal saline. Additionally, equal amounts of faeces without a CPO were added to the same diluents to prepare a series of simulated faecal suspensions. One hundred microlitres of each saline suspension dilution and simulated faecal suspension was added to 1 mL of LB and cultured for 4 h. Then, the cultures were centrifuged, and the precipitates were assessed by NG-Test CARBA 5 as described above. The colony forming unit (CFU) titre of each bacterial suspension was determined by plating 100 µl of the above dilutions onto CHROMagar KPC and Columbia blood agar. The experiment was performed in double replicates, with the low value of each strain was taken as the estimated LoD.

Statistical analysis

Data were analysed by SPSS v.19.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Sensitivity and specificity were determined by comparing the results of the Xpert Carba-R and broth enrichment and NG-Test CARBA 5 combined method with the expected results determined by PCR of the colonies or mixtures from the original area on Columbia blood agar. When calculating the total sensitivity and specificity, the overall result (positive or negative), but not the consistency of the enzyme type was considered. The McNemar test was used to compare whether the sensitivity and specificity of the combined method were better than those from Xpert Carba-R. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

A total of 110 CPO isolates, which consisted of 57 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 34 isolates of Escherichia coli, 5 isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, 5 isolates of Enterobacter cloacae, 4 isolates of Citrobacter freundii, 2 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 isolate of Pseudomonas monteilii, 1 isolate of Aeromonas caviae and 1 isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii, were recovered from all 100 CPO-containing swabs. Molecular analysis confirmed that the samples contained 45 NDM, 41 KPC, 3 IMP, 1 VIM and 1 OXA-48 carbapenemases and 9 sampled harboured two or three carbapenemases simultaneously (5 NDM along with OXA-48, 2 NDM along with IMP, 1 KPC along with NDM, and 1 coharbouring KPC, NDM and OXA-48). Conventional phenotypic testing of carbapenemases through culture yielded results concordant with the molecular analysis for all isolates. Among the 100 samples that were negative by CHROMagar KPC screening, blaNDM was detected by Xpert-Carba-R in two of them. Subsequently, the mixtures from the original area of Columbia blood agar were tested with Xpert-Carba-R, and the results were negative. The CPO count on CHROMagar KPC showed that 71.0% of the eluents of the positive swabs contained > 104 CFU/mL, 22.0% contained 103–104 CFU/mL, and 7.0% contained < 103 CFU/mL.

Xpert Carba-R demonstrated a combined 99.0% sensitivity and 98.0% specificity for the identification of CPO carbapenemase genes in rectal swabs. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 90.0% for the different enzyme types (Table 1). However, this assay failed to detect the carbapenemase genes present in one specimen containing 80 CFU/mL NDM-producing E. coli. In addition, it should be noted that one or two more enzyme types were detected in 21 samples by the Xpert Carba-R assay, which did not contain relevant live bacteria. Among the 100 negative samples, the Xpert Carba-R test also showed 2 false-positives as described above.

Table 1 Performances of the Xpert Carba-R and NG-Test CARBA 5 in CPO screening of rectal swabs

The broth enrichment and NG-Test CARBA 5 combined method showed 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity after incubation for 4 h. A total of 93.0% of KPC (40/43), 96.3% of NDM (52/54), 100% of IMP (5/5), 100% of VIM (1/1), and 85.7% of OXA-48 (6/7) were detected with no false-positives. Of note, CPO was not detected in four specimens, which contained 103–104 CFU/mL KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, 103–104 CFU/mL NDM-producing E. coli, 80 CFU/mL NDM-producing E. coli and 30 CFU/mL KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. In one sample harbouring 103–104 CFU/mL NDM- and OXA-48-producing E. coli, this method missed detecting OXA-48. In another sample coharbouring > 104 CFU/mL KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and > 104 CFU/mL NDM- and OXA-48-producing E. coli, KPC was not detected. Compared with the Xpert Carba-R test, the specificity of the combined method was slightly higher (p = 0.50), but the sensitivity was slightly lower (p = 0.25); however, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05). After incubation for 3 h, the total sensitivity of this combined method was significantly lower than that of the Xpert Carba-R test (p = 0.03), while there was no significant difference in specificity (p = 0.50).

After 4 h broth incubation, the LoD of the NG-Test CARBA 5 assay for the different enzyme types varied from 7.5 × 102 CFU/mL to 8.3 × 104 CFU/mL, corresponding to 75 CFU/test and 8.3 × 103 CFU/test, respectively, as shown in Table 2. In 2 of the 24 isolates, the LoD of the simulated faecal suspensions were higher than that of the bacterial suspensions. In addition, the LoDs of one carbapenemase were higher than that of the other in 2 of the 3 isolates that producing two carbapenemases.

Table 2 LoD determination of NG-Test CARBA 5 for different enzyme types after 4 h incubation

Discussion

The multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay is a classical rapid detection method based on an antigen–antibody reaction. To date, several immunochromatographic assay kits have been developed to detect the five main carbapenemase families, KPC, NDM, IMP, VIM and OXA-48-like [11, 21,22,23,24]. Some of these kits can detect not only bacteria but also positive blood cultures directly [13, 14, 22, 25]. The performance of NG-Test CARBA 5 was proven to be good, with overall sensitivity and specificity values that ranged from 92.1 to 100% and 95.3 to 100%, respectively [15, 24, 26,27,28].

The broth enrichment and multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay combined method used for the rapid detection of CPOs in rectal swabs has rarely been reported [11, 16, 29]. Compared with PCR, the sensitivity of NG-Test CARBA 5 for the detection of KPC, VIM, and NDM was 80.0% without incubation and 88.0% with one hour, 92.0% with two hours, and 100% with three hours incubation, while the specificity was 100% at all time points [16]. However, the limitations of the study were that the number of samples analysed was small (n = 20), and the tests for IMP and OXA-48 were not evaluated due to a lack of positive strains. Thus, expanded research is needed. Another study showed the performance of the OKN K-SeT test (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) for the rapid detection of OXA-48, KPC and NDM carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales directly from rectal swab samples, with an overall sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 100% [11]. However, since the OKN K-SeT kit is not precoated with IMP or VIM antibodies, IMP and VIM CPOs cannot be detected. To the best of our knowledge, the distribution of carbapenemase genes vary according to region [30,31,32,33]. KPC, NDM, IMP, VIM, and OXA-48 are the most prevalent enzymes in Enterobacterales in China and some other countries [30, 34, 35]. Screening rectal swabs for CPOs with a kit targeting all five carbapenemases at once, such as NG-Test CARBA 5, has more clinical application value and can be commercialized.

In this study, the results from various CPO detection methods were comprehensively considered to determine the true results (i.e., the expected results). Overall, a total of 200 samples were included, including 100 CPO-positive and 100 CPO-negative rectal swabs. These samples covered all five enzymes that can be detected by NG-Test CARBA 5, as well as common CPO species. The results showed that the total sensitivity and specificity of the broth enrichment NG-Test CARBA 5 combined method were 93.0% and 100% when incubation was carried out for 3 h and 96.0% and 100% after 4 h of incubation, respectively. Comparing the combined method with Xpert Carba-R, there was no significant difference in the total sensitivity after incubation for 4 h (p = 0.25) but there was a significant difference after 3 h (p = 0.03). The total sensitivity of the combined method was significantly lower than that of the Xpert Carba-R test when incubated for 3 h. Moreover, there were no significant differences in total specificity after different incubation times (p = 0.50). This result suggested that the detection performance of NG-Test CARBA 5 was equivalent to that of Xpert Carba-R after 4 h broth incubation. Although this method is not as fast or as simple as molecular detection methods, it is less expensive and does not require special instrumentation. This method can thus be used as an alternative to molecular detection methods for CPO screening in economically underdeveloped areas or hospitals lacking molecular detection instruments.

The LoD of NG-Test CARBA 5 after 4 h broth incubation was evaluated. The data showed that the LoD was between 102 and 104 CFU/mL for the different carbapenemases. Since the actual CPO content in some specimens was equal to or lower than the LoD, NG-Test CARBA 5 failed to detect CPO in some cases. In addition, it should be noted that the expression of different enzymes was different in the strain producing more than one carbapenemase. Additionally, different enzymes showed competitive inhibition in the multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay, and some enzyme types were not detected in some of the samples containing multiple enzymes. Comparing the LoDs of the simulated faecal suspension with those of the bacterial suspension, it was noted that faeces slightly interfered with the detection of carbapenemases in some cases. The influence of different components of faeces, such as the presence of other bacteria, on carbapenemase detection requires further evaluation.

We also noticed that one or two more enzyme types were detected in 21 of the 100 positive samples by the Xpert Carba-R assay without evidence of living bacteria. Among the 100 negative samples, the Xpert Carba-R test showed 2 false-positives. This result suggested that the PCR-positive signals might be a result of the amplification of DNA fragments that remained in the samples. The report by Fauconnier et al.’s also mentioned this point in the discussion [11]. The sensitivity of the Xpert Carba-R test in CPO screening of rectal swabs was slightly higher, but the specificity was slightly lower than that of NG-Test CARBA 5 after 4 h of incubation. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In general, the sensitivity and specificity of both methods were higher than 95%, which is acceptable for CPO screening.

Although various details affecting the accuracy of the results have been considered, there are also limitations in this study. During the whole study period, relatively few IMP, VIM and OXA-48 positive swabs were collected. To evaluate the detection performance of NG-Test CARBA 5 after different incubation times, rectal swabs were eluted with 1 mL of normal saline to meet the different detection needs with the same sample size, and did not fully represent clinical samples after tenfold dilutions. Instead, colony counting was performed and the CPO content of each swab was calculated. We noticed that the bacterial counts of the false-negative samples were all near the LoD. It has been suggested that CPO detection rate is affected by sampling and can be improved by increasing the amount of stool. Therefore, stool samples are better than rectal swab samples when only the sample content is considered.

Conclusions

This comparative study of NG-Test CARBA 5 versus Xpert Carba-R that detected CPOs in rectal swabs showed that after 4 h of broth incubation, NG-Test CARBA 5 had an equivalent detection capability to Xpert Carba-R. The broth enrichment and NG-Test CARBA 5 combined method is recommended as a new scheme for CPO screening as it is less expensive, although Xpert Carba-R is less laborious and faster.

Availability of data and materials

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors.

Abbreviations

CPO:

Carbapenemase-producing organism

KPC:

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase

NDM:

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase

IMP:

Imipenemase

VIM:

Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase

OXA:

Oxacillinase

PCR:

Polymerase chain reaction

CLSI:

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute

PBA:

Phenylboronic acid

EDTA:

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

LB:

Lysogeny broth

LoD:

Limit of detection

CFU:

Colony forming units

Se:

Sensitivity

Sp:

Specificity

References

  1. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Health Care Facilities. 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Nordmann P, Poirel L. Epidemiology and Diagnostics of Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-negative Bacteria. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;69(Suppl 7):S521–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Simon M, Koestler J, Reischl U, Gessner A, Jantsch J. Detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and the BD Phoenix CPO Detect panel. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2019;19(8):659–65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Thomson GK, AbdelGhani S, Thomson KS. CPO Complete, a novel test for fast, accurate phenotypic detection and classification of carbapenemases. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0220586.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Nordmann P, Sadek M, Demord A, Poirel L. NitroSpeed-Carba NP Test for Rapid Detection and Differentiation between Different Classes of Carbapenemases in Enterobacterales. J Clin Microbiol. 2020;58(9):e00932-e1020.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Złoch M, Pomastowski P, Peer M, Sparbier K, Kostrzewa M, Buszewski B. Study on carbapenemase-producing bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization approach. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(3):e0247369.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Yoon J, Kim CH, Yoon SY, Lim CS, Lee CK. Application of a multiplex immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of carbapenemases in a clinical microbiology laboratory: performance and turn-around-time evaluation of NG-test Carba 5. BMC Microbiol. 2021;21(1):260.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Jin X, Zhang H, Wu S, Qin X, Jia P, Tenover FC, et al. Multicenter Evaluation of Xpert Carba-R Assay for Detection and Identification of the Carbapenemase Genes in Rectal Swabs and Clinical Isolates. J Mol Diagn. 2021;23(1):111–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Traczewski MM, Carretto E, Canton R, Moore NM, Carba-R Study Team. Multicenter Evaluation of the Xpert Carba-R Assay for Detection of Carbapenemase Genes in Gram-Negative Isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2018;56(8):e00272-18.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Girlich D, Oueslati S, Bernabeu S, Langlois I, Begasse C, Arangia N, et al. Evaluation of the BD MAX Check-Points CPO Assay for the Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Rectal Swabs. J Mol Diagn. 2020;22(2):294–300.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Fauconnier C, Dodemont M, Depouhon A, Anantharajah A, Verroken A, Rodriguez-Villalobos H. Lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for rapid screening of faecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(2):357–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Jenkins S, Ledeboer NA, Westblade LF, Burnham CA, Faron ML, Bergman Y, et al. Evaluation of NG-Test Carba 5 for Rapid Phenotypic Detection and Differentiation of Five Common Carbapenemase Families: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Evaluation. J Clin Microbiol. 2020;58(7):e00344-e420.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Takissian J, Bonnin RA, Naas T, Dortet L. NG-Test Carba 5 for Rapid Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales from Positive Blood Cultures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019;63(5):e00011-19.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Giordano L, Fiori B, D’Inzeo T, Parisi G, Liotti FM, Menchinelli G, et al. Simplified Testing Method for Direct Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms from Positive Blood Cultures Using the NG-Test Carba 5 Assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019;63(7):e00550-e619.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Saito K, Mizuno S, Nakano R, Tanouchi A, Mizuno T, Nakano A, et al. Evaluation of NG-Test CARBA 5 for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli. J Med Microbiol. 2022;71(6):https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001557.

  16. Vasilakopoulou A, Karakosta P, Vourli S, Kalogeropoulou E, Pournaras S. Detection of KPC, NDM and VIM-Producing Organisms Directly from Rectal Swabs by a Multiplex Lateral Flow Immunoassay. Microorganisms. 2021;9(5):942.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 30th ed. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Song W, Hong SG, Yong D, Jeong SH, Kim HS, Kim HS, et al. Combined use of the modified Hodge test and carbapenemase inhibition test for detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas spp. Ann Lab Med. 2015;35(2):212–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Kiaei S, Moradi M, Hosseini Nave H, Hashemizadeh Z, Taati-Moghadam M, Kalantar-Neyestanaki D. Emergence of co-existence of blaNDM with rmtC and qnrB genes in clinical carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in burning center from southeast of Iran. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2019;64(1):55–62.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Hornsey M, Phee L, Woodford N, Turton J, Meunier D, Thomas C, et al. Evaluation of three selective chromogenic media, CHROMagar ESBL, CHROMagar CTX-M and CHROMagar KPC, for the detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. J Clin Pathol. 2013;66(4):348–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Riccobono E, Antonelli A, Pecile P, Bogaerts P, D’Andrea MM, Rossolini GM. Evaluation of the KPC K-SeT® immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of KPC carbapenemase producers from positive blood cultures. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;73(2):539–40.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Cointe A, Bonacorsi S, Truong J, Hobson C, Doit C, Monjault A, et al. Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Positive Blood Culture Using an Immunochromatographic RESIST-4 O.K.N.V Assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018;62(12):e01828-18.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Glupczynski Y, Evrard S, Huang TD, Bogaerts P. Evaluation of the RESIST-4 K-SeT assay, a multiplex immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of OXA-48-like, KPC, VIM and NDM carbapenemases. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(5):1284–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Han R, Guo Y, Peng M, Shi Q, Wu S, Yang Y, et al. Evaluation of the Immunochromatographic NG-Test Carba 5, RESIST-5 O.O.K.N.V., and IMP K-SeT for Rapid Detection of KPC-, NDM-, IMP-, VIM-type, and OXA-48-like Carbapenemase Among Enterobacterales. Front Microbiol. 2021;11:609856.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Bianco G, Boattini M, van Asten SAV, Iannaccone M, Zanotto E, Zaccaria T, et al. RESIST-5 O.O.K.N.V. and NG-Test Carba 5 assays for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales from positive blood cultures: a comparative study. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(2):162–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Boutal H, Vogel A, Bernabeu S, Devilliers K, Creton E, Cotellon G, et al. A multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid identification of NDM-, KPC-, IMP- and VIM-type and OXA-48-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;73(4):909–15.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Ben-Haim O, Azrad M, Saleh N, Tkhawkho L, Peretz A. Evaluation of the NG-Test CARBA 5 Kit for Rapid Detection of Carbapenemase Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Lab Med. 2021;52(4):375–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Liu Z, Bai L, Liu J, Lei J, Gao X, Tenover FC, et al. Parallel Validation of the NG-Test Carba 5 and the Xpert Carba-R for Detection and Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Causing Bloodstream Infections. J Mol Diagn. 2021;23(8):1007–14.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Nodari CS, Gales AC, Barth AL, Magagnin CM, Zavascki AP, Carvalhaes CG. Detection of OXA-370 directly from rectal swabs and blood culture vials using an immunochromatographic assay. J Microbiol Methods. 2017;139:92–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Bonomo RA, Burd EM, Conly J, Limbago BM, Poirel L, Segre JA, et al. Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms: A Global Scourge. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(8):1290–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Touati A, Mairi A. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Algeria: A Systematic Review. Microb Drug Resist. 2020;26(5):475–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. López-Hernández I, Delgado-Valverde M, Fernández-Cuenca F, López-Cerero L, Machuca J, Pascual Á. Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Andalusia, Spain, 2014–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(9):2218–22.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. García-Betancur JC, Appel TM, Esparza G, Gales AC, Levy-Hara G, Cornistein W, et al. Update on the epidemiology of carbapenemases in Latin America and the Caribbean. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021;19(2):197–213.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Wang Q, Wang X, Wang J, Ouyang P, Jin C, Wang R, et al. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Data From a Longitudinal Large-scale CRE Study in China (2012–2016). Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(suppl_2):S196-205.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Zhang Y, Wang Q, Yin Y, Chen H, Jin L, Gu B, et al. Epidemiology of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Report from the China CRE Network. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018;62(2):e01882-e1917.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge the intensive care unit and hematology medical staff and hospital infection control personnel for their participation and contribution in CPO management.

Funding

This work was supported by Special Foundation for National Science and Technology Basic Research Program of China (2019FY101200, 2019FY101206) and Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (2019CFB666).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

YW, ZC and ZS designed the study. YW, HS, MX, DL, XR performed the experimental work. YW and HS collected the data. YW, ZC and ZS analyzed the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Ziyong Sun or Zhongju Chen.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study protocol was reviewed and approved by Medical Ethics Committee of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Number: 2021S013). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before study initiation.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, Y., Song, H., Xu, M. et al. Comparing the broth enrichment-multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic assay with real time quantitative PCR for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms in rectal swabs. BMC Infect Dis 23, 413 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-023-08244-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-023-08244-6

Keywords