The durability of immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines among older people living with HIV (PWH) is clinically important.
We aimed to assess vaccine-induced humoral immunity and durability in older PWH (≥ 55 years, n = 26) over 6 months (post-initial BNT162b2 series). A secondary and exploratory objective was to assess T-cell response and BNT162b2 booster reactogenicity, respectively. Our Visit 1 (3 weeks post-initial BNT162b2 dose) SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity results are previously reported; these subjects were recruited for Visit 2 [2 weeks (+ 1 week window) post-second vaccination] and Visit 3 [6 months (± 2 week window) post-initial vaccination] in a single-center longitudinal observational study. Twelve participants had paired Visit 2/3 SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike IgG data. At Visit 3, SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike IgG testing occurred, and 5 subjects underwent T-cell immune response evaluation. Thereafter, subjects were offered BNT162b2 booster (concurrent day outside our study) per US FDA/CDC guidance; reactogenicity was assessed. The primary study outcome was presence of detectable Visit 3 SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike-1-RBD IgG levels. Secondary and exploratory outcomes were T-cell immune response and BNT162b2 booster reactogenicity, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests analyzed median SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike IgG 6-month trends.
At Visit 3, 26 subjects underwent primary analysis with demographics noted: Median age 61 years; male n = 16 (62%), female n = 10 (38%); Black n = 13 (50%), White n = 13 (50%). Most subjects (n = 20, 77%) had suppressed HIV viremia on antiretroviral therapy, majority (n = 24, 92%) with CD4 > 200 cells/µL. At Visit 3, 26/26 (100%) had detectable Anti-Spike-1-RBD (≥ 0.8 U/mL). Among 12 subjects presenting to Visit 2/3, median SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike 1-RBD was 2087 U/mL at Visit 2, falling to 581.5 U/mL at Visit 3 (p = 0.0923), with a median 3.305-fold decrease over 6 months. Among subjects (n = 5) with 6-month T-cell responses measured, all had detectable cytokine-secreting anti-spike CD4 responses; 3 had detectable CD4 + Activation induced marker (AIM) + cells. Two had detectable cytokine-secreting CD8 responses, but all had positive CD8 + AIM + cells.
Among older PWH, SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike IgG and virus-specific T-cell responses are present 6 months post-primary BNT162b2 vaccination, and although waning, suggest retention of some degree of long-term protective immunity.